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Dent. J., Volume 10, Issue 5 (May 2022) – 20 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Tooth surface loss is an increasingly common and destructive pathology that lacks rigorous criteria to assess the disease severity and treatment needs, even though numerous attempts have been made to develop wear indices and classification systems. Most of the existing tooth wear indices require many steps to classify the lesions and do not identify the aesthetic implications of the wear. This study aimed to develop a tooth wear classification system that combined the extent, severity, and aesthetic impact of tooth wear and correlated them with the most appropriate clinical management strategy. View this paper
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Systematic Review
Interventions to Improve the Oral Hygiene of Individuals with Alzheimer’s Disease: A Systematic Review
Dent. J. 2022, 10(5), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10050092 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 652
Abstract
This systematic review evaluates published evidence on oral hygiene interventions conducted in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Dentistry & Oral Sciences Source, and Web of Science were searched for articles published up to 19 April 2021. The main outcomes [...] Read more.
This systematic review evaluates published evidence on oral hygiene interventions conducted in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Dentistry & Oral Sciences Source, and Web of Science were searched for articles published up to 19 April 2021. The main outcomes of interest were the Plaque index score (PI), oral health knowledge of participants or their caregivers, and behaviors and attitudes towards oral hygiene. Study quality was assessed using the Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies of the National Institutes of Health. The study was conducted under PROSPERO registration code CRD42021247733. Two studies met the inclusion criteria. One was a pre-post study conducted in Brazil, and the other was a prospective cohort study carried out in China. The sample sizes of these studies were 29 and 168, respectively. Both studies were carried out in institutionalized patients and presented a significant loss to follow-up. The PI and gingival index scores both improved after the application of the respective interventions, yet the differing methodologies used precluded further comparisons. The studies were deemed to be of good and regular quality, respectively. Despite the need for more comprehensive interventions to ensure a better oral health status and a higher quality of life for AD patients, an alarming lack of studies have been conducted in this population. Full article
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Article
Dental Emergencies and Coronavirus Disease-2019: Scoping Review of the Literature and Single Centre Experience
Dent. J. 2022, 10(5), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10050091 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 586
Abstract
Understanding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on dental emergencies. A systematic review of the literature (PubMed/Scopus) searching for articles on COVID-19 and dental abscess and a retrospective cohort study with quantitative/qualitative data analysis of our hospital E.R. patients admitted for cervico-facial abscess [...] Read more.
Understanding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on dental emergencies. A systematic review of the literature (PubMed/Scopus) searching for articles on COVID-19 and dental abscess and a retrospective cohort study with quantitative/qualitative data analysis of our hospital E.R. patients admitted for cervico-facial abscess of dental origin were performed. Thirteen studies could be included in the review, concerning characteristics/management of patients with dental emergencies in hospitals/private practices, generally with poor evidence. For the retrospective analysis, 232 consecutive patients were included (100 study vs. 132 control). The prevalence of dental emergencies (abscess) and relative complications (mediastinitis, exitus) increased. Dental care availability was limited, with strong heterogeneity amongst regions/nations. At-risk (aerosol-generating) procedures were generally avoided, and hospitalization length reduced. Comorbidity patients and males seem less likely to restore regular dentist attendance during the post-lockdown pandemic. Despite the poor scientific evidence, COVID-19 seems to have impacted dental emergencies through limited routine dental care availability and influence on physicians’ and patients’ behaviour. Full article
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Article
A Video-Game-Based Oral Health Intervention in Primary Schools—A Randomised Controlled Trial
Dent. J. 2022, 10(5), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10050090 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 613
Abstract
Background: Poor oral health practices and high levels of dental caries have been reported among children in the developing world. Video games have been successful in promoting oral health in children. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of an [...] Read more.
