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Chemosensors, Volume 9, Issue 7 (July 2021) – 37 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In this paper, we investigate humidity sensing through impedance measurements with TiO2 nanoparticles (about 6 nm in diameter) that are also functionalized with Au nanoparticles. The transient behavior and the impedance spectra are measured and interpreted from the theoretical point of view. Large responses are shown, especially in the relative humidity range 30%–80%, which are essentially explained by condensation in the nanopores. The addition of Au allows for the sensing film response and recovery time to be dramatically reduced, and it seems to favor condensation for RH larger than 70%. The obtained results relate the sensing performance of the nano-structured film to the phenomena occurring during water adsorption, as well as its effect on the electron and ion transports and the film characteristics. View this paper.
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Article
Tetracycline Antibiotics: Elucidating the Electrochemical Fingerprint and Oxidation Pathway
Chemosensors 2021, 9(7), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9070187 - 20 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1581
Abstract
Herein, a complete study of the electrochemical behavior of the most commonly used tetracycline antibiotics (TCs) on unmodified carbon screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) is presented. In addition, the oxidation pathway of TCs on SPE is elucidated, for the first time, with liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight [...] Read more.
Herein, a complete study of the electrochemical behavior of the most commonly used tetracycline antibiotics (TCs) on unmodified carbon screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) is presented. In addition, the oxidation pathway of TCs on SPE is elucidated, for the first time, with liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS). Square wave voltammetry (SWV) was used to study the electrochemical fingerprint (EF) of the antibiotics shaping the different oxidation processes of the TCs in a pH range from 2 to 12. Their characteristic structure and subsequent EF offer the possibility of distinguishing this class of antibiotics from other types. Under the optimized parameters, calibration curves of tetracycline (TET), doxycycline (DOXY), oxytetracycline (OXY), and chlortetracycline (CHL) in a Britton Robinson buffer solution (pH 9) exhibited a linear range between 5 and 100 µM with excellent reproducibilities (RSDTET = 3.01%, RSDDOXY = 3.29%, RSDOXY = 9.78% and RSDCHL = 6.88% at 10 µM, N = 3) and limits of detection (LOD) of LODTET = 4.15 µM, LODDOXY = 2.14 µM, LODOXY = 3.07 µM and LODCHL = 4.15 µM. Furthermore, binary, tertiary, and complex mixtures of all TCs were analyzed with SWV to investigate the corresponding EF. A dual pH screening (pH 4 and pH 9), together with the use of a custom-made Matlab script for data treatment, allowed for the successful confirmation of a single presence of TCs in the unknown samples. Overall, this work presents a straightforward study of the electrochemical behavior of TCs in SPE, allowing for the future on-site identification of residues of tetracycline antibiotics in real samples. Full article
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Article
Multivalent Sialyllactose-Levan-Conjugated Gold Nanoparticles for Efficient Interaction with and Colorimetric Detection of Influenza A Virus
Chemosensors 2021, 9(7), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9070186 - 19 Jul 2021
Viewed by 969
Abstract
We report a colorimetric assay to detect influenza A virus using sialyllactose-levan-conjugated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). We successfully conjugated 2, 3- and 2, 6-sialyllactose to levan and synthesized sialyllactose-levan-conjugated AuNPs. Each sialyllactose-conjugated levan specifically interacted with a recognizable lectin. Synthesized sialyllactose-conjugated levan acted as [...] Read more.
We report a colorimetric assay to detect influenza A virus using sialyllactose-levan-conjugated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). We successfully conjugated 2, 3- and 2, 6-sialyllactose to levan and synthesized sialyllactose-levan-conjugated AuNPs. Each sialyllactose-conjugated levan specifically interacted with a recognizable lectin. Synthesized sialyllactose-conjugated levan acted as reducing and coating agents during the formation of AuNPs. Human influenza A virus specifically bound to 2, 6-sialyllactose-levan-conjugated AuNPs. Moreover, 2, 6-sialyllactose-conjugated levan AuNPs rapidly changed color from red to blue after incubation with human influenza virus. For detecting avian influenza virus, 2, 3-sialyllactose-levan-conjugated AuNPs were more effective than 2, 6-sialyllactose-levan-conjugated AuNPs. Therefore, the efficient targeting and diagnosis of influenza virus according to origin was possible. The deployment of sialyllactose-levan-conjugated particles for the detection of influenza virus is simple and quick. The limit of detection (L.O.D) of H1N1 influenza virus was 7.4 × 103 pfu using 2, 6-siallylactose-levan-conjugated AuNPs and H5N2 influenza virus was 4.2 × 103 pfu using 2, 3-siallylactose-levan- conjugated AuNPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section (Bio)chemical Sensing)
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Article
Label-Free Creatinine Optical Sensing Using Molecularly Imprinted Titanium Dioxide-Polycarboxylic Acid Hybrid Thin Films: A Preliminary Study for Urine Sample Analysis
Chemosensors 2021, 9(7), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9070185 - 17 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1124
Abstract
Creatinine (CR) is a representative metabolic byproduct of muscles, and its sensitive and selective detection has become critical in the diagnosis of kidney diseases. In this study, poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)-assisted molecularly imprinted (MI) TiO2 nanothin films fabricated via liquid phase deposition (LPD) [...] Read more.
