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Photonics, Volume 7, Issue 2 (June 2020) – 22 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) A new conceptual platform for nonreciprocal space wave manipulation with unitary efficiency beyond [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
End-to-End Real-Time Demonstration of the Slotted, SDN-Controlled NEPHELE Optical Datacenter Network
Photonics 2020, 7(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics7020044 - 25 Jun 2020
Viewed by 303
Abstract
The NEPHELE hybrid electro-optical datacenter network (DCN) architecture is proposed as a dynamic network solution to provide high capacity, scalability, and cost efficiency in comparison to the existing DCN infrastructures. The details of the NEPHELE DCN architecture and its various key parts are [...] Read more.
The NEPHELE hybrid electro-optical datacenter network (DCN) architecture is proposed as a dynamic network solution to provide high capacity, scalability, and cost efficiency in comparison to the existing DCN infrastructures. The details of the NEPHELE DCN architecture and its various key parts are introduced, and the performance of its implementation is evaluated through an end-to-end NEPHELE demonstrator, which was built at the National Technical University of Athens. Several communication scenarios are demonstrated in real time, exploiting a scalable optical data-plane architecture with a software-defined network (SDN) control plane capable of slotted operation for dynamic allocation of network resources. Real-time end-to-end functionality and integration of various software and hardware components are verified in a six-host prototype datacenter cluster. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Scattering Properties of PT-Symmetric Chiral Metamaterials
Photonics 2020, 7(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics7020043 - 17 Jun 2020
Viewed by 388
Abstract
The combination of gain and loss in optical systems that respect parity–time (PT)-symmetry has pointed recently to a variety of novel optical phenomena and possibilities. Many of them can be realized by combining the PT-symmetry concepts with metamaterials. Here we investigate the case [...] Read more.
The combination of gain and loss in optical systems that respect parity–time (PT)-symmetry has pointed recently to a variety of novel optical phenomena and possibilities. Many of them can be realized by combining the PT-symmetry concepts with metamaterials. Here we investigate the case of chiral metamaterials, showing that combination of chiral metamaterials with PT-symmetric gain–loss enables a very rich variety of phenomena and functionalities. Examining a simple one-dimensional chiral PT-symmetric system, we show that, with normally incident waves, the PT-symmetric and the chirality-related characteristics can be tuned independently and superimposed almost at will. On the other hand, under oblique incidence, chirality affects all the PT-related characteristics, leading also to novel and uncommon wave propagation features, such as asymmetric transmission and asymmetric optical activity and ellipticity. All these features are highly controllable both by chirality and by the angle of incidence, making PT-symmetric chiral metamaterials valuable in a large range of polarization-control-targeting applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Microalgae Harvesting Method Using Laser Micromachined Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymers
Photonics 2020, 7(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics7020042 - 15 Jun 2020
Viewed by 246
Abstract
Microalgae are an ideal source for next-generation biofuels due to their high photosynthetic rate. However, a key process limitation in microalgal biofuel production is harvesting of biomass and extraction of lipids in a cost-effective manner. The harvesting of the algal biomass amounts to [...] Read more.