Background: Poor oral health practices and high levels of dental caries have been reported among children in the developing world. Video games have been successful in promoting oral health in children. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of an oral-health-education video game on children’s dietary knowledge and dietary and toothbrushing practices; Methods: Two Schools in Amman, Jordan were randomly selected and assigned to either intervention or control. Six- to eight-year old children took part. The intervention group played the oral-health-education video game; the control group received no intervention. The groups were compared in terms of changes in: child dietary knowledge, dietary and toothbrushing practices, plaque scores, and parental familiarity with preventive treatments. Data were submitted to statistical analysis with the significance level set at p ≤ 0.05. Results: Two hundred and seventy-eight children took part. Most (92%) had carious teeth. At baseline, children reported having more than one sugary snack a day and only 33% were brushing twice a day. Most parents were unaware of fluoride varnish (66%) or fissure sealants (81%). At follow-up, children in the intervention group had significantly better dietary knowledge, and parents in both groups became more familiar with fluoride varnish. There were no significant changes in children’s plaque scores, toothbrushing and dietary practices, or parental familiarity with fissure sealants in either group. Conclusions: Using an oral-health-education video game improved children’s dietary knowledge. However, future efforts should target children together with parents, and need to be supplemented by wider oral-health-promotion. Full article
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Article
Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw in Dental Practice: A Retrospective Analysis of Data from the Milan Cohort
Dent. J. 2022, 10(5), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10050089 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 683
Abstract
A retrospective analysis was performed with the aim of understanding whether the risk factors showed in the literature for medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MRONJ) in cancer patients are also relevant in osteoporotic patients taking antiresorptive drugs (ARDs). Data were retrospectively pooled from [...] Read more.
A retrospective analysis was performed with the aim of understanding whether the risk factors showed in the literature for medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MRONJ) in cancer patients are also relevant in osteoporotic patients taking antiresorptive drugs (ARDs). Data were retrospectively pooled from health records of patients on ARDs who requested a dental visit between January 2006 and April 2020 in the Dental Unit at Fondazione Ca’ Granda IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, University of Milan. A total of 434 patients were included. The following variables were collected: sex, age, smoking habit, type of ARD, duration of treatment, route of administration, therapeutic indication, concurrent systemic therapies and pathologies. Statistical analysis confirmed the relevance of chemotherapy, smoking, and immunosuppressive drugs as risk factors. In addition, a higher frequency of MRONJ in osteoporotic patients was reported in our cohort in association with an immunodeficiency disorder of variable origin. In conclusion, the identification of individual risk-profile before dental treatments is crucial for prevention. Anamnesis should include main risk factors, such as immunosuppression, dental extractions, smoking, trauma, and poor dental health. Nevertheless, our suggestion for dental professionals is to conduct a complete medical history of patients who mention long-term per oral therapies with ARDs for osteoporosis. Osteoporotic, as well as cancer patients, may also benefit from periodic monitoring of the ARDs therapy in order to prevent MRONJ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Care Dentistry)
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Article
Implant-Retained Mandibular Overdentures: Patient-Related Outcome Measurements after Seven Years of Function
Dent. J. 2022, 10(5), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10050088 - 16 May 2022
Viewed by 641
Abstract
Denture wearers often complain about jeopardized function and reduced quality of life due to lack of prosthesis’ retention. Implant-retained mandibular overdentures, on two non-connected implants (2IOD) are well-proven solutions to overcome these issues. We prospectively assessed 69 patients and scrutinized clinical records until [...] Read more.
Denture wearers often complain about jeopardized function and reduced quality of life due to lack of prosthesis’ retention. Implant-retained mandibular overdentures, on two non-connected implants (2IOD) are well-proven solutions to overcome these issues. We prospectively assessed 69 patients and scrutinized clinical records until at least seven years of function. Thirty-six were retained on Locator® Abutments (LA) and thirty-tree on Ball Abutments (BA). Both systems were compared regarding the type, amount, and total cost of required maintenance. One implant was lost, yielding 98.7% survival after seven years. In total, 438 technical issues occurred: 121 (27.35%) in BA and 317 (72.4%) in LA. Out of these, 343 events (78%) were solved chairside: 191 (43.6%) were replacements of retention caps, 113 (25.8%) were minor acrylic repairs, 26 (5.9%) pressure ulcers had to be relieved, and 13 (3%) were related to abutments. LA required 179 insert replacements compared to 12 in the BA group. The overall initial treatment cost was EUR 3850 (base year of the analysis: 2003). The average total maintenance cost in relation to the initial cost for the LA and BA groups was 19.11 (range 0–82.24%) and 18.91% (range 0–113.26%) respectively (p = 0.540). Conclusions: The seven-year maintenance costs for a 2IOD is acceptable when the patient is regularly checked and professionally maintained. Most events are easily solvable chairside, but a few patients required more expensive interventions, regardless of the type of attachment used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dental Implantology)