Creatinine (CR) is a representative metabolic byproduct of muscles, and its sensitive and selective detection has become critical in the diagnosis of kidney diseases. In this study, poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)-assisted molecularly imprinted (MI) TiO2 nanothin films fabricated via liquid phase deposition (LPD) were employed for CR detection. The molecular recognition properties of the fabricated films were evaluated using fiber optic long period grating (LPG) and quartz crystal microbalance sensors. Imprinting effects were examined compared with nonimprinted (NI) pure TiO2 and PAA-assisted TiO2 films fabricated similarly without a template. In addition, the surface modification of the optical fiber section containing the LPG with a mesoporous base coating of silica nanoparticles, which was conducted before LPD-based TiO2 film deposition, contributed to the improvement of the sensitivity of the MI LPG sensor. The sensitivity and selectivity of LPGs coated with MI films were tested using CR solutions dissolved in different pH waters and artificial urine (near pH 7). The CR binding constants of the MI and NI films, which were calculated from the Benesi–Hildebrand plots of the wavelength shifts of the second LPG band recorded in water at pH 4.6, were estimated to be 67 and 7.8 M1, respectively, showing an almost ninefold higher sensitivity in the MI film. The mechanism of the interaction between the template and the TiO2 matrix and the film composition was investigated via ultraviolet–visible and attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy along with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. In addition, morphological studies using a scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope were conducted. The proposed system has the potential for practical use to determine CR levels in urine samples. This LPG-based label-free CR biosensor is innovative and expected to be a new tool to identify complex biomolecules in terms of its easy fabrication and simplicity in methodology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section (Bio)chemical Sensing)
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Article
Complementary Split-Ring Resonator for Microwave Heating of µL Volumes in Microwells in Continuous Microfluidics
Chemosensors 2021, 9(7), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9070184 - 17 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 857
Abstract
This work presents the design and evaluation of a planar device for microwave heating of liquids in continuous microfluidics (CMF) made in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). It deals with volumes in the µL range, which are of high interest and relevance to biologists and chemists. [...] Read more.
This work presents the design and evaluation of a planar device for microwave heating of liquids in continuous microfluidics (CMF) made in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). It deals with volumes in the µL range, which are of high interest and relevance to biologists and chemists. The planar heater in this work is conceived around a complementary split-ring resonator (CSRR) topology that offers a desired electric field direction to—and interaction with—liquids in a microwell. The designed device on a 0.25 mm thick Rogers RO4350B substrate operates at around 2.5 GHz, while a CMF channel and a 2.45 µL microwell are manufactured in PDMS using the casting process. The evaluation of the performance of the designed heater is conducted using a fluorescent dye, Rhodamine B, dissolved in deionized water. Heating measurements are carried out using 1 W of power and the designed device achieves a temperature of 47 °C on a sample volume of 2.45 µL after 20 s of heating. Based on the achieved results, the CSRR topology has a large potential in microwave heating, in addition to the already demonstrated potential in microwave dielectric sensing, all proving the multifunctionality and reusability of single planar microwave-microfluidic devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microfluidic Biosensing Platform)
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Article
Environmental Odour Quantification by IOMS: Parametric vs. Non-Parametric Prediction Techniques
Chemosensors 2021, 9(7), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9070183 - 16 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1106
Abstract
Odour emissions are a global issue that needs to be controlled to prevent negative impacts. Instrumental odour monitoring systems (IOMS) are an intelligent technology that can be applied to continuously assess annoyance and thus avoid complaints. However, gaps to be improved in terms [...] Read more.
Odour emissions are a global issue that needs to be controlled to prevent negative impacts. Instrumental odour monitoring systems (IOMS) are an intelligent technology that can be applied to continuously assess annoyance and thus avoid complaints. However, gaps to be improved in terms of accuracy in deciphering information, especially in the implementation of the mathematical model, are still being researched, especially in environmental odour monitoring applications. This research presents and discusses the implementation of traditional and innovative parametric and non-parametric prediction techniques for the elaboration of an effective odour quantification monitoring model (OQMM), with the aim of optimizing the accuracy of the measurements. Artificial neural network (ANN), multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARSpline), partial least square (PLS), multiple linear regression (MLR) and response surface regression (RSR) are implemented and compared for prediction of odour concentrations using an advanced IOMS. Experimental analyses are carried out by using real environmental odour samples collected from a municipal solid waste treatment plant. Results highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the analysed models and their accuracy in terms of environmental odour concentration prediction. The ANN application allows us to obtain the most accurate results among the investigated techniques. This paper provides useful information to select the appropriate computational tool to process the signals from sensors, in order to improve the reliability and stability of the measurements and create a robust prediction model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemometric Tools for Monitoring Air Type Profiles)
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Review
Electrochemical Immunosensors for Quantification of Procalcitonin: Progress and Prospects
Chemosensors 2021, 9(7), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9070182 - 14 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 975
Abstract
Human procalcitonin (PCT) is a peptide precursor of the calcium-regulating hormone calcitonin. Traditionally, PCT has been used as a biomarker for severe bacterial infections and sepsis. It has also been recently identified as a potential marker for COVID-19. Normally, serum PCT is intracellularly [...] Read more.
Human procalcitonin (PCT) is a peptide precursor of the calcium-regulating hormone calcitonin. Traditionally, PCT has been used as a biomarker for severe bacterial infections and sepsis. It has also been recently identified as a potential marker for COVID-19. Normally, serum PCT is intracellularly cleaved to calcitonin, which lowers the levels of PCT (<0.01 ng/mL). In severe infectious diseases and sepsis, serum PCT levels increase above 100 ng/mL in response to pro-inflammatory stimulation. Development of sensors for specific quantification of PCT has resulted in considerable improvement in the sensitivity, linear range and rapid response. Among the various sensing strategies, electrochemical platforms have been extensively investigated owing to their cost-effectiveness, ease of fabrication and portability. Sandwich-type electrochemical immunoassays based on the specific antigen–antibody interactions with an electrochemical transducer and use of nanointerfaces has augmented the electrochemical response of the sensors towards PCT. Identification of a superior combination of electrode material and nanointerface, and translation of the sensing platform into flexible and disposable substrates are under active investigation towards development of a point-of-care device for PCT detection. This review provides an overview of the existing detection strategies and limitations of PCT electrochemical immunosensors, and the emerging directions to address these lacunae. Full article
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Article
The UV Effect on the Chemiresistive Response of ZnO Nanostructures to Isopropanol and Benzene at PPM Concentrations in Mixture with Dry and Wet Air
Chemosensors 2021, 9(7), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9070181 - 14 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1041
Abstract
Towards the development of low-power miniature gas detectors, there is a high interest in the research of light-activated metal oxide gas sensors capable to operate at room temperature (RT). Herein, we study ZnO nanostructures grown by the electrochemical deposition method over Si/SiO2 [...] Read more.
