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Int. J. Financial Stud., Volume 11, Issue 1 (March 2023) – 52 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Financial crises can result in massive waves of unemployment, decreases in GDP, and negative impacts on all sectors of the economy via ripple effects. This study aimed to determine dominant index prices on the daily stock prices of five large Canadian banks during the last five crises periods from January 1975 to December 2020. The findings indicate that the “price index-financial” out of 23 indexes is the dominant index that has a positive impact on the closing price of banks. The effects of other indexes depend on the investment tools in the portfolios of the banks and type of crises. View this paper
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Article
Do CEO Attributes Spur Conservatism?
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2023, 11(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijfs11010052 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 824
Abstract
This study examines the relationship between chief executive officers’ (CEOs’) characteristics (e.g., tenure, experience, education, age and compensation) and accounting conservatism for a sample of 672 yearly observations from both Jordanian industrial and service companies listed on the Amman Stock Exchange (ASE) during [...] Read more.
This study examines the relationship between chief executive officers’ (CEOs’) characteristics (e.g., tenure, experience, education, age and compensation) and accounting conservatism for a sample of 672 yearly observations from both Jordanian industrial and service companies listed on the Amman Stock Exchange (ASE) during the period 2014–2021. Using feasible generalised least squares, the results show that CEOs with more experience and skills are positively and significantly related to accounting conservatism. Furthermore, consistent with upper-echelon-theory arguments, the findings reveal that CEO tenure is significantly and positively associated with the level of accounting conservatism. The results indicate that CEOs’ education, age and compensation are positively but insignificantly related to accounting conservatism. Overall, this study contributes to the literature by providing evidence of the importance of recognising the effects of CEOs’ characteristics on influencing accounting conservatism in Jordanian industrial and service companies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Corporate Disclosure Practice)
Article
Pricing Multidimensional American Options
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2023, 11(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijfs11010051 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 773
Abstract
A new explicit form is provided for the solution of optimal stopping problems involving a multidimensional geometric Brownian motion. A free-boundary value approach is adopted and the value function is obtained via fundamental solution methods. There are many applications for the valuation of [...] Read more.
A new explicit form is provided for the solution of optimal stopping problems involving a multidimensional geometric Brownian motion. A free-boundary value approach is adopted and the value function is obtained via fundamental solution methods. There are many applications for the valuation of perpetual options of American style, which are of interest for finance and managerial decisions. Full article
Article
The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Volatility of Cryptocurrencies
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2023, 11(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijfs11010050 - 20 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1531
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the interactions between Bitcoin to euro, gold, and STOXX50 during the period of COVID-19. First, a bibliometric analysis based on the R package was applied to highlight the research trends in the field during the period of the [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the interactions between Bitcoin to euro, gold, and STOXX50 during the period of COVID-19. First, a bibliometric analysis based on the R package was applied to highlight the research trends in the field during the period of the COVID-19 pandemic. While investigating the effects of the pandemic on Bitcoin, the number of cases of COVID-19 was used as a proxy. Using daily data for the period 1 March 2020 to 3 March 2020 and based on a vector autoregressive model, impulse response, and variance decomposition were utilized to analyze the dynamic relationships among the variables. The results revealed that the COVID-19 cases and gold hurt the exchange rate of Bitcoin to euro, while there was great volatility regarding the response of Bitcoin to a shock of STOXX50. The Granger causality test was constructed to investigate the relationships among the variables. The results show the presence of unidirectional causality running from new cases to STOXX50 and from STOXX50 to gold. This study contributes to the existing scholarly research into the dynamic relationships that appeared among Bitcoin, gold, and STOXX50 in a period of great uncertainty. Finally, the findings have significant implications for investors, who are interested in diversifying their portfolios. Full article
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Article
Anomalies and Investor Sentiment: International Evidence and the Impact of Size Factor
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2023, 11(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijfs11010049 - 20 Mar 2023
Viewed by 916
Abstract
We examine whether investor sentiment can explain anomalies such as size and book-to-market in the US stock market. Differently from the literature, we test combination portfolios (portfolios formed on more than one factor such as size, book-to-market ratio, etc.) of developed markets for [...] Read more.
We examine whether investor sentiment can explain anomalies such as size and book-to-market in the US stock market. Differently from the literature, we test combination portfolios (portfolios formed on more than one factor such as size, book-to-market ratio, etc.) of developed markets for the same purpose. We find that sentiment is related to some anomalies in Europe, Japan, North America and global portfolios; hence, the sentiment and anomaly relationship may be universal. In addition, when size factor is controlled, the explanatory power of sentiment in anomaly returns changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Asset Pricing, Investments and Portfolio Management)
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Article
Does Audit Committee Busyness Impact Audit Report Lag?
