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Children, Volume 6, Issue 12 (December 2019) – 8 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Why is it that although pain is recognized to be a multidimensional experience, pediatric acute [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Use of Sodium Bicarbonate During Pediatric Cardiac Admissions with Cardiac Arrest: Who Gets It and What Does It Do?
Children 2019, 6(12), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/children6120136 - 16 Dec 2019
Viewed by 461
Abstract
The objectives of this study were to characterize the use of sodium bicarbonate in pediatric cardiac admissions that experience cardiac arrest, to determine sodium bicarbonate use over the years, and to determine the impact of sodium bicarbonate on length of admissions, billed charges, [...] Read more.
The objectives of this study were to characterize the use of sodium bicarbonate in pediatric cardiac admissions that experience cardiac arrest, to determine sodium bicarbonate use over the years, and to determine the impact of sodium bicarbonate on length of admissions, billed charges, and inpatient mortality. A cross-sectional study was conducted utilizing the Pediatric Health Information System database. Characteristics of admissions with and without sodium bicarbonate were initially compared by univariate analyses. The frequency by which sodium bicarbonate was used was compared by year. Regression analyses were conducted to determine the impact of sodium bicarbonate on length of stay, billed charges, and inpatient mortality. A total of 3987 (50.3%) of pediatric cardiac intensive care admissions with cardiac arrest utilized sodium bicarbonate; however, frequency changed from 62.1% in 2004 to 43.7% in 2015. Linear regression analysis demonstrated a decrease in length of stay (−27.5 days, p < 0.01) and billed charges (−$470,906, p < 0.01). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated an increase in mortality (odds ratio 1.77, 95% confidence interval 1.56–2.01). In conclusion, sodium bicarbonate is being used with less frequency over the last years in pediatric cardiac admissions with cardiac arrest. After adjustment for cardiac diagnoses, comorbidities, vasoactive medications, and other resuscitation medications, sodium bicarbonate is independently associated with increased mortality. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Developing Future Clinical Pharmacy Leaders in the Interprofessional Care of Children with Special Health Care Needs and Medical Complexity (CSHCN-CMC) in a Pediatric Pulmonary Center
Children 2019, 6(12), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/children6120135 - 09 Dec 2019
Viewed by 497
Abstract
The health care needs of children with special health care needs and medical complexity (CSHCN-CMC) are multifaceted and often require the expertise of various disciplines. The medication-related needs of this population can be further complicated with off-label medication use, polypharmacy, and vulnerability to [...] Read more.
The health care needs of children with special health care needs and medical complexity (CSHCN-CMC) are multifaceted and often require the expertise of various disciplines. The medication-related needs of this population can be further complicated with off-label medication use, polypharmacy, and vulnerability to medication errors. Although clinical pharmacists are increasingly becoming a common part of inpatient, pediatric interprofessional patient care teams, their presence remains lacking in the outpatient or ambulatory care realm. Pediatric clinical pharmacists in the ambulatory care setting have the potential to help optimize medication use and safety through collaborative efforts as part of the interprofessional team. Since the late 1960s, Pediatric Pulmonary Centers (PPCs) provide training programs designed to develop interprofessional leaders who will improve the health status of CSHCN-CMC, specifically those with chronic respiratory and sleep-related conditions. The addition of pharmacists not only provides a more comprehensive care model for CSHCN-CMC, it creates an avenue to encourage the career paths of pediatric pharmacists in the ambulatory care setting. Here, we describe the addition of clinical pharmacy as part of an interprofessional patient care team and the development and implementation of a maternal child health (MCH) pharmacy discipline training model designed to mentor future pharmacist leaders in the care of CSHCN-CMC. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Caregiver Distress and Child Anxiety in Predicting Child Somatization in Youth with Functional Abdominal Pain Disorders
Children 2019, 6(12), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/children6120134 - 03 Dec 2019
Viewed by 545
Abstract
Pediatric functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPD) are associated with adverse outcomes including increased somatization (e.g., heightened physiological sensations that include gastroenterological and non-gastroenterological symptoms) and increased functional disability. Caregiver distress and child anxiety are separately associated with the adverse outcomes of pediatric FAPD. [...] Read more.