Microalgae are an ideal source for next-generation biofuels due to their high photosynthetic rate. However, a key process limitation in microalgal biofuel production is harvesting of biomass and extraction of lipids in a cost-effective manner. The harvesting of the algal biomass amounts to approximately 20 to 30% of the total cost of the cultivation; hence, developing an efficient and universal harvesting method will make the commercialization of microalgal bio-cultures sustainable. In this study, we developed, demonstrated, and evaluated a novel harvesting method based on Glass Reinforced Fiber Polymer (GFRP) panels, suitable for industrial-scale installations. The proposed method was based on previous observations of preferential micro-algae development on glass surfaces, as well as in the assumption that the microalgae cells would prefer to attach to and grow on substrates with a similar size as them. At first, we developed a laser micromachining protocol for removing the resin and revealing the glass fibers of the GFRP, available for algal adhesion, thus acting as a microalgae biomass harvesting center. Surface micromachining was realized using a ns pulsed ultraviolet laser emitting at 355 nm. This laser ensured high machining quality of the GFRP, because of its selective material ablation, precise energy deposition, and narrow heat affected zone. A specially built open pond system was used for the cultivation of the microalgae species Scenedesmus rubescens, which was suitable for biofuel production. The cultivation was used for the experimental evaluation of the proposed harvesting method. The cultivation duration was set to 16 days in order for the culture to operate at the exponential growth phase. The biomass maximum recovery due to microalgae attachment on the GFRP surface was 13.54 g/m2, a yield comparable to other studies in the literature. Furthermore, the GFRP surfaces could be upscaled to industrial dimensions and positioned in any geometry dictated by the photobioreactor design. In this study, the glass fiber reinforced polymer used was suitable for the adhesion of Scenedesmus rubescens due to its fiber thickness. Other microalgae species could be cultivated, adhere, and harvested using GFRP of different fiber sizes and/or with a modified laser treatment. These very encouraging results validated GFRPs’ harvesting capabilities as an attachment substrate for microalgae. Additional studies with more algae species will further strengthen the method. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Recent Advances in Integrated Photonic Jet-Based Photonics
Photonics 2020, 7(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics7020041 - 11 Jun 2020
Viewed by 310
Abstract
The study of accelerating Airy-family beams has made significant progress, not only in terms of numerical and experimental investigations, but also in conjunction with many potential applications. However, the curvature of such beams (and hence their acceleration) is usually greater than the wavelength. [...] Read more.
The study of accelerating Airy-family beams has made significant progress, not only in terms of numerical and experimental investigations, but also in conjunction with many potential applications. However, the curvature of such beams (and hence their acceleration) is usually greater than the wavelength. Relatively recently, a new type of localized wave beams with subwavelength curvature, called photonic hooks, was discovered. This paper briefly reviews the substantial literature concerning photonic jet and photonic hook phenomena, based on the photonic jet principle. Meanwhile, the photonic jet ensemble can be produced by optical wave diffraction at 2D phase diffraction gratings. The guidelines of jets’ efficient manipulation, through the variation of both the shape and spatial period of diffraction grating rulings, are considered. Amazingly, the mesoscale dielectric Janus particle, with broken shape or refractive index symmetry, is used to generate the curved photonic jet—a photonic hook—emerging from its shadow-side surface. Using the photonic hook, the resolution of optical scanning systems can be improved to develop optomechanical tweezers for moving nanoparticles, cells, bacteria and viruses along curved paths and around transparent obstacles. These unique properties of photonic jets and hooks combine to afford important applications for low-loss waveguiding, subdiffraction-resolution nanopatterning and nanolithography. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Special Issue “Semiconductor Laser Dynamics: Fundamentals and Applications”
Photonics 2020, 7(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics7020040 - 11 Jun 2020
Viewed by 220
Abstract
With the advent of integrated photonics, a crucial role is played by semiconductor diode lasers (SDLs) as coherent light sources. Old paradigms of semiconductor laser dynamics, like optical injection, external feedback and the coupling of lasers, regained relevance when SDLs were integrated on [...] Read more.
With the advent of integrated photonics, a crucial role is played by semiconductor diode lasers (SDLs) as coherent light sources. Old paradigms of semiconductor laser dynamics, like optical injection, external feedback and the coupling of lasers, regained relevance when SDLs were integrated on photonic chips. This Special Issue presents a collection of seven invited feature papers and 11 contributed papers reporting on recent advances in semiconductor laser dynamics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Semiconductor Laser Dynamics: Fundamentals and Applications)
Open AccessArticle
Size Dependence of the Resonant Third-Order Nonlinear Refraction of Colloidal PbS Quantum Dots
Photonics 2020, 7(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics7020039 - 01 Jun 2020
Viewed by 312
Abstract
Due to their high resonant third-order nonlinear response, lead sulfide quantum dots (QDs) are potential materials for applications in the field of nonlinear optics. In this paper, we implement the Z-scan method to study the resonant nonlinear response of lead sulfide QDs in [...] Read more.