Towards the development of low-power miniature gas detectors, there is a high interest in the research of light-activated metal oxide gas sensors capable to operate at room temperature (RT). Herein, we study ZnO nanostructures grown by the electrochemical deposition method over Si/SiO2 substrates equipped by multiple Pt electrodes to serve as on-chip gas monitors and thoroughly estimate its chemiresistive performance upon exposing to two model VOCs, isopropanol and benzene, in a wide operating temperature range, from RT to 350 °C, and LED-powered UV illumination, 380 nm wavelength; the dry air and humid-enriched, 50 rel. %, air are employed as a background. We show that the UV activation allows one to get a distinctive chemiresistive signal of the ZnO sensor to isopropanol at RT regardless of the interfering presence of H2O vapors. On the contrary, the benzene vapors do not react with UV-illuminated ZnO at RT under dry air while the humidity’s appearance gives an opportunity to detect this gas. Still, both VOCs are well detected by the ZnO sensor under heating at a 200–350 °C range independently on additional UV exciting. We employ quantum chemical calculations to explain the differences between these two VOCs’ interactions with ZnO surface by a remarkable distinction of the binding energies characterizing single molecules, which is −0.44 eV in the case of isopropanol and −3.67 eV in the case of benzene. The full covering of a ZnO supercell by H2O molecules taken for the effect’s estimation shifts the binding energies to −0.50 eV and −0.72 eV, respectively. This theory insight supports the experimental observation that benzene could not react with ZnO surface at RT under employed LED UV without humidity’s presence, indifference to isopropanol. Full article
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Review
Recent Achievements in Electrochemical and Surface Plasmon Resonance Aptasensors for Mycotoxins Detection
Chemosensors 2021, 9(7), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9070180 - 14 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1146
Abstract
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that contaminate agriculture products. Their release in the environment can cause severe damage to human health. Aptasensors are compact analytical devices that are intended for the fast and reliable detection of various species able to specifically interact [...] Read more.
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that contaminate agriculture products. Their release in the environment can cause severe damage to human health. Aptasensors are compact analytical devices that are intended for the fast and reliable detection of various species able to specifically interact with aptamers attached to the transducer surface. In this review, assembly of electrochemical and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) aptasensors are considered with emphasis on the mechanism of signal generation. Moreover, the properties of mycotoxins and the aptamers selected for their recognition are briefly considered. The analytical performance of biosensors developed within last three years makes it possible to determine mycotoxin residues in water and agriculture/food products on the levels below their maximal admissible concentrations. Requirements for the development of sample treatment and future trends in aptasensors are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors for Environmental Monitoring)
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Review
Strategies for Improving the Sensing Performance of Semiconductor Gas Sensors for High-Performance Formaldehyde Detection: A Review
Chemosensors 2021, 9(7), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9070179 - 14 Jul 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1565
Abstract
Formaldehyde is a poisonous and harmful gas, which is ubiquitous in our daily life. Long-term exposure to formaldehyde harms human body functions; therefore, it is urgent to fabricate sensors for the real-time monitoring of formaldehyde concentrations. Metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) gas sensors is [...] Read more.
Formaldehyde is a poisonous and harmful gas, which is ubiquitous in our daily life. Long-term exposure to formaldehyde harms human body functions; therefore, it is urgent to fabricate sensors for the real-time monitoring of formaldehyde concentrations. Metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) gas sensors is favored by researchers as a result of their low cost, simple operation and portability. In this paper, the mechanism of formaldehyde detection by gas sensors is introduced, and then the ways of ameliorating the response of gas sensors for formaldehyde detection in recent years are summarized. These methods include the control of the microstructure and morphology of sensing materials, the doping modification of matrix materials, the development of new semiconductor sensing materials, the outfield control strategy and the construction of the filter membrane. These five methods will provide a good prerequisite for the preparation of better performing formaldehyde gas sensors. Full article
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Article
Development of a High-Throughput Low-Cost Approach for Fabricating Fully Drawn Paper-Based Analytical Devices Using Commercial Writing Tools
Chemosensors 2021, 9(7), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9070178 - 13 Jul 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 966
Abstract
This work reports the development and optimization of a rapid and low-cost pen-on-paper plotting approach for the fabrication of paper-based analytical devices (PADs) using commercial writing stationery. The desired fluidic patterns were drawn on the paper substrate with commercial marker pens using an [...] Read more.
This work reports the development and optimization of a rapid and low-cost pen-on-paper plotting approach for the fabrication of paper-based analytical devices (PADs) using commercial writing stationery. The desired fluidic patterns were drawn on the paper substrate with commercial marker pens using an inexpensive computer-controlled x–y plotter. For the fabrication of electrochemical PADs, electrodes were further deposited on the devices using a second x–y plotting step with commercial writing pencils. The effect of the fabrication parameters (type of paper, type of marker pen, type of pencil, plotting speed, number of passes, single- vs. double-sided plotting), the chemical resistance of the plotted devices to different solvents and the structural rigidity to multiple loading cycles were assessed. The analytical utility of these devices is demonstrated through application in optical sensing of total phenols using reflectance calorimetry and in electrochemical sensing of paracetamol and ascorbic acid. The proposed manufacturing approach is simple, low cost, flexible, rapid and fit-for-purpose and enables the fabrication of sub-“one-dollar” PADs with satisfactory mechanical and chemical resistance and good analytical performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paper-Based Sensors and Microfluidic Devices)
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Article
Optical pH Sensing in Milk: A Small Puzzle of Indicator Concentrations and the Best Detection Method
Chemosensors 2021, 9(7), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9070177 - 12 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 943
Abstract
Optical chemical sensors can yield distinctively different responses that are dependent on the method applied for readout and evaluation. We therefore present a comprehensive study on the pH determined non-continuously with optical sensors in real milk samples by either photometry or colorimetry (via [...] Read more.