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Article
Smile Aesthetic Evaluation on Videographs: An Intra-Rater and Inter-Rater Agreement Study
Dent. J. 2022, 10(5), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10050087 - 16 May 2022
Viewed by 568
Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess on videographs the intra- and inter-rater reproducibility of the Smile Esthetic Index (SEI) that has been previously validated on photographs. Smile videographs were obtained using a smartphone associated with the Smile Lite MDP mounted on [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to assess on videographs the intra- and inter-rater reproducibility of the Smile Esthetic Index (SEI) that has been previously validated on photographs. Smile videographs were obtained using a smartphone associated with the Smile Lite MDP mounted on a tripod. They were then randomized and evaluated twice consecutively at a 1-week interval by three periodontists according to the SEI based on 10 variables. Cohen’s Kappa and Fleiss’ Kappa tests were performed to measure intra- and inter-rater agreement. Sixty-five smile videographs of 24 men and 41 women (mean age 33 ± 11.3 years) were scored. A mean intra-rater agreement of 0.68 (0.64–0.73) was obtained, representing substantial agreement. The inter-rater agreement calculated for each variable ranged from 0.31 for the variable “absence of visible excessive gingiva” to 0.90 for the variable “absence of diastema and/or missing inter-dental papilla.” Within the limits of this study, we have demonstrated that it was possible to use videographs to reproducibly evaluate an aesthetic score (SEI) previously validated on photographs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oral Hygiene, Periodontology and Peri-implant Diseases)
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Review
Etiology and Treatment of Peri-Implant Soft Tissue Dehiscences: A Narrative Review
Dent. J. 2022, 10(5), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10050086 - 16 May 2022
Viewed by 605
Abstract
Implant soft tissue dehiscences compromise not only the aesthetics of the supported restorations but implant survival in the long run. The aim of this narrative review was to briefly present the causative factors of buccal peri-implant soft tissue dehiscences (PSTDs), how these are [...] Read more.
Implant soft tissue dehiscences compromise not only the aesthetics of the supported restorations but implant survival in the long run. The aim of this narrative review was to briefly present the causative factors of buccal peri-implant soft tissue dehiscences (PSTDs), how these are classified, and the current therapeutic approaches. Implant malposition and the thin peri-implant phenotype are the two major determinants for the occurrence of PSTDs, but other risk factors have also been identified. The most common surgical procedure for treating PSTDs is the split-thickness coronally advanced flap combined with either a connective tissue graft or acellular dermal matrix materials. However, depending on the class and subtype of the dehiscence, the combination of surgical techniques with modifications in the restoration may further ameliorate the final result. In general, within a five-year follow-up period, most techniques lead to a satisfactory aesthetic result, although full coverage of the implant/abutment surface is not always achievable, especially in more extended lesions. Full article
Article
Mechanistic Effects of E-Liquids on Biofilm Formation and Growth of Oral Commensal Streptococcal Communities: Effect of Flavoring Agents
Dent. J. 2022, 10(5), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10050085 - 13 May 2022
Viewed by 909
Abstract
Background: Vaping has become a global health concern. As research continues, more studies are beginning to question the relative safety of E-liquid flavoring additives. The oral cavity is the first site of exposure to E-liquid aerosol, making it critical for investigation. Because of [...] Read more.
Background: Vaping has become a global health concern. As research continues, more studies are beginning to question the relative safety of E-liquid flavoring additives. The oral cavity is the first site of exposure to E-liquid aerosol, making it critical for investigation. Because of the importance of commensal bacterial biofilms for oral health, we sought to explore the effects of E-liquids ± flavors on the formation and growth of single- and multi-species biofilms and to investigate the mechanism of inhibition. Methods: Quantitative and confocal biofilm analysis, death curves, and colony-forming units (CFU) were evaluated with flavorless and flavored (tobacco, menthol, cinnamon, strawberry, blueberry) E-liquids using four strains of oral commensal bacteria (Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus oralis). Results: All flavoring agents show a dose-dependent inhibition in the growth of single-species and multi-species biofilms. Furthermore, CFUs, death curves, and light microscopy show that flavoring agents have a bactericidal mode of inhibition on the growth of these oral streptococci. Conclusions: These results show that flavored, rather than unflavored, E-liquids are more detrimental to biofilm formation and growth of oral commensal bacteria. Consequently, E-liquid flavorings agents could pose risks to the oral microenvironment, and by extension, to systemic health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Microbiology and Related Research)
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Review
On the Role of Dietary Nitrate in the Maintenance of Systemic and Oral Health
Dent. J. 2022, 10(5), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10050084 - 13 May 2022
Viewed by 663
Abstract
The assessment of the significance of nitrates ingested with food has undergone a fundamental change in recent years after many controversial discussions. While for a long time, a diet as low in nitrates as possible was advocated on the basis of epidemiological data [...] Read more.