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2023, 11(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijfs11010048 - 18 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1032
Abstract
We investigate the effects of both the busyness of audit committee (AC) members and the busyness of audit committee chairs on audit report lag (ARL) among Saudi non-financial firms between 2018 and 2021. In this study, a sample comprising a total of 515 [...] Read more.
We investigate the effects of both the busyness of audit committee (AC) members and the busyness of audit committee chairs on audit report lag (ARL) among Saudi non-financial firms between 2018 and 2021. In this study, a sample comprising a total of 515 firm-year observations from 140 non-financial firms was used. Measures for the busyness of the AC members and AC chairs, as well as a measure for the ARL, were derived from the previous literature to examine these relationships in Saudi Arabia. Our findings, based on two regression models and random effect estimates, suggest that both the busyness of AC members and the busyness of the AC chairs have positive and significant effects on the ARL. In addition, robustness checks using a different measurement of ARL as well as tests for fixed effect and pooled ordinary least square (OLS) were conducted, and the results confirm our findings. Finally, our findings can help regulators, policymakers, and auditors improve the timeliness of financial information disclosure by Saudi non-financial firms, and they can be expanded to include Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) nations. Full article
Article
The Empirical Explanatory Power of CAPM and the Fama and French Three-Five Factor Models in the Moroccan Stock Exchange
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2023, 11(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijfs11010047 - 14 Mar 2023
Viewed by 761
Abstract
This study empirically tests and compares the performances of three famous financial asset valuation models in the Moroccan stock exchange: CAPM, the Fama and French three-factor model, and the Fama and French five-factor model. Our sample considers monthly data covering the sample period [...] Read more.
This study empirically tests and compares the performances of three famous financial asset valuation models in the Moroccan stock exchange: CAPM, the Fama and French three-factor model, and the Fama and French five-factor model. Our sample considers monthly data covering the sample period of July 2002 to June 2020. The main findings reveal that the GRS test typically rejects each of the examined model. On the basis of our analysis, we find that the value effect is more pronounced than the size effect. However, profitability and investment effects are almost absent. Regarding the factor spanning tests, the results show that the value factor was not redundant. Beyond this, the size and investment factors are the redundant factors. In Morocco, the market factor is the most powerful factor, perhaps assisted by value and profitability factors. Although the CAPM performs poorly in capturing the variation in Moroccan returns, the market factor continues to play an important role, even after adding other factors. Overall, all the tested models were improved slightly, but leave part of the variation in Moroccan stock returns unexplained. Full article
Article
A Combined AHP-PROMETHEE Approach for Portfolio Performance Comparison
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2023, 11(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijfs11010046 - 13 Mar 2023
Viewed by 920
Abstract
Comparing portfolio performance is complex due to the fact that each model is dominant in its own risk space. Since there is no single dominant performance measure, the research problem is how to incorporate several different measures into a performance evaluation model that [...] Read more.
Comparing portfolio performance is complex due to the fact that each model is dominant in its own risk space. Since there is no single dominant performance measure, the research problem is how to incorporate several different measures into a performance evaluation model that allows portfolios to be ranked. In this regard, the objective of this study was to develop a new comprehensive method for comparing portfolio performance based on multiple-criteria decision-making (MCDM). This paper proposes an integrated approach for stock market decision making that combines the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and the Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations (PROMETHEE), which allow hierarchical evaluation of a finite number of alternatives according to different criteria. This hybrid approach is especially advantageous, utilizing the strengths of both individual methods. AHP enables the decomposition of a complex problem into its constituent parts and the determination of weights for criteria, while the PROMETHEE method allows the investor to determine the preference function, complete ranking, and analysis of the robustness of the results. For the MCDM model in this study, different dimensions of performance measures are considered criteria: return measures, risk measures, stability measures, and predictability measures. The methodology has been applied in comparing real portfolios selected on the basis of different risk measures. For this purpose, weekly return data were used for a sample of stocks that are components of the STOXX Europe 600 Index for the period 2000–2020. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed to investigate the strength of the results of this method. It suggests that the simultaneous consideration of different performance measures and the investor’s attitude towards the importance of these measures are notably important in the portfolio efficiency estimation process. Full article
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Article
Relationship between Capital Structure and Firm Profitability: Evidence from Vietnamese Listed Companies
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2023, 11(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijfs11010045 - 08 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1487
Abstract
This research focused on exploring capital structure that would have an impact on the Vietnamese company’s profitability. Theoretically, we apply agency theory which mentions the separation of ownership and management, which leads to the problem when the managers act in their own interests [...] Read more.