Optical chemical sensors can yield distinctively different responses that are dependent on the method applied for readout and evaluation. We therefore present a comprehensive study on the pH determined non-continuously with optical sensors in real milk samples by either photometry or colorimetry (via the RGB-readout of digital images) compared to the pH values obtained electrochemically by potentiometry. Additionally, the photometric determination of pH was conducted with single-wavelength and a dual wavelength ratiometric evaluation of the absorbance. It was found that both the precision and accuracy of the pH determined by photometry benefit from lower concentrations of bromocresol purple, which served as the pH indicator inside the sensor membrane. A further improvement is obtained by the ratiometric evaluation of the photometric sensor response. The pH values obtained from the colorimetric evaluation, however, gain in precision and accuracy if a higher concentration of the indicator is immobilized inside the sensor membrane. This has a major impact on the future fabrication of optical pH sensor membranes because they can be better tuned to match to the most precise and accurate range of the planned detection method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection pH Sensors, Biosensors and Systems)
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Article
Development of Polydiacetylene-Based Testosterone Detection as a Model Sensing Platform for Water-Insoluble Hormone Analytes
Chemosensors 2021, 9(7), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9070176 - 12 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1031
Abstract
We have developed a polydiacetylene (PDA)-based sensing platform to detect testosterone (T) as a potential biomarker of preterm birth. The insolubility of the steroid hormone in water, where PDA assemblies are dispersed, poses a major issue, since they can hardly interact with each [...] Read more.
We have developed a polydiacetylene (PDA)-based sensing platform to detect testosterone (T) as a potential biomarker of preterm birth. The insolubility of the steroid hormone in water, where PDA assemblies are dispersed, poses a major issue, since they can hardly interact with each other. To overcome this challenge, acetonitrile was used as a suitable solvent. In addition, to minimize false signals of PDA assemblies caused by the solvent, a mixture of acetonitrile and distilled water was selected. To prove a concept of PDA-based sensing platform for targeting T hormone, we conjugated anti-T antibodies to surface of PDA assemblies to induce selective binding between T and anti-T antibodies. The fluorescence sensory signaling of the PDA-anti-T antibody conjugate was selectively generated for T, over 3.4 times higher sensitivity of the signaling compared to that from other sex steroid hormones studied (β-estradiol and progesterone). Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection pH Sensors, Biosensors and Systems)
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Article
Nanoparticle Determination in Water by LED-Excited Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging
Chemosensors 2021, 9(7), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9070175 - 11 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1003
Abstract
The increasing popularity of nanoparticles in many applications has led to the fact that these persistent materials pollute our environment and threaten our health. An online sensor system for monitoring the presence of nanoparticles in fresh water would be highly desired. We propose [...] Read more.
The increasing popularity of nanoparticles in many applications has led to the fact that these persistent materials pollute our environment and threaten our health. An online sensor system for monitoring the presence of nanoparticles in fresh water would be highly desired. We propose a label-free sensor based on SPR imaging. The sensitivity was enhanced by a factor of about 100 by improving the detector by using a high-resolution camera. This revealed that the light source also needed to be improved by using LED excitation instead of a laser light source. As a receptor, different self-assembled monolayers have been screened. It can be seen that the nanoparticle receptor interaction is of a complex nature. The best system when taking sensitivity as well as reversibility into account is given by a dodecanethiol monolayer on the gold sensor surface. Lanthanide-doped nanoparticles, 29 nm in diameter and with a similar refractive index to the most common silica nanoparticles were detected in water down to 1.5 µg mL−1. The sensor can be fully regenerated within one hour without the need for any washing buffer. This sensing concept is expected to be easily adapted for the detection of nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition, and upon miniaturization, suitable for long-term applications to monitor the quality of water. Full article
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Article
Graphene Bioelectronic Nose for the Detection of Odorants with Human Olfactory Receptor 2AG1
Chemosensors 2021, 9(7), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9070174 - 08 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1100
Abstract
A real-time sensor for the detection of amyl butyrate (AB) utilising human olfactory receptor 2AG1 (OR2AG1), a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) consisting of seven transmembrane domains, immobilized onto a graphene resistor is demonstrated. Using CVD graphene as the sensor platform, allows greater potential [...] Read more.
A real-time sensor for the detection of amyl butyrate (AB) utilising human olfactory receptor 2AG1 (OR2AG1), a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) consisting of seven transmembrane domains, immobilized onto a graphene resistor is demonstrated. Using CVD graphene as the sensor platform, allows greater potential for more sensitive detection than similar sensors based on carbon nanotubes, gold or graphene oxide platforms. A specific graphene resistor sensor was fabricated and modified via non-covalent π–π stacking of 1,5 diaminonaphthalene (DAN) onto the graphene channel, and subsequent anchoring of the OR2AG1 receptor to the DAN molecule using glutaraldehyde coupling. Binding between the target odorant, amyl butyrate, and the OR2AG1 receptor protein generated a change in resistance of the graphene resistor sensor. The functionalized graphene resistor sensors exhibited a linear sensor response between 0.1–500 pM and high selectively towards amyl butyrate, with a sensitivity as low as 500 fM, whilst control measurements using non-specific esters, produced a negligible sensor response. The approach described here provides an alternative sensing platform that can be used in bioelectronic nose applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gustatory and Olfactory Sensing Technologies and Applications)
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Article
Surface Acoustic Wave Biosensor with Laser-Deposited Gold Layer Having Controlled Porosity
Chemosensors 2021, 9(7), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9070173 - 08 Jul 2021
Viewed by 902
Abstract
Laser-deposited gold immobilization layers having different porosities were incorporated into love wave surface acoustic wave sensors (LW-SAWs). Variation of pulsed laser deposition parameters allows good control of the gold film morphology. Biosensors with various gold film porosities were tested using the biotin–avidin reaction. [...] Read more.