The assessment of the significance of nitrates ingested with food has undergone a fundamental change in recent years after many controversial discussions. While for a long time, a diet as low in nitrates as possible was advocated on the basis of epidemiological data suggesting a cancer-promoting effect of nitrate-rich diets, more recent findings show that dietary nitrate, after its conversion to nitrite by nitrate-reducing bacteria of the oral microbiota, is an indispensable alternative source for the formation of nitric oxide (NO), which comprises a key element in the physiology of a variety of central body functions such as blood pressure control, defense against invading bacteria and maintenance of a eubiotic microbiota in the gut and oral cavity. This compact narrative review aims to present the evidence supported by clinical and in vitro studies on the ambivalent nature of dietary nitrates for general and oral health and to explain how the targeted adjuvant use of nitrate-rich diets could open new opportunities for a more cause-related control of caries and periodontal disease. Full article
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Systematic Review
Clinical Performance Comparing Titanium and Titanium–Zirconium or Zirconia Dental Implants: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials
Dent. J. 2022, 10(5), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10050083 - 12 May 2022
Viewed by 1534
Abstract
Objectives: This study aimed to compare clinical results between titanium (Ti), zirconia (Zr), or titanium–zirconium (TZ) dental implants and to analyze survival rate (SR), bleeding on probing (BoP), marginal bone loss (MBL), and/or probing depth (PD). Data source: Manual and electronic searches were [...] Read more.
Objectives: This study aimed to compare clinical results between titanium (Ti), zirconia (Zr), or titanium–zirconium (TZ) dental implants and to analyze survival rate (SR), bleeding on probing (BoP), marginal bone loss (MBL), and/or probing depth (PD). Data source: Manual and electronic searches were conducted (PubMed and Web of Science) to identify randomized controlled trials that compared the outcomes of at least two implant types (control and test group) within the same study. The focused question was determined according to the PICOT strategy. Seven studies were included out of 202 research studies initially found. The follow-up periods ranged from 12 to 80 months, and the mean age was from 43.3 to 65.8 years old. The SR for Ti, TZ, and Zr implants ranged from 92.6% to 100%, 95.8% to 100%, and 87.5% to 91.25%, respectively; MBL for Ti, TZ, and Zr implants varied from −1.17 mm to −0.125 mm for Ti, −0.6 mm to −0.32 mm for TZ, and −0.25 mm to −1.38 mm for Zr. Studies showed a low incidence of mucositis and peri-implantitis; however, BoP for Zr was 16.43%, Ti ranged between 10% and 20%, and TZ from 10% to 13.8%. PD for Ti ranged from 1.6 mm to 3.05 mm, TZ was 3.12 mm (only one study), and Zr ranged from 2.21 mm to 2.6 mm. Conclusion: All three types of implants showed similar tissue behavior. However, the TZ group had better results when compared with Ti and Zr for SR, MBL, and BoP, except for PD. Furthermore, the worst SR was found in the Zr implants group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Oral Implants and Periodontal Research)
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Article
Distally Tilted Implants According to the All-on-Four® Treatment Concept for the Rehabilitation of Complete Edentulism: A 3.5-Year Retrospective Radiographic Study of Clinical Outcomes and Marginal Bone Level Changes
Dent. J. 2022, 10(5), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10050082 - 11 May 2022
Viewed by 2146
Abstract
Bone grafting procedures during the use of dental implants may be avoided by the use of tilted implants in the maxilla and the mandible; advantages of angled implants are associated with the extension of the distal cantilever, leading to better implant survival rates. [...] Read more.