Due to their high resonant third-order nonlinear response, lead sulfide quantum dots (QDs) are potential materials for applications in the field of nonlinear optics. In this paper, we implement the Z-scan method to study the resonant nonlinear response of lead sulfide QDs in colloidal solutions. We managed to measure the purely intrinsic resonant nonlinear response, free of thermal contribution. We report that the lead sulfide QD third-order nonlinear response per QD shows an unconventional increase. A figure of merit for QD nonlinearity grows as a power function with a factor of 2.9. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Optoelectronics and Optical Materials)
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Open AccessLetter
Generation of Terahertz Radiation by Two-Color Ionizing Laser Pulses with Arbitrary Intensity Ratios
Photonics 2020, 7(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics7020038 - 30 May 2020
Viewed by 294
Abstract
The dependence of the terahertz energy generated by two-color femtosecond ionizing pulses on intensities of both one-color components is studied. The numerical calculations are supported with analytical formulas which help to reveal the nature of these dependences. The optimal intensity ratios in the [...] Read more.
The dependence of the terahertz energy generated by two-color femtosecond ionizing pulses on intensities of both one-color components is studied. The numerical calculations are supported with analytical formulas which help to reveal the nature of these dependences. The optimal intensity ratios in the cases when the frequency ratios in two-color pulse are equal to 2, 3/2 and 4 are found. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Lasers, Light Sources and Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Statistical Characteristics of a Twisted Anisotropic Gaussian Schell-Model Beam in Turbulent Ocean
Photonics 2020, 7(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics7020037 - 29 May 2020
Viewed by 279
Abstract
The analytical expression of the cross-spectral density function of a twisted anisotropic Gaussian Schell-model (TAGSM) beam transmitting in turbulent ocean is derived by applying a tensor method. The statistical properties, including spectral density, the strength of twist and beam width of the propagating [...] Read more.
The analytical expression of the cross-spectral density function of a twisted anisotropic Gaussian Schell-model (TAGSM) beam transmitting in turbulent ocean is derived by applying a tensor method. The statistical properties, including spectral density, the strength of twist and beam width of the propagating beam are studied carefully through numerical examples. It is demonstrated that the turbulence of ocean has no effect on the rotation direction of the beam spot during propagation. However, the beam shape will degrade into a Gaussian profile under the action of oceanic turbulence with sufficiently long propagation distance, and a beam with a larger initial twist factor is more resistant to turbulence-induced degeneration. As oceanic turbulence becomes stronger, the beam spot spreads more quickly while the twist factor drops more rapidly upon propagation. The physical mechanisms of these phenomena are addressed in detail. The obtained results will be helpful in optical communication systems underwater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in the Study of Light Propagation in Optical Fibers)
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Open AccessArticle
New Solutions of Laser-Induced Fluorescence for Oil Pollution Monitoring at Sea
Photonics 2020, 7(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics7020036 - 28 May 2020
Viewed by 309
Abstract
Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectral features for oil products of different states (solutions in the seawater and thin slicks) are discussed in this article. This research was done to evaluate LIF application for the identification of oil products and the measurement of the volume [...] Read more.
Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectral features for oil products of different states (solutions in the seawater and thin slicks) are discussed in this article. This research was done to evaluate LIF application for the identification of oil products and the measurement of the volume of ocean pollution by bilge water disposal. It was found out that the form of LIF spectral distribution was changed depending on the oil product state (pure fuel, slick or solution). The LIF method was calibrated for the most common types of heavy and light marine fuels at the standard measurement method of solution concentrations and limit of detection (LoD) values were established for each type. The time dynamics of the solution spectra were researched, and the time change features were determined. The smallsized LIF sensor for the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is described and aims to investigate the LIF for oil pollution at sea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Lasers, Light Sources and Sensors)
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Open AccessLetter
Free Electron Laser Measurement of Liquid Carbon Reflectivity in the Extreme Ultraviolet
Photonics 2020, 7(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics7020035 - 23 May 2020
Viewed by 362
Abstract
Ultrafast time-resolved extreme ultraviolet (EUV) reflectivity measurements of optically pumped amorphous carbon (a-C) have been performed with the FERMI free electron laser (FEL). This work extends the energy range used in previous reflectivity studies and adds polarization dependence. The EUV probe is known [...] Read more.