Laser-deposited gold immobilization layers having different porosities were incorporated into love wave surface acoustic wave sensors (LW-SAWs). Variation of pulsed laser deposition parameters allows good control of the gold film morphology. Biosensors with various gold film porosities were tested using the biotin–avidin reaction. Control of the Au layer morphology is important since the biotin and avidin layer morphologies closely follow that of the gold. The response of the sensors to biotin/avidin, which is a good indicator of biosensor performance, is improved when the gold layer has increased porosity. Given the sizes of the proteins, the laser-deposited porous gold interfaces have optimal pore dimensions to ensure protein stability. Full article
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Article
Expediting Disulfiram Assays through a Systematic Analytical Quality by Design Approach
Chemosensors 2021, 9(7), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9070172 - 06 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1103
Abstract
An Analytical Quality by Design (AQbD) approach is presented, aiming at the development and validation of an HPLC method for the quantification of disulfiram and copper diethyldithiocarbamate in lipid nanoparticles. Following the definition of the analytical target profile (ATP), encompassing the critical analytical [...] Read more.
An Analytical Quality by Design (AQbD) approach is presented, aiming at the development and validation of an HPLC method for the quantification of disulfiram and copper diethyldithiocarbamate in lipid nanoparticles. Following the definition of the analytical target profile (ATP), encompassing the critical analytical attributes (CAA), a two-level risk assessment strategy (Ishikawa diagram—failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA)) was employed to identify the critical method parameters (CMPs) with an extensive impact on method performance. The behavior of the CMPs (flow rate and mobile phase composition) was further characterized by experimental design, resorting to a face-centered central composite design (FcCCD). Statistical modeling, response surface analysis, and Monte Carlo simulations led to the definition of the Method Operable Design Region (MODR), associated with a negligible risk of failing the predefined CAA specifications. The optimal method was validated according to international regulatory recommendations. Apart from guaranteeing linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity, robustness, and stability, these conditions were found to be suitable for analysis using a different HPLC column and equipment. In a nutshell, the development and optimization strategies, under the comprehensive framework of AQbD, provided an effective, simple, rapid, reliable, and flexible method for routine analysis of the compounds in research or industrial environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Recent Trend in Chromatography for Pharmaceutical Analysis)
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Article
Sniff Species: SURMOF-Based Sensor Array Discriminates Aromatic Plants beyond the Genus Level
Chemosensors 2021, 9(7), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9070171 - 06 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 976
Abstract
Lamiaceae belong to the species-richest family of flowering plants and harbor many species that are used as herbs or in medicinal applications such as basils or mints. The evolution of this group has been driven by chemical speciation, mainly volatile organic compounds (VOCs). [...] Read more.
Lamiaceae belong to the species-richest family of flowering plants and harbor many species that are used as herbs or in medicinal applications such as basils or mints. The evolution of this group has been driven by chemical speciation, mainly volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The commercial use of these plants is characterized by adulteration and surrogation to a large extent. Authenticating and discerning this species is thus relevant for consumer safety but usually requires cumbersome analytics, such as gas chromatography, often coupled with mass spectroscopy. Here, we demonstrate that quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM)-based electronic noses provide a very cost-efficient alternative, allowing for fast, automated discrimination of scents emitted from the leaves of different plants. To explore the range of this strategy, we used leaf material from four genera of Lamiaceae along with lemongrass, which is similarly scented but from an unrelated outgroup. To differentiate the scents from different plants unambiguously, the output of the six different SURMOF/QCM sensors was analyzed using machine learning (ML) methods together with a thorough statistical analysis. The exposure and purging of data sets (four cycles) obtained from a QCM-based, low-cost homemade portable e-Nose were analyzed using a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classification model. Prediction accuracy with repeated test measurements reached values of up to 0%. We show that it is possible not only to discern and identify plants at the genus level but also to discriminate closely related sister clades within a genus (basil), demonstrating that an e-Nose is a powerful device that can safeguard consumer safety against dangers posed by globalized trade. Full article
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Article
The Effect of Au Nanoparticle Addition on Humidity Sensing with Ultra-Small TiO2 Nanoparticles
Chemosensors 2021, 9(7), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9070170 - 05 Jul 2021
Viewed by 764
Abstract
In this paper, we investigate humidity sensing through impedance measurements with TiO2 nanoparticles (about 6 nm in diameter). The transient behavior and the impedance spectra are measured and interpreted from the theoretical point of view. Large responses are shown especially in the [...] Read more.
In this paper, we investigate humidity sensing through impedance measurements with TiO2 nanoparticles (about 6 nm in diameter). The transient behavior and the impedance spectra are measured and interpreted from the theoretical point of view. Large responses are shown especially in the relative humidity range from 30% to 80%, which are essentially explained by condensation in the nanopores. The effect of the addition of Au nanoparticles is investigated and as expected, the Au/TiO2 interfaces allow for dramatically reducing the sensing film response time and above all, its recovery time; moreover, it seems to favor condensation when the relative humidity overcomes 70%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials for Chemical Sensing)
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Article
PANI-Based Wearable Electrochemical Sensor for pH Sweat Monitoring
Chemosensors 2021, 9(7), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9070169 - 05 Jul 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1851
Abstract
Nowadays, we are assisting in the exceptional growth in research relating to the development of wearable devices for sweat analysis. Sweat is a biofluid that contains useful health information and allows a non-invasive, continuous and comfortable collection. For this reason, it is an [...] Read more.