Bone grafting procedures during the use of dental implants may be avoided by the use of tilted implants in the maxilla and the mandible; advantages of angled implants are associated with the extension of the distal cantilever, leading to better implant survival rates. However, the bending effect on the single tilting implants may increase the marginal bone stress. The purpose of the present study was to retrospectively assess the clinical success and proximal bone loss rate following the implantation of distally tilted implants according to the All-on-Four™ prosthetic concept—based on radiographic findings—in a single-center experience, in addition to the assessment of the outcomes in the context of various clinico-epidemiological correlates. During the study period, n = 36 patients (24 males and 12 females) with complete records of periapical radiographs, received a full-arch fixed bridge supported by two axial and two distal tilted implants; overall n = 144 and n = 144 implants (Nobel B) were place in the maxilla and mandibles of patients, respectively. Mean age of patients at the time of fixture installation was 58.75 ± 13.71 years; n =11 patients presented with relevant underlying conditions/habits. To assess peri-implant bone-level changes, matched and calibrated orthopantomogram (OPT) images were taken at follow-ups after 1.5 years, 2.5 years, and 3.5 years post-restoration, and marginal bone levels were assessed on the mesio- (MA) and disto-approximal (DA) aspects. All implants were successful, resulting in a 100% overall survival rate. The radiographic mean bone loss levels at baseline (mean ± SEM) were 0.181 ± 0.011 mm and 0.178 ± 0.017 mm in the maxilla and mandible, respectively, while by the 3.5-year mark, bone loss was 0.770 ± 0.029 mm and 0.713 ± 0.026 mm in the maxilla and mandible (p > 0.05), respectively; bone-level changes were significant over time (p = 0.035 and p = 0.033). Peri-implant bone loss was more aggressive around titled distal implants versus mesial actual position implants. The effect of smoking and other underlying conditions showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) bone resorption levels when assessed on an individual implant-level, while during patient-level analysis, only a tendency was shown for higher bone loss rates for both MA and DA implants (p > 0.05). Within its limitations, our study has concluded that the use of All-on-Four™ prosthetic concept for total arch rehabilitation yields higher bone loss in association with tilted implants and, in some cases, on the MA surfaces at vertically positioned implants after >40 months in function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
Article
Improving Nasal Airflow with a Novel Nasal Breathing Stent
Dent. J. 2022, 10(5), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10050081 - 11 May 2022
Viewed by 640
Abstract
Nasal obstruction requires close attention, as it is a risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This study evaluated airflow rates of our newly designed nasal breathing stent (NBS) compared with those of existing nasal dilators in 10 adult men. We hypothesized that [...] Read more.
Nasal obstruction requires close attention, as it is a risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This study evaluated airflow rates of our newly designed nasal breathing stent (NBS) compared with those of existing nasal dilators in 10 adult men. We hypothesized that the NBS would expand the nasal passage more than the other nasal dilators by means of airflow measurements. We compared airflow measurements between the NBS and three existing appliances and no appliance. Velocity measurements were recorded by analyzing 499 videographic images when each appliance was placed next to a steam generator at 0, 5, and 10 mm from the outlet port for airflow visualization. The peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) rate was measured using an inspiratory flow meter. The NBS resulted in significantly higher airflow velocity measurements at all distances from the outlet port and a higher PNIF rate than the other appliances. Thus, the NBS offers a significantly decreased resistance to air movement compared with other appliances. Future in-depth investigations are required to demonstrate the use of NBS as a nasal dilator in conjunction with continuous positive airway pressure/oral appliance treatments in patients with OSA. Full article
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Article
Development of a Clinically Relevant Index for Tooth Wear Treatment Needs
Dent. J. 2022, 10(5), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10050080 - 09 May 2022
Viewed by 984
Abstract
Background: This study aimed to develop a tooth wear classification system that combined the extent, severity, and aesthetic impact of tooth wear and correlated them with the most appropriate clinical management strategy. Methods: Three hundred photographs were used to develop a classification tool [...] Read more.