Ultrafast time-resolved extreme ultraviolet (EUV) reflectivity measurements of optically pumped amorphous carbon (a-C) have been performed with the FERMI free electron laser (FEL). This work extends the energy range used in previous reflectivity studies and adds polarization dependence. The EUV probe is known to be sensitive to lattice dynamics, since in this range the reflectivity is essentially unaffected by the photo-excited surface plasma. The exploitation of both s- and p-polarized EUV radiation permits variation of the penetration depth of the probe; a significant increase in the characteristic time is observed upon increasing the probing depth (1 vs. 5 ps) due to hydrodynamic expansion and consequent destruction of the excited region, implying that there is only a short window during which the probed region is in the isochoric regime. A weak wavelength dependence of the reflectivity is found, consistent with previous measurements and implying a maximum electronic temperature of 0.8 eV ± 0.4. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Lasers, Light Sources and Sensors)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Wave Front Tuning of Coupled Hyperbolic Surface Waves on Anisotropic Interfaces
Photonics 2020, 7(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics7020034 - 20 May 2020
Viewed by 434
Abstract
A photonic surface wave, a propagating optical mode localized at the interface of two media, can play a significant role in controlling the flow of light at nanoscale. Among various types of such waves, surface waves with hyperbolic dispersion or simply hyperbolic surface [...] Read more.
A photonic surface wave, a propagating optical mode localized at the interface of two media, can play a significant role in controlling the flow of light at nanoscale. Among various types of such waves, surface waves with hyperbolic dispersion or simply hyperbolic surface waves supported on anisotropic metal interfaces can be exploited to effectively control the propagation of lightwaves. We used semi-analytical and numerical methods to study the nature of surface waves on several configurations of three-layers metal–dielectric–metal systems including isotropic and anisotropic cases where the metal cladding layers were assumed to have infinite thickness. We used semi-analytical and numerical approaches to study the phenomena. We showed that the propagation of surface wave can be tuned from diverging to converging in the plane of the interface by the combination of metals with different anisotropic properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Topological Photonics)
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Open AccessArticle
Liquid-Filled Highly Asymmetric Photonic Crystal Fiber Sagnac Interferometer Temperature Sensor
Photonics 2020, 7(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics7020033 - 19 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 328
Abstract
In this paper, we theoretically designed and numerically studied a high-resolution and ultrasensitive photonic crystal fiber temperature sensor by selective filling of a liquid with high thermo-optic coefficient in one of the airholes of the fiber. The finite element method was utilized to [...] Read more.
In this paper, we theoretically designed and numerically studied a high-resolution and ultrasensitive photonic crystal fiber temperature sensor by selective filling of a liquid with high thermo-optic coefficient in one of the airholes of the fiber. The finite element method was utilized to study the propagation characteristics and the modal birefringence of the fiber under different ambient temperatures. A large base birefringence value of 7.7 × 10−4 as well as a large birefringence sensitivity of almost 29% to a 10 °C temperature variation was achieved for the optimized fiber design with liquid chloroform between 15 °C and 35 °C. We also studied the performance of the proposed optical fiber in a temperature sensing Sagnac interferometer. An average linear temperature sensitivity of 17.53 nm/°C with an average resolution of 5.7 × 10−4 °C was achieved over a temperature range of 20 °C (15 °C to 35 °C). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Raman-Laser System for Absolute Gravimeter Based On 87Rb Atom Interferometer
Photonics 2020, 7(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics7020032 - 15 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 327
Abstract
The paper describes a Raman-laser system with high performance for an absolute gravimeter that was based on 87Rb atom interferometer. As our gravimeter is a part of the standard acceleration of gravity of China, the Raman lasers’ characteristics should be considered. This [...] Read more.