This research focused on exploring capital structure that would have an impact on the Vietnamese company’s profitability. Theoretically, we apply agency theory which mentions the separation of ownership and management, which leads to the problem when the managers act in their own interests rather than the owner’s interest. We built a research model, and the quantitative data was clarified thanks to the regression model with the data given by 300 Vietnamese firms for the period from 2012 to 2018. The findings indicated that firm profitability, represented by Return on Equity (ROE) and Return on Assets (ROA), was associated with liquidity and debt. In detail, it was indicated that there would be a positive relationship between liquidity and profitability of Vietnamese entrepreneurs, while there was a negative relationship between long-term debt and profit maximization. Moreover, the short-term loan also has a positive impact on the firm’s profitability in the context of Vietnam. These preliminary outcomes negated some previous research, confirming that the higher the leverage, the better the firm’s profitability. The difference in findings may provide information about a dynamic Vietnam market as well as the financial environment that require changes in the capital structure to gain the optimal profit. Full article
Article
Information Technology Governance and Bank Performance: A Situational Approach
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2023, 11(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijfs11010044 - 07 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 981
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to provide empirical evidence about the effect of organizational competition (OC) as a contextual factor on the relationship between the effectiveness of information technology governance (ITG), which informs accounting information systems, and the [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to provide empirical evidence about the effect of organizational competition (OC) as a contextual factor on the relationship between the effectiveness of information technology governance (ITG), which informs accounting information systems, and the financial performance of banks. Financial performance is identified by return on investment (ROI), return on equity (ROE), and Tobin’s Q. Averages of these variables were calculated for five years from 2015 to 2019. In fact, there is evidence for the general argument that banks will improve their performance by implementing ITG. Specifically speaking, the basic idea presented in this study is that the relation between ITG and bank performance depends on the appropriate interaction and matching between ITG and the OC. The study population includes the senior managers of banks in Jordan. Accordingly, a questionnaire consisting of 16 paragraphs was developed and distributed to senior managers in 23 banks during January to May 2021. As a result, 142 valid questionnaires were collected, which represented 61.7% of the questionnaires expected to be collected. Data are analyzed and processed by using descriptive statistical measures, t-test, exploratory factor analysis, along with multiple regression. The results show that despite the significant effect of OC on ITG, no relation exists between the interaction of ITG and OC, and bank performance in the three proxies of performance. The results of the study suggest that either banks do not benefit from ITG to improve their performance or that the chief executive officers’ perceptions about ITG in their banks is erroneous. However, it should be clarified that the respondents could have been affected by their values and beliefs when evaluating effective ITG use in their banks. Full article
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Article
Do Technological Innovation and Financial Development Affect Inequality? Evidence from BRICS Countries
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2023, 11(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijfs11010043 - 06 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1167
Abstract
While technological innovation and financial development are broadly credited as important drivers of economic growth of developed nations, their impact on inequality (especially in emerging economies) remains understudied. Thus, the objective of this study is to investigate the impact of technological innovation and [...] Read more.
While technological innovation and financial development are broadly credited as important drivers of economic growth of developed nations, their impact on inequality (especially in emerging economies) remains understudied. Thus, the objective of this study is to investigate the impact of technological innovation and financial development on income inequality in BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) countries using panel dynamic ordinary least squares (PDOLS) and panel fully modified ordinary least squares (PFMOLS) with annual data sourced from the Standardized World Income Inequality Database, International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank (1990–2017). The results suggest that technological innovation increases income inequality in the BRICS nations, while financial development has an income reducing effect on inequality. Our results are robust, using alternative estimation with various sub-indicators of financial development (such as financial markets and financial institution), including other measures proxied by access to credit provided by commercial banks. The study’s results have important implications for policy and practice in the BRICS countries. By providing a nuanced understanding of the relationship between technological innovation, financial development and inequality, the study will inform the design and implementation of policies aimed at reducing inequality and promoting inclusive growth in these emerging economies. Full article
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Article
Digital Money Options for the BRICS
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2023, 11(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijfs11010042 - 02 Mar 2023
Viewed by 3874
Abstract
The article is time relevant, since a number of countries, such as China and Russia, started pilot testing their digital currencies in 2020, due to the necessity of contactless means of payment during the coronavirus pandemic. The purpose of this research is to [...] Read more.