Background: This study aimed to develop a tooth wear classification system that combined the extent, severity, and aesthetic impact of tooth wear and correlated them with the most appropriate clinical management strategy. Methods: Three hundred photographs were used to develop a classification tool that contained four levels of severity and aesthetic impact (0, 1, 2, and 3) in three age groups of patients. Ten examiners assessed and classified the cases using validated forms. Additionally, they selected the recommended treatment modality for each level. The analysis was conducted using a coefficient correlation test. Results: The coefficient correlation for the severity was 0.81, 0.82 in the upper anterior and posterior segments, and 0.85 and 0.77 for the lower anterior and posterior segments, respectively. The aesthetic impact correlation coefficient was 0.84. Examiners had agreed that minor cases required monitoring or simple restorative interventions. The moderate-level cases had variety in the recommended management options depending on the aim of treatment. The severe level cases often required rehabilitation at an increased occlusal vertical dimension. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this preliminary study, a good agreement between the examiners was found using the provided tools. More strict criteria in the classification part of the tool can further improve the examiners’ agreement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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Case Report
A Case of Necrotizing Periodontitis in a Care-Requiring Elderly Person Treated and Managed by Interprofessional Collaboration
Dent. J. 2022, 10(5), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10050079 - 07 May 2022
Viewed by 686
Abstract
Background: Necrotizing periodontitis (NP) is a reactive and destructive inflammatory process that occurs in response to bacterial infection. Predisposing factors such as compromised host immune responses contribute significantly to NP pathogenesis. NP occasionally progresses to a more advanced and life-threatening state. Case presentation: [...] Read more.
Background: Necrotizing periodontitis (NP) is a reactive and destructive inflammatory process that occurs in response to bacterial infection. Predisposing factors such as compromised host immune responses contribute significantly to NP pathogenesis. NP occasionally progresses to a more advanced and life-threatening state. Case presentation: A 73-year-old man in need of nursing care visited our dental clinic with severe gingival pain and intraoral bleeding. He had a disability and was immunocompromised because his medical history included cerebral infarction and type 2 diabetes mellitus. He was diagnosed with NP based on his typical symptoms, such as prominent bleeding and suppurative discharge from the gingiva, in addition to crater-shaped ulcerations of the interdental papillae. To improve daily oral hygiene, periodontists, dentists, and dental hygienists educated care workers and other staff at the nursing home on appropriate oral cleansing, including brushing three times a day using the Bass technique. Basic periodontal therapy, including whole-mouth scaling and debridement of the root surfaces using hand and ultrasonic instruments, was also performed. After this basic treatment of NP, we extracted the hopeless teeth. Currently, dentists visit the patient fortnightly to manage his oral hygiene. To date, good oral health has been maintained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oral Hygiene, Periodontology and Peri-implant Diseases)
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Review
A Scoping Review about the Characteristics and Success-Failure Rates of Temporary Anchorage Devices in Orthodontics
Dent. J. 2022, 10(5), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10050078 - 06 May 2022
Viewed by 716
Abstract
This study synthesized the scientific evidence concerning the main characteristics of the Temporary Anchorage Devices (TADs) used in orthodontics and reported the success-failure rates during treatment. For that means, this scoping review collected articles from previous research. A complementary search was carried out [...] Read more.