The paper describes a Raman-laser system with high performance for an absolute gravimeter that was based on 87Rb atom interferometer. As our gravimeter is a part of the standard acceleration of gravity of China, the Raman lasers’ characteristics should be considered. This laser system includes two diode lasers. The master laser is frequency locked through the frequency-modulation (FM) spectroscopy technology. Its maximum frequency drift is better than 50 kHz in 11 h, which is measured by home-made optical frequency comb. The slave laser is phase locked to the master laser with a frequency difference of 6.8346 GHz while using an optical phase lock loop (OPLL). The phase noise is lower than −105 dBc/Hz at the Fourier frequency from 200 Hz to 42 kHz. It is limited by the measurement sensitivity of the signal source analyzer in low Fourier frequency. Furthermore, the power fluctuation of Raman lasers’ pulses is also suppressed by a fast power servo system. While using this servo system, Raman lasers’ pulses could be fast re-locked while its fast turning on again in the pulse sequence. The peak value fluctuation of the laser power pulses is decreased from 25% to 0.7%, which is improved over 35 times. This Raman-laser system can stably operate over 500 h, which is suited for long-term highly precise and accurate gravity measurements. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Research of Constructive and Technological Methods for Forming a Silicon Disk Resonator with Whispering Gallery Modes
Photonics 2020, 7(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics7020031 - 22 Apr 2020
Viewed by 522
Abstract
This article presents the results of a computer simulation of whispering gallery modes in the structure of a silicon disk resonator with a wedge-shaped profile made on a silicon-on-isolator base (SOI). The rationale for the choice of silicon as a material for its [...] Read more.
This article presents the results of a computer simulation of whispering gallery modes in the structure of a silicon disk resonator with a wedge-shaped profile made on a silicon-on-isolator base (SOI). The rationale for the choice of silicon as a material for its manufacturing is given. The results of the study of the influence of the wedge angle on the whispering gallery mode parameters (WGM) are presented. The optimum wedge angle of a silicon disk resonator is determined, which ensures the minimum loss and maximum mode stability. The technological aspects of plasma-chemical etching processes for forming a wedge-shaped profile of the edge of a silicon disk resonator are studied. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Image Processing for Laser Imaging Using Adaptive Homomorphic Filtering and Total Variation
Photonics 2020, 7(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics7020030 - 19 Apr 2020
Viewed by 425
Abstract
Laser active imaging technology has important practical value and broad application prospects in military fields such as target detection, radar reconnaissance, and precise guidance. However, factors such as uneven laser illuminance, atmospheric backscatter, and the imaging system itself will introduce noise, which will [...] Read more.
Laser active imaging technology has important practical value and broad application prospects in military fields such as target detection, radar reconnaissance, and precise guidance. However, factors such as uneven laser illuminance, atmospheric backscatter, and the imaging system itself will introduce noise, which will affect the quality of the laser active imaging image, resulting in image contrast decline and blurring image edges and details. Therefore, an image denoising algorithm based on homomorphic filtering and total variation cascade is proposed in this paper, which strives to reduce the noise while retaining the edge features of the image to the maximum extent. Firstly, the image type is determined according to the characteristics of the laser image, and then the speckle noise in the low-frequency region is suppressed by adaptive homomorphic filtering. Finally, the image denoising method of minimizing the total variation is adopted for the impulse noise and Gaussian noise. Experimental results show that compared with separate homomorphic filtering, total variation filtering, and median filtering, the proposed algorithm significantly improves the contrast, retains edge details, achieves the expected effect. It can better adjust the image brightness and is beneficial for subsequent processing. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Photonic Transmittance in Metallic and Left Handed Superlattices
Photonics 2020, 7(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics7020029 - 18 Apr 2020
Viewed by 321
Abstract
We study the transmission of electromagnetic waves through layered structures of metallic and left-handed media. Resonant band structures of transmission coefficients are obtained as functions of the incidence angle, the geometric parameters, and the number of unit cells of the superlattices. The theory [...] Read more.