Nowadays, we are assisting in the exceptional growth in research relating to the development of wearable devices for sweat analysis. Sweat is a biofluid that contains useful health information and allows a non-invasive, continuous and comfortable collection. For this reason, it is an excellent biofluid for the detection of different analytes. In this work, electrochemical sensors based on polyaniline thin films deposited on the flexible substrate polyethylene terephthalate coated with indium tin oxide were studied. Polyaniline thin films were abstained by the potentiostatic deposition technique, applying a potential of +2 V vs. SCE for 90 s. To improve the sensor performance, the electronic substrate was modified with reduced graphene oxide, obtained at a constant potential of −0.8 V vs. SCE for 200 s, and then polyaniline thin films were electrodeposited on top of the as-deposited substrate. All samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, EDS, static contact angle and FT-IR/ATR analysis to correlate the physical-chemical features with the performance of the sensors. The obtained electrodes were tested as pH sensors in the range from 2 to 8, showing good behavior, with a sensitivity of 62.3 mV/pH, very close to a Nernstian response, and a reproducibility of 3.8%. Interference tests, in the presence of competing ions, aimed to verify the selectivity, were also performed. Finally, a real sweat sample was collected, and the sweat pH was quantified with both the proposed sensor and a commercial pH meter, showing an excellent concordance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Electrochemical Biosensors for Medical Diagnosis)
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Article
The Monitoring of Black-Odor River by Electronic Nose with Chemometrics for pH, COD, TN, and TP
Chemosensors 2021, 9(7), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9070168 - 05 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 848
Abstract
Black-odor rivers are polluted urban rivers that often are black in color and emit a foul odor. They are a severe problem in aquatic systems because they can negatively impact the living conditions of residents and the functioning of ecosystems and local economies. [...] Read more.
Black-odor rivers are polluted urban rivers that often are black in color and emit a foul odor. They are a severe problem in aquatic systems because they can negatively impact the living conditions of residents and the functioning of ecosystems and local economies. Therefore, it is crucial to identify ways to mitigate the water quality parameters that characterize black-odor rivers. In this study, we tested the efficacy of an electronic nose (E-nose), which was inexpensive, fast, and easy to operate, for qualitative recognition analysis and quantitative parameter prediction of samples collected from the Yueliang River in Huzhou City. The E-nose sensors were cross-sensitive to the volatile compounds in black-odor water. The device recognized the samples from different river sites with 100% accuracy based on linear discriminant analysis. For water quality parameter predictions, partial least squares regression models based on E-nose signals were established, and the coefficients between the actual water quality parameters (pH, chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen content, and total phosphorous content) and the predicted values were very high (R2 > 0.90) both in the training and testing sets. These results indicate that E-nose technology can be a fast, easy-to-build, and cost-effective detection system for black-odor river monitoring. Full article
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Communication
A Syringe-Based and Centrifugation-Free DNA Extraction Procedure for the Rapid Detection of Bacteria
Chemosensors 2021, 9(7), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9070167 - 03 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1188
Abstract
Several bacteria are known to cause food poisoning; therefore, diagnostic systems that detect bacteria are essential. Nucleic acid-based testing methods that involve polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification are of great interest due to their high sensitivity and specificity. Herein, we developed a syringe-based [...] Read more.
Several bacteria are known to cause food poisoning; therefore, diagnostic systems that detect bacteria are essential. Nucleic acid-based testing methods that involve polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification are of great interest due to their high sensitivity and specificity. Herein, we developed a syringe-based one-step DNA extraction device that streamlines the extraction of genomic DNA (gDNA) from bacteria within 2 min, enabling versatile application of nucleic acid-based testing in the field. Notably, the bolt-nut structured case coupled with the syringe enables control of the volume of solution dispensed for enabling DNA extraction without the need for bulky centrifuge equipment. Using the proposed system, the gDNA of a model bacterium, Escherichia coli, was extracted at a good quantity and quality and amplified via PCR. The DNA extracted was comparable to that extracted via a centrifugation-based procedure. In addition, bacteria that were artificially spiked in common samples, including a work cloth, a work bench, and meat, were successfully detected with high accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection pH Sensors, Biosensors and Systems)
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Article
Leftover Kiwi Fruit Peel-Derived Carbon Dots as a Highly Selective Fluorescent Sensor for Detection of Ferric Ion
Chemosensors 2021, 9(7), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9070166 - 02 Jul 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 1463
Abstract
Recently, the use of natural products for the synthesis of carbon dots (CDs) has received much attention. Herein, leftover kiwi (Actinidia Deliciosa) fruit peels were successfully turned into beneficial fluorescent carbon dots (KN-CDs) via the hydrothermal-carbonization route. KN-CDs 1 and KN-CDs [...] Read more.
Recently, the use of natural products for the synthesis of carbon dots (CDs) has received much attention. Herein, leftover kiwi (Actinidia Deliciosa) fruit peels were successfully turned into beneficial fluorescent carbon dots (KN-CDs) via the hydrothermal-carbonization route. KN-CDs 1 and KN-CDs 2 were prepared without and with ammonium hydroxide, respectively. KN-CDs 1 and KN-CDs 2 were systematically characterized by various analytical techniques. Synthesized KN-CDs showed spherical-shaped morphology with narrow size distribution and excellent optical properties with excitation-independent behaviors. The quantum yields of KN-CDs 1 and KN-CDs 2 were calculated as 14 and 19%, respectively. Additionally, the KN-CDs possess excellent prolonging and photostability. Because of the excellent optical properties of KN-CDs, they were utilized as fluorescent sensors. The strong fluorescence of the KN-CDs was selectively quenched by Fe3+ ion, and quenching behavior showed a linear correlation with the concentrations of Fe3+ ion. KN-CDs 1 and KN-CDs 2 showed the detection of Fe3+ ions within the concentration range of 5–25 µM with the detection limit of 0.95 and 0.85 µM, respectively. Based on the turn-off sensing by the detection of Fe3+ ions, KN-CDs would be a promising candidate as a selective and sensitive fluorescent sensor. Full article
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Article
BODIPY-Pyridylhydrazone Probe for Fluorescence Turn-On Detection of Fe3+ and Its Bioimaging Application
Chemosensors 2021, 9(7), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9070165 - 02 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1139
Abstract
A novel pyridylhydrazone-tethered BODIPY (BODIPY-PH) was synthesized, fully characterized via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR), and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SC-XRD) techniques, and developed for the selective detection of Fe3+ through fluorescent enhancement process. This derivative showed 1:1 binding [...] Read more.