This study synthesized the scientific evidence concerning the main characteristics of the Temporary Anchorage Devices (TADs) used in orthodontics and reported the success-failure rates during treatment. For that means, this scoping review collected articles from previous research. A complementary search was carried out in the databases PubMed-MEDLINE, Scopus, LILACS, and EMBASE, focusing on original studies published from 2010 to 2020. We analyzed the main characteristics of the publications. As a result, 103 articles were included. Most of the research was conducted among different groups, who needed TADs principally in the maxilla and an interradicular location between the second premolar and first molar. AbsoAnchor, Dentos Inc., Daegu, Korea, was the most used brand of TADs. The most common characteristics of the devices and biomechanics were a diameter and length of 1.6 mm and 8 mm, a self-drilled system, a closed technique for placement, immediate loading, and forces that ranged between 40 and 800 g. Of the studies, 47.6% showed success rates ≥90%. In conclusion, high success rates were found for TADs, and differences were found according to sociodemographic and clinical variables. The studies showed variability in methodological design, and scientific publications were concentrated in certain countries. We recommend further scientific research on TADs using more standardized designs. Full article
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Article
Influence of Implant Tilting and Length on the Biomechanics of Single-Tooth Restoration: A Finite Element Analysis in Atrophic Mandible
Dent. J. 2022, 10(5), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10050077 - 06 May 2022
Viewed by 691
Abstract
The aim of the present study is to assess by means of finite element models the effect on bone stresses of implant length and tilting in single-unit implant restorations. The factors that were analyzed in this study were implant length (4.5, 5.5, and [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study is to assess by means of finite element models the effect on bone stresses of implant length and tilting in single-unit implant restorations. The factors that were analyzed in this study were implant length (4.5, 5.5, and 10 mm), implant titling (0, 17°, 30°, and 45°), bone type (0/I, II, and III), and loading (immediate and delayed). An axial load of 200 N was applied to the occlusal surface of the prosthesis at a height of 11 mm and the Von Mises equivalent stress in the bone was analyzed. Finite element analysis indicated that the most determinant factor was implant tilting. Tilting the implant by 17° doubled the Von Mises stress received by bone. The highest increase was in the case of implant tilting at 45° (by 1300%). The use of extra-short implants did not produce a significant increase in Von Mises stress in bone. Moreover, the length of the implant did not affect the stress value in bone types I and II. Based on the obtained results, an axially placed short implant would be a better option than titling a standard-length implant to support a crown restoration in an atrophic mandible from a biomechanical point of view. Full article
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Article
Comparative Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Combination of Absorbable Gelatin Sponge and Calendula officinalis with Absorbable Gelatin Sponge Used Alone as a Hemostatic Agent—An In-Vitro Study
Dent. J. 2022, 10(5), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10050076 - 05 May 2022
Viewed by 740
Abstract
Excessive bleeding can complicate surgical intervention; this could be managed using an effective hemostatic agent that provides immediate and early bleeding control. Gelatin sponge and Calendula officinalis have been proven to have good hemostatic properties. The present In-vitro study analyzed the cytotoxicity and [...] Read more.
Excessive bleeding can complicate surgical intervention; this could be managed using an effective hemostatic agent that provides immediate and early bleeding control. Gelatin sponge and Calendula officinalis have been proven to have good hemostatic properties. The present In-vitro study analyzed the cytotoxicity and hemostatic properties of gelatin sponge and Calendula officinalis. The cytotoxic concentration/effective concentration of Calendula officinalis was determined by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay. The drug release was determined using a vertical Franz diffusion cell apparatus; solid-state characterization was assessed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The MTT assay showed 7% Calendula officinalis to be cytocompatible, and there was an increase in cell proliferation. When the 7% Calendula officinalis was loaded into the sponge, it was compatible, and the drug content was found to be 56.28 ± 13.84%. The time taken for the blood clot formation was measured using the Lee–White method. The gelatin sponge’s time for clot formation was 161.70 ± 3.11 s, and the Calendula officinalis loaded gelatin sponge’s time for clot formation was 158.75 ± 4.60 s. Hence, it could be concluded that when Calendula officinalis is incorporated into a gelatin sponge, it shows material compatibility and cytocompatibility, reduces the time for clot formation, and could be used as an alternative to other hemostatic agents. Full article
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Article
Novel Magnetic Attachment System Manufactured Using High-Frequency Heat Treatment and Stamp Technique: Introduction and Basic Performance
Dent. J. 2022, 10(5), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10050075 - 02 May 2022
Viewed by 703
Abstract
Recently, a novel magnetic attachment with extremely low cost and high performance was developed. This article aims to introduce a novel magnetic attachment and to evaluate its basic eligibility for denture retention in clinical practice. The novel magnetic attachment system used in this [...] Read more.