We study the transmission of electromagnetic waves through layered structures of metallic and left-handed media. Resonant band structures of transmission coefficients are obtained as functions of the incidence angle, the geometric parameters, and the number of unit cells of the superlattices. The theory of finite periodic systems that we use is free of assumptions, the finiteness of the periodic system being an essential condition. We rederive the correct recurrence relation of the Chebyshev polynomials that carry the physical information of the coherent coupling of plasmon modes and interface plasmons and surface plasmons, responsible for the photonic bands and the resonant structure of the surface plasmon polaritons. Unlike the dispersion relations of infinite periodic systems, which at best predict the bandwidths, we show that the dispersion relation of this theory predicts not only the bands, but also the resonant plasmons’ frequencies, above and below the plasma frequency. We show that, besides the strong influence of the incidence angle and the characteristic low transmission of a single conductor slab for frequencies ω below the plasma frequency ω p , the coherent coupling of the bulk plasmon modes and the interface surface plasmon polaritons lead to oscillating transmission coefficients and, depending on the parity of the number of unit cells n of the superlattice, the transmission coefficient vanishes or amplifies as the conductor width increases. Similarly, the well-established transmission coefficient of a single left-handed slab, which exhibits optical antimatter effects, becomes highly resonant with superluminal effects in superlattices. We determine the space-time evolution of a wave packet through the λ / 4 photonic superlattice whose bandwidth becomes negligible, and the transmission coefficient becomes a sequence of isolated and equidistant peaks with negative phase times. We show that the space-time evolution of a Gaussian wave packet, with the centroid at any of these peaks, agrees with the theoretical predictions, and no violation of the causality principle occurs. Full article
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Open AccessLetter
Nonreciprocal Wavefront Manipulation in Synthetically Moving Metagratings
Photonics 2020, 7(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics7020028 - 18 Apr 2020
Viewed by 674
Abstract
We introduce a metasurface platform for nonreciprocal wave manipulation. We study metagratings composed of nonreciprocal bianisotropic particles supporting synthetic motion, which enable nonreciprocal energy transfer between tailored Floquet channels with unitary efficiency. Based on this framework, we derive the required electromagnetic polarizabilities to [...] Read more.
We introduce a metasurface platform for nonreciprocal wave manipulation. We study metagratings composed of nonreciprocal bianisotropic particles supporting synthetic motion, which enable nonreciprocal energy transfer between tailored Floquet channels with unitary efficiency. Based on this framework, we derive the required electromagnetic polarizabilities to realize a metagrating supporting space wave circulation with unitary efficiency for free-space radiation and design a microwave metagrating supporting this functionality. The proposed concept opens new research venues to control free-space radiation with high efficiency beyond the limits dictated by Lorentz reciprocity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Generation of over 1000 Diffraction Spots from 2D Graded Photonic Super-Crystals
Photonics 2020, 7(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics7020027 - 10 Apr 2020
Viewed by 436
Abstract
For the first time, we are able to generate over 1000 diffraction spots from a graded photonic super-crystal with a unit super-cell size of 12a × 12a where a is the lattice constant and hole radii are gradually changed in dual directions. The [...] Read more.
For the first time, we are able to generate over 1000 diffraction spots from a graded photonic super-crystal with a unit super-cell size of 12a × 12a where a is the lattice constant and hole radii are gradually changed in dual directions. The diffraction pattern from the graded photonic super-crystal reveals unique diffraction properties. The first order diffractions of (±1,0) or (0,±1) disappear. Fractional diffraction orders are observed in the diffraction pattern inside a square with vertices of (1,1), (1,−1), (−1,−1) and (−1,−1). The fractional diffraction can be understood from lattices with a period of a. However, a dual-lattice model is considered in order to explain higher-order diffractions. E-field intensity simulations show a coupling and re-distribution among fractional orders of Bloch waves. There are a total of 12 × 12 spots in E-field intensity in the unit supercell corresponding to 12 × 12 fractional diffraction orders in the diffraction pattern and 12 × 12 fractional orders of momentum in the first Brillouin zone in k-space. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Optical Materials and Devices)
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Open AccessArticle
Manufacturing Tolerance Analysis of Deep-Ridged 90° Hybrid Based on InP 4 × 4 MMI
Photonics 2020, 7(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics7020026 - 03 Apr 2020
Viewed by 344
Abstract
An optical 90° hybrid based on an InGaAsP/InP deep-ridged 4 × 4 multimode interference (MMI) coupler is proposed and fabricated. Manufacturing tolerances on structural parameters of the 90° hybrid including multimode waveguide width and length, waveguide core thickness, and refractive index are analyzed [...] Read more.