Pediatric functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPD) are associated with adverse outcomes including increased somatization (e.g., heightened physiological sensations that include gastroenterological and non-gastroenterological symptoms) and increased functional disability. Caregiver distress and child anxiety are separately associated with the adverse outcomes of pediatric FAPD. However, the cumulative role of caregiver (i.e., stress, anxiety, and depression) and child psychological functioning (anxiety) in relation to adverse outcomes associated with FAPD, and particularly somatization, is unclear. Thus, the present investigation sought to examine the role of caregiver distress and child anxiety in relation to pain-related functioning (i.e., somatization, pain intensity, functional disability) in youth with FAPD. Data were gathered as part of a larger study examining a psychological treatment for youth with FAPD. Participants (ages 9–14) with FAPD completed measures of child anxiety, pain, and pain-related functioning. Caregivers completed a measure of caregiver distress (e.g., stress, anxiety, depressive symptoms). Pearson correlations revealed significant positive associations between child anxiety and child functional disability. Additionally, caregiver anxiety, child anxiety, and child somatization were all significantly and positively correlated with one another. Therefore, we assessed whether child anxiety may potentially mediate the relationship between caregiver anxiety and child somatization in this cross-sectional study. The indirect association between caregiver anxiety and child somatization via child anxiety was not significant. Future research including longitudinal designs to further understand the relationship between caregiver anxiety, child anxiety, and child pain-related functioning, would enhance understanding of how these potentially modifiable psychological factors may impact adverse outcomes of FAPD. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Quality of Life and Disease Impact of Atopic Dermatitis and Psoriasis on Children and Their Families
Children 2019, 6(12), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/children6120133 - 02 Dec 2019
Viewed by 705
Abstract
Atopic dermatitis (AD) and psoriasis are common chronic skin diseases affecting children. These disorders negatively impact the quality of life (QoL) of patients in health-related aspects such as physical, psychosocial, and mental functioning. This health impact is more accurately represented when accounting for [...] Read more.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) and psoriasis are common chronic skin diseases affecting children. These disorders negatively impact the quality of life (QoL) of patients in health-related aspects such as physical, psychosocial, and mental functioning. This health impact is more accurately represented when accounting for the numerous comorbidities associated with each disorder, and the impact the disorders have on patients’ families. A number of QoL tools have been developed and can be routinely implemented in the evaluation of QoL in pediatric patients and their caregivers. Ways to improve QoL include a multidisciplinary approach to care, education, and psychological support. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atopic Dermatitis and Psoriasis in Children)
Open AccessReview
Why Unidimensional Pain Measurement Prevails in the Pediatric Acute Pain Context and What Multidimensional Self-Report Methods Can Offer
Children 2019, 6(12), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/children6120132 - 02 Dec 2019
Viewed by 583
Abstract
Although pain is widely recognized to be a multidimensional experience and defined as such, unidimensional pain measurement focusing on pain intensity prevails in the pediatric acute pain context. Unidimensional assessments fail to provide a comprehensive picture of a child’s pain experience and commonly [...] Read more.
Although pain is widely recognized to be a multidimensional experience and defined as such, unidimensional pain measurement focusing on pain intensity prevails in the pediatric acute pain context. Unidimensional assessments fail to provide a comprehensive picture of a child’s pain experience and commonly do little to shape clinical interventions. The current review paper overviews the theoretical and empirical literature supporting the multidimensional nature of pediatric acute pain. Literature reporting concordance data for children’s self-reported sensory, affective and evaluative pain scores in the acute pain context has been reviewed and supports the distinct nature of these dimensions. Multidimensional acute pain measurement holds particular promise for identifying predictive markers of chronicity and may provide the basis for tailoring clinical management. The current paper has described key reasons contributing to the widespread use of unidimensional, rather than multidimensional, acute pediatric pain assessment protocols. Implications for clinical practice, education and future research are considered. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Short- and Long-Term Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Very Preterm Infants with Neonatal Sepsis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Children 2019, 6(12), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/children6120131 - 01 Dec 2019
Viewed by 584
Abstract
Sepsis is commonly experienced by infants born very preterm (<32 weeks gestational age and/or <1500 g birthweight), but the long-term functional outcomes are unclear. The objective of this systematic review was to identify observational studies comparing neurodevelopmental outcomes in very preterm infants who [...] Read more.