A novel pyridylhydrazone-tethered BODIPY (BODIPY-PH) was synthesized, fully characterized via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR), and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SC-XRD) techniques, and developed for the selective detection of Fe3+ through fluorescent enhancement process. This derivative showed 1:1 binding with Fe3+ in an acetonitrile-water mixture (1:9 v/v) with the binding constant (K) of 5.4 × 104 M−1 and the limit of detection of 0.58 µM. The Fe3+ complexation reaction has been proved to be a reversible process and could be effectively repeated up to three cycles. The electronic properties of BODIPY-PH and its Fe3+ complex modeled by the density functional theory (DFT) method suggested the presence of chelation-enhanced fluorescence (CHEF) effect in the Fe3+ binding reaction. The X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) probed at Fe K-edge confirmed the complex formation between BODIPY-PH and the Fe3+ in an octahedral geometry. Finally, bioimaging against human embryonic kidney (Hek293) cell, through confocal fluorescence microscopic technique indicated that the BODIPY-PH displayed good permeability and low toxicity toward the tested cell lines and showed enhanced fluorescent signal in the cells incubated with Fe3+ proving its capability for Fe3+ analysis in cellular matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Fluorescent Materials as Chemical Sensors)
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Article
Novel Colour-Based, Prototype Indicator for Use in High-Pressure Processing (HPP)
Chemosensors 2021, 9(7), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9070164 - 01 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1003
Abstract
The preparation and testing of a colour-based prototype indicator for high-pressure processing (HPP) are described. The indicator is a layered structure comprising a pressed disc of a mixture of silica gel, which has been previously loaded with a set wt% of acidified water, [...] Read more.
The preparation and testing of a colour-based prototype indicator for high-pressure processing (HPP) are described. The indicator is a layered structure comprising a pressed disc of a mixture of silica gel, which has been previously loaded with a set wt% of acidified water, and polytetrafluoroethylene, PTFE, powders, a water-permeable barrier layer, and a Congo-Red-based pH indicator layer, all vacuum-sealed in a water impermeable plastic film. The value of the wt% is calculated from the ratio of the mass of acidified water added to the mass of originally dry silica gel. The high pressures associated with HPP drive the release of the acidified water from the silica gel and its subsequent transport through the water-permeable barrier layer to the pH indicator, thereby producing a striking red-to-blue colour change. The response of the HPP indicator can be tuned to different HPP conditions by varying the wt% of acidified water used to load the silica gel powder. Indicators, with 61, 63, and 65 wt% acidified water loaded silica gel, are prepared and found to require, respectively, the application of at least, 600, 400, and 300 MPa pressure for 3 min to effect a change colour. To our knowledge, this is the first reported example of a prototype HPP indicator that can be tuned to respond to the very different pressure and time conditions used in HPP to sterilise such very different products as milk, apple and orange juice, and aloe vera gel. Full article
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Article
Optical Sensing of Molecular Oxygen (O2) via Metal Oxide Photoluminescence: A Comparative Study of TiO2, SnO2 and ZnO
Chemosensors 2021, 9(7), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9070163 - 28 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 880
Abstract
A comparative study is presented on the photoluminescence (PL) response toward molecular oxygen (O2) in tin dioxide (SnO2), zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles. The findings show that both PL enhancement and PL quenching can [...] Read more.
A comparative study is presented on the photoluminescence (PL) response toward molecular oxygen (O2) in tin dioxide (SnO2), zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles. The findings show that both PL enhancement and PL quenching can be observed on different materials, arguably depending on the spatial localization of the defects responsible for the PL emission in each different oxide. No significant results are evidenced for SnO2 nanoparticles. ZnO with red/orange emission shown an O2-induced PL enhancement, suggesting that the radiative emission involves holes trapped in surface vacancy oxygen centers. While the ZnO results are scientifically interesting, its performances are inferior to the ones shown by TiO2, which exhibits the most interesting response in terms of sensitivity and versatility of the response. In particular, O2 concentrations in the range of few percent and in the range of a few tenths of a part per million are both detectable through the same mixed-phase TiO2 sample, whose rutile phase gives a reversible and fast response to larger (0.4–2%) O2 concentration while its anatase phase is usable for detection in the 25–75 ppm range. The data for rutile TiO2 suggest that its surfaces host deeply trapped electrons at large densities, allowing good sensitivities and, more notably, a relatively unsaturated response at large concentrations. Future work is expected to improve the understanding and modeling of the photophysical framework that lies behind the observations. Full article
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Review
Addressing the Theoretical and Experimental Aspects of Low-Dimensional-Materials-Based FET Immunosensors: A Review
Chemosensors 2021, 9(7), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9070162 - 25 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1026
Abstract
Electrochemical immunosensors (EI) have been widely investigated in the last several years. Among them, immunosensors based on low-dimensional materials (LDM) stand out, as they could provide a substantial gain in fabricating point-of-care devices, paving the way for fast, precise, and sensitive diagnosis of [...] Read more.