Recently, a novel magnetic attachment with extremely low cost and high performance was developed. This article aims to introduce a novel magnetic attachment and to evaluate its basic eligibility for denture retention in clinical practice. The novel magnetic attachment system used in this study was the direct-bonding root-keeper-type Magteeth™ MT800 (MagneDesign, Nagoya, Japan). The retentive force without displacement (position 0) and after horizontal displacement to positions 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 mm were measured. The values relative to the retentive force without displacement were gradually decreased to 82.7 ± 16.3%, 68.8 ± 17.1%, 62.4 ± 15%, 47.2 ± 13.1%, 35.7 ± 9.9%, and 20.7 ± 6.5%, respectively. The retentive force and magnetic field strength did not change significantly after the load test (100 N load, 10,000 times). No new gap between the metal and resin was found in the root keeper- and magnet assembly-embedded blocks after the load test. Some scratches on magnetic assembly and root keeper surface, while no change in the resin texture after the load test were observed. Based on the findings of this preliminary study, this novel low-cost magnetic attachment exhibited favorable retention, strength, and durability for clinical use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dental Materials)
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Review
Root Fractures in the Primary Teeth and Their Management: A Scoping Review
Dent. J. 2022, 10(5), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10050074 - 01 May 2022
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Abstract
(1) Background: Traumatic dental injuries constitute a major global health problem. Primary deciduous teeth of the upper frontal group are frequently affected by trauma, especially at an early age. It is important to treat primary traumatic injuries because early tooth loss can lead [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Traumatic dental injuries constitute a major global health problem. Primary deciduous teeth of the upper frontal group are frequently affected by trauma, especially at an early age. It is important to treat primary traumatic injuries because early tooth loss can lead to aesthetic and functional alterations. The most common injuries are extrusion, lateral luxation, and intrusion. Root fracture is a less common complication that can lead to tooth extraction if not properly diagnosed and managed. However, there are a lack of data regarding primary root fracture treatment. The literature was reviewed to study the current knowledge on the treatment of these injuries, and to propose an operative protocol based on the results obtained. (2) Methods: A literature search was performed on Web of Science, PubMed/MEDLINE, and SCOPUS. The research focused on the following features: age of the patient; localization of the root fracture and type of displacement suffered (intrusive, extrusive, or lateral); type of emergency treatment or diagnostic test performed and their compliance with IADT guidelines; follow-up duration. (2) Results: Only 8 articles fully met the inclusion criteria, with a total of 46 patients and 62 root fractures. Out of a total of 62 root fractures, regarding only upper incisors, the most common treatment was splinting (n = 39) for a period ranging from 3 weeks to 3 months (with an average of six weeks). No treatment was performed for 23 of the root fractures. The splinting performed in most of the included cases was semi-rigid, with the splint held in place using a composite resin material. An orthodontic splint using brackets and 0.5 mm stainless steel wire was used in only in one study. (4) Conclusions: We deduced that the root fracture of primary teeth is a rare traumatic dental injury that can cause numerous complications, such as eruptive problems in the permanent teeth. Correct radiological diagnosis, immediate repositioning and semi-rigid splinting could be conservative methods to prevent premature tooth loss in very young patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Dental Traumatology and Sport Dentistry)
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Article
Structural Conformation Comparison of Different Clear Aligner Systems: An In Vitro Study
Dent. J. 2022, 10(5), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10050073 - 30 Apr 2022
Viewed by 694
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the structural conformations of three clear aligner systems, Eon®, SureSmile®, and Clarity®, and compare them with the most commonly used system, Invisalign®. Clear aligner samples from Invisalign [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the structural conformations of three clear aligner systems, Eon®, SureSmile®, and Clarity®, and compare them with the most commonly used system, Invisalign®. Clear aligner samples from Invisalign®, Eon®, SureSmile®, and Clarity® were cut into 5 × 5 mm squares and exposed to artificial saliva for 2 weeks. The specimens were then subjected to a Vickers hardness test by applying three separate indentations with a 25 gf load for 15 s. Hardness was calculated using the following formula: Vickers hardness number = 1.854 (F/D2). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis was performed, with a diamond hemisphere and infrared beam being allowed to pass through each specimen. A mid-infrared range from 4000 to 375 cm−1 was recorded. The samples were also evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis spectroscopy at different magnifications. No statistically significant differences were observed between the included systems with regard to hardness. All systems showed a polyurethane-based material, as illustrated by the FTIR analysis. Some structural variations were noted in the Invisalign® system, which had a more homogeneous architecture. Statistically significant differences in the carbon weights were found among the systems. The four systems presented comparable hardness levels. Mild molecular composition differences were found, but all systems had the similarity of being composed of a polyurethane-based material. Carbon and oxygen were the main elements, as they were located in all studied clear aligners. The SEM analysis revealed that Invisalign® had a smoother surface than the other three systems. All included clear aligners had similar characteristics with minimal differences, providing a wide variety of options for clinical orthodontic treatment according to patients’ demands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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