Sepsis is commonly experienced by infants born very preterm (<32 weeks gestational age and/or <1500 g birthweight), but the long-term functional outcomes are unclear. The objective of this systematic review was to identify observational studies comparing neurodevelopmental outcomes in very preterm infants who had blood culture-proven neonatal sepsis with those without sepsis. Twenty-four studies were identified, of which 19 used prespecified definitions of neurodevelopmental impairment and five reported neurodevelopmental outcomes as continuous variables. Meta-analysis was conducted using 14 studies with defined neurodevelopmental impairment and demonstrated that very preterm infants with neonatal sepsis were at higher risk of impairments, such as cerebral palsy and neurosensory deficits, compared with infants without sepsis (OR 3.18; 95% CI 2.29–4.41). Substantial heterogeneity existed across the studies (I2 = 83.1, 95% CI 73–89). The five studies that reported outcomes as continuous variables showed no significant difference in cognitive performance between sepsis and non-sepsis groups. Neonatal sepsis in very preterm infants is associated with increased risk of neurodevelopmental disability. Due to the paucity of longitudinal follow-up data beyond 36 months, the long-term cognitive effect of neonatal sepsis in very preterm infants could not be conclusively determined. Effects on the development of minor impairment could not be assessed, due to the small numbers of infants included in the studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Child Neurology)
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Open AccessArticle
Large Population Analysis of Secondary Cancers in Pediatric Leukemia Survivors
Children 2019, 6(12), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/children6120130 - 29 Nov 2019
Viewed by 731
Abstract
Introduction: Survivors of childhood cancer have an increased risk of developing a subsequent secondary malignant neoplasm (SMN). Among five-year survivors of primary cancer, SMNs account for nearly half of non-relapse deaths, which make them the most frequent cause of non-relapse mortality. Leukemia is [...] Read more.
Introduction: Survivors of childhood cancer have an increased risk of developing a subsequent secondary malignant neoplasm (SMN). Among five-year survivors of primary cancer, SMNs account for nearly half of non-relapse deaths, which make them the most frequent cause of non-relapse mortality. Leukemia is the most common childhood cancer and the five-year survival rate of leukemia has drastically improved over the past two decades. Therefore, the chances of developing SMNs are higher in pediatric (0–19 years) leukemia survivors. Methods: The US based Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER-18) database (1973–2014) was probed for SMNs in the pediatric population (age ≤ 19). Variables Sequence-number central, primary site and ICCC3WHO were used to identify the first and second cancers among patients who developed SMN. Results: Our SEER database analysis found 99,380 cases of pediatric primary malignancies (0–19 years), of which 1803 (1.81%) patients developed SMN. The breakdown of SMNs in pediatric leukemia survivors (n = 251) showed thyroid carcinoma (18.33% of cases) as the most common second cancer, followed by sarcoma (15.14%), astrocytoma (10.36%), lymphoma (9.56%), salivary gland carcinoma (7.17%), melanoma (4.38%), and breast cancer (3.98%). Interestingly, we found that over 76% of SMNs that were developed by leukemia patients occurred within 20 years after initial leukemia diagnosis. However, some SMNs occur during later age, for example, the mean age for breast cancer occurrence in leukemia survivors is 26.20 ± 8.53 years after initial leukemia diagnosis. Conclusions: Our study presented comprehensive rates of SMNs among pediatric cancers survivors, and the potential SMNs for pediatric leukemia survivors. This information could we used by oncologists, patients, patient families, and cancer researchers to understand the long-term risks that are associated with the development of SMNs in pediatric leukemia survivors. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Infectious Diseases among Refugee Children
Children 2019, 6(12), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/children6120129 - 27 Nov 2019
Viewed by 663
Abstract
In recent years, there has been a substantial increase in refugee and asylum-seeking adults, adolescents and children to high-income countries. Infectious diseases remain the most frequently identified medical diagnosis among U.S.-bound refugee children. Medical screening and immunization are key strategies to reduce the [...] Read more.
In recent years, there has been a substantial increase in refugee and asylum-seeking adults, adolescents and children to high-income countries. Infectious diseases remain the most frequently identified medical diagnosis among U.S.-bound refugee children. Medical screening and immunization are key strategies to reduce the risk of infectious diseases in refugee, internationally adopted, and immigrant children. Notable infectious diseases affecting refugee and other newly arriving migrants include latent or active tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV), hepatitis B, hepatitis C, vaccine-preventable diseases, malaria, and other parasitic infections. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Academy of Pediatrics have published guidelines for health assessment of newly arriving immigrant, refugee, and internationally adopted children. Although, data on the health risks and needs of refugee exists in some high-income countries, there is an urgent need to develop robust evidence-informed guidance on screening for infectious diseases and vaccination strategies on a broader scale to inform national policies. Innovative approaches to reach migrant communities in the host nations, address health and other complex barriers to improve access to high-quality integrated health services, and strong advocacy to mobilize resources to improve health, safety, and wellbeing for refugee children and their families are urgent priorities. Full article
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