Electrochemical immunosensors (EI) have been widely investigated in the last several years. Among them, immunosensors based on low-dimensional materials (LDM) stand out, as they could provide a substantial gain in fabricating point-of-care devices, paving the way for fast, precise, and sensitive diagnosis of numerous severe illnesses. The high surface area available in LDMs makes it possible to immobilize a high density of bioreceptors, improving the sensitivity in biorecognition events between antibodies and antigens. If on the one hand, many works present promising results in using LDMs as a sensing material in EIs, on the other hand, very few of them discuss the fundamental interactions involved at the interfaces. Understanding the fundamental Chemistry and Physics of the interactions between the surface of LDMs and the bioreceptors, and how the operating conditions and biorecognition events affect those interactions, is vital when proposing new devices. Here, we present a review of recent works on EIs, focusing on devices that use LDMs (1D and 2D) as the sensing substrate. To do so, we highlight both experimental and theoretical aspects, bringing to light the fundamental aspects of the main interactions occurring at the interfaces and the operating mechanisms in which the detections are based. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Immunosensor)
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Article
A Simple and Rapid Spectrophotometric Method for Nitrite Detection in Small Sample Volumes
Chemosensors 2021, 9(7), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9070161 - 25 Jun 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1168
Abstract
A simple, rapid, and environmentally-friendly spectrophotometric method for nitrite detection was developed. Detection was based on a redox reaction with iodide ions in an acidic condition. The reaction was evaluated by detecting the increase in absorbance of the colored product of iodine at [...] Read more.
A simple, rapid, and environmentally-friendly spectrophotometric method for nitrite detection was developed. Detection was based on a redox reaction with iodide ions in an acidic condition. The reaction was evaluated by detecting the increase in absorbance of the colored product of iodine at 362 nm wavelength. To obtain a good spectrophotometric performance, the iodide ions concentration, hydrochloric acid concentration, and reaction time were optimized. In the optimal condition, the developed spectrophotometric method provided a linear range of 0.0625 to 4.00 mg L−1 (r = 0.9985), reaction time for 10 min, a limit of detection of 25 µg L−1, and a limit of quantitation of 85 µg L−1. This method showed good repeatability (RSD < 9.21%), high sample throughput (9 samples min−1), and good accuracy (recovery = 88 ± 2 to 99.5 ± 0.4%). The method has the potential to be used in crime scene investigations as a rapid screening test for gunshot residue detection via nitrite detection. Full article
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Article
Bifunctionalized Gold Nanoparticles for the Colorimetric Detection of the Drug γ-Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) in Beverages
Chemosensors 2021, 9(7), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9070160 - 25 Jun 2021
Viewed by 928
Abstract
The increase in the number of drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) cases in recent years has become a major concern. Consequently, there is a need to develop methods for the real-time detection of these substances. We report herein a colorimetric chemosensor for the real-time [...] Read more.
The increase in the number of drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) cases in recent years has become a major concern. Consequently, there is a need to develop methods for the real-time detection of these substances. We report herein a colorimetric chemosensor for the real-time in situ detection of the “date rape” drug GHB. The sensor is based on gold nanoparticles functionalized with both a 2-aminonaphthoxazole and phenanthroline derivative. Its ability to act as “naked-eye” colorimetric sensor for the detection of the drug in soft drinks and alcoholic beverages was studied. The detection process is based on the double recognition of both the hydroxyl and the carboxylate groups present in GHB, which triggers the aggregation of the AuNPs, with the resulting change in the color of the solution. Full article
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Article
Quantitative Assessment of Periodontal Bacteria Using a Cell-Based Immunoassay with Functionalized Quartz Crystal Microbalance
Chemosensors 2021, 9(7), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9070159 - 25 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 753
Abstract
Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disorder that is triggered by bacterial plaque and causes the destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues leading to tooth loss. Several bacteria species, including Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, are considered to be associated with severe periodontal conditions. [...] Read more.
Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disorder that is triggered by bacterial plaque and causes the destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues leading to tooth loss. Several bacteria species, including Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, are considered to be associated with severe periodontal conditions. In this study, we demonstrated a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) immunoassay for quantitative assessment of the periodontal bacteria, A. actinomycetemcomitans. An immunosensor was constructed using a self-assembled monolayer of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (11-MUA) on the gold surface of a QCM chip. The 11-MUA layer was evaluated using a cyclic voltammetry technique to determine its mass and packing density. Next, a monoclonal antibody was covalently linked to 11-MUA using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide to act as the biorecognition element. The specificity of the monoclonal antibody was confirmed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A calibration curve, for the relationship between the frequency shifts and number of bacteria, was used to calculate the number of A. actinomycetemcomitans bacteria in a test sample. Based on a regression equation, the lower detection limit was 800 cells, with a dynamic range up to 2.32 × 106 cells. Thus, the QCM biosensor in this study provides a sensitive and label-free method for quantitative analysis of periodontal bacteria. The method can be used in various biosensing assays for practical application and routine detection of periodontitis pathogens. Full article
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Article
Flexible Wearable Sensors Based in Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Diglycidyl Ether (PEGDGE): Analysis of Strain Sensitivity and Proof of Concept
Chemosensors 2021, 9(7), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9070158 - 25 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1059
Abstract
The electromechanical capabilities of carbon nanotube (CNT) doped poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (PEGDGE) have been explored. In this regard, the effect of both CNT content and curing conditions were analyzed. The electrical conductivity increased both with CNT content and curing temperature due to [...] Read more.
The electromechanical capabilities of carbon nanotube (CNT) doped poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (PEGDGE) have been explored. In this regard, the effect of both CNT content and curing conditions were analyzed. The electrical conductivity increased both with CNT content and curing temperature due to the lower gel time that leads to a lower reaggregation during curing. More specifically, the percolation threshold at 160 and 180 °C curing temperatures is below 0.01 wt.%, and this limit increases up to 0.1 wt.% at 140 °C for an 8 h curing cycle. Moreover, the strain monitoring capabilities were investigated, and the effect of contact resistance was also analyzed. The electrical contacts made with silver ink led to higher values of gauge factor (GF) but presented some issues at very high strains due to their possible detachment during testing. In every case, GF values were far above conventional metallic gauges with a very significant exponential behavior, especially at low CNT content due to a prevalence of tunneling mechanisms. Finally, a proof of concept of fingers and knee motion monitoring was carried out, showing a high sensitivity for human motion sensing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials Based on Bio/Chemical Sensors)
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