An optical 90° hybrid based on an InGaAsP/InP deep-ridged 4 × 4 multimode interference (MMI) coupler is proposed and fabricated. Manufacturing tolerances on structural parameters of the 90° hybrid including multimode waveguide width and length, waveguide core thickness, and refractive index are analyzed over the whole C-band using a three-dimensional beam propagation method (3D BPM). The simulation results show that the 90° hybrid is insensitive to the interference length with a deviation of 10 μm. However, the width fluctuations produce far stronger performance variations than length fluctuations. The common-mode rejection ratios (CMRRs) are always above 40 dB, and the phase error (PE) is always below 2.5° with the fluctuations of the refractive index by 0.01 and the thickness by 0.1 μm of the core layer. The fabricated device exhibited a quadrature phase response with a high common-mode rejection ratio of more than 25 dB and a small phase error of less than 5° from 1545 nm to 1560 nm. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Orbital Instability of Chaotic Laser Diode with Optical Injection and Electronically Applied Chaotic Signal
Photonics 2020, 7(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics7020025 - 30 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 415
Abstract
We numerically studied the chaotic dynamics of a laser diode (LD) system with optical injection, where a chaotic signal, which is generated by an LD with optical feedback, is applied to the drive current of the master LD. To quantify the orbital instability [...] Read more.
We numerically studied the chaotic dynamics of a laser diode (LD) system with optical injection, where a chaotic signal, which is generated by an LD with optical feedback, is applied to the drive current of the master LD. To quantify the orbital instability of the slave LD, the Lyapunov exponent was calculated as a function of the optical injection ratio between the master and slave LDs and the optical feedback ratio of the applied signal. We found that the Lyapunov exponent was increased and the orbital instability was enhanced by applying a chaotic signal when the inherent system without the applied signal was in a “window”. Next, we investigated the orbital instability of the slave LD in terms of statistical and dynamical quantities of the applied chaotic signal. The maximal value of the Lyapunov exponent for a certain range of the injection ratio was calculated and we showed that a chaotic pulsation is suitable for enhancing the orbital instability of the LD system. We then investigated chaos synchronization between the LDs. It is concluded that the orbital instability of an LD with optical injection can be enhanced by applying chaotic pulsation without chaos synchronization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Semiconductor Laser Dynamics: Fundamentals and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Collective Lattice Resonances in All-Dielectric Nanostructures under Oblique Incidence
Photonics 2020, 7(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics7020024 - 28 Mar 2020
Viewed by 702
Abstract
Collective lattice resonances (CLRs) emerging under oblique incidence in 2D finite-size arrays of Si nanospheres have been studied with the coupled dipole model. We show that hybridization between the Mie resonances localized on a single nanoparticle and angle-dependent grating Wood–Rayleigh anomalies allows for [...] Read more.
Collective lattice resonances (CLRs) emerging under oblique incidence in 2D finite-size arrays of Si nanospheres have been studied with the coupled dipole model. We show that hybridization between the Mie resonances localized on a single nanoparticle and angle-dependent grating Wood–Rayleigh anomalies allows for the efficient tuning of CLRs across the visible spectrum. Complex nature of CLRs in arrays of dielectric particles with both electric dipole (ED) and magnetic dipole (MD) resonances paves a way for a selective and flexible tuning of either ED or MD CLR by an appropriate variation of the angle of incidence. The importance of the finite-size effects, which are especially pronounced for CLRs emerging for high diffraction orders under an oblique incidence has been also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Nanoantennas)
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Open AccessArticle
Geometry Tailoring of Emission from Semiconductor Nanowires and Nanocones
Photonics 2020, 7(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics7020023 - 26 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 478
Abstract
Semiconductor nanowires are of interest as light emitters in applications such as light-emitting diodes and single-photon sources. Due to the three-dimensional geometry in combination with a size comparable to the wavelength of the emitted light, nanowires have shown strong scattering effects for the [...] Read more.
Semiconductor nanowires are of interest as light emitters in applications such as light-emitting diodes and single-photon sources. Due to the three-dimensional geometry in combination with a size comparable to the wavelength of the emitted light, nanowires have shown strong scattering effects for the emitted light. Here, we demonstrate with electromagnetic modeling that the emission properties of nanowires/nanocones show a complicated dependence on the geometry of the nanowire/nanocone, the shape and position of the emitter region, and the polarization of the emitter. We show that with proper design, the extraction efficiency can close in on 80% for as-grown single nanowires/nanocones. Importantly, we demonstrate how the internal quantum efficiency of the emitter plays a large role in the design process. A considerably different geometry design approach should be undertaken at low and high internal quantum efficiency. Due to the complicated design optimization, we strongly recommend the use of electromagnetic modeling of the emission to give guidance for suitable designs before starting the fabrication and processing of nanowire/nanocone-based light emitters. Full article
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