The article is time relevant, since a number of countries, such as China and Russia, started pilot testing their digital currencies in 2020, due to the necessity of contactless means of payment during the coronavirus pandemic. The purpose of this research is to revisit the phenomenon of the virtual money. What is new here is that this is one of the first papers concentrated on a digital currency for a group of countries. The article offers an econometric representation of how the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) currency may be utilized when hypothetically coined on a crypto-exchange of the BRICS monetary union. This research contains data condensed in a table and graphical form. The major idea of this article is that only a digital unit of account for a group of countries such as the BRICS, unlike a cryptocurrency, may help create a sustainable financial stability environment and solid monetary infrastructure. The author conducts a detailed analysis of a digital currency compared to a cryptocurrency. The hypothesis is that a shared digital currency for the BRICS may promote financial risk diversification through a risk-sharing mechanism. The author’s results include a formula that may provide a way of calculating the quantity of the BRICS’ digital currency, as well as a simulated representation of a would-be BRICS currency’s dynamics. The practical significance of this paper is that the proposed BRICS digital currency can find its use in investment portfolios as an asset. This asset may provide stable returns and benefit from the growth prospects of the BRICS economies as ones of the most rapidly developing markets in the world. Potential investors in the currency of the union may profit from the abundance of natural resources of Brazil, Russia, and South Africa in terms of energy and other minerals offered at the best world market prices, as well as the technology, labor, and durable goods of India and China priced at competitive valuations. The assets expressed in the BRICS currency have the potential of growing over the years, so a dollar invested today may turn an enormous return on investment within this decade, unlike stagnant markets in Europe, Japan, and the US. The author proves that a cryptocurrency cannot serve a shared currency function for the BRICS, and it stresses the very significance of circulating the shared digital currency in particular. Finally, the author simulates the dynamics of the BRICS’ digital currency and proposes an approach to calculating its exchange rate relative to some of the leading currencies in the international monetary system. Full article
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Article
Value Relevance of Board Attributes: The Mediating Role of Key Audit Matter
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2023, 11(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijfs11010041 - 28 Feb 2023
Viewed by 871
Abstract
The presence of board members with good governance attributes is value-relevant since it influences investors’ investment decisions. The value relevance is expected to improve with the newly introduced extended audit report to disclose key audit matters (KAMs). KAM disclosure provides information about issues [...] Read more.
The presence of board members with good governance attributes is value-relevant since it influences investors’ investment decisions. The value relevance is expected to improve with the newly introduced extended audit report to disclose key audit matters (KAMs). KAM disclosure provides information about issues faced by external auditors in the auditing of a company’s financial statement. Since the disclosure of KAM involves discussion and negotiation between the board and external auditor, it gives an indication that board value relevance can be affected by KAM disclosure. Using 931 firm-year observations from firms listed on the Bursa Malaysia between 2016 and 2019, this study re-examined the value relevance of the board and whether such value relevance improves with the disclosure of KAMs. The findings indicated that some board attributes influenced investors’ reactions negatively. The disclosure of KAM served as both an indirect mediator and a complementary mediator to increase the board’s value relevance. Investors reacted less negatively with KAM disclosure and companies’ values improved. The findings provide an insight into the role of KAM disclosure in reducing information asymmetry and assisting investors in making investment decisions. The findings support policymakers’ decisions to mandate the implementation of ISA 701, which requires the disclosure of KAMs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Corporate Disclosure Practice)
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Article
Cryptocurrencies and Long-Range Trends
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2023, 11(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijfs11010040 - 27 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1062
Abstract
In this study we investigate possible long-range trends in the cryptocurrency market. We employed the Hurst exponent in a sample covering the period from 1 January 2016 to 26 March 2021. We calculated the Hurst exponent in three non-overlapping consecutive windows and in [...] Read more.
In this study we investigate possible long-range trends in the cryptocurrency market. We employed the Hurst exponent in a sample covering the period from 1 January 2016 to 26 March 2021. We calculated the Hurst exponent in three non-overlapping consecutive windows and in the whole sample. Using these windows, we assessed the dynamic evolution in the structure and long-range trend behavior of the cryptocurrency market and evaluated possible changes in their behavior towards an efficient market. The innovation of this research is that we employ the Hurst exponent to identify the long-range properties, a tool that is seldomly used in analysis of this market. Furthermore, the use of both the R/S and the DFA analysis and the use of non-overlapping windows enhance our research’s novelty. Finally, we estimated the Hurst exponent for a wide sample of cryptocurrencies that covered more than 80% of the entire market for the last six years. The empirical results reveal that the returns follow a random walk making it difficult to accurately forecast them. Full article
Article
The Role of Liquidity Creation in Managing the COVID-19 Banking Crisis in Selected Mena Countries
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2023, 11(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijfs11010039 - 24 Feb 2023
Viewed by 851
Abstract
Banks are financial intermediaries who transform deposits into loans. Banks in the MENA (Middle East and North Africa) region use large deposits from oil companies and big businesses to finance trade, and fund government and private sector infrastructure projects. The role of banks [...] Read more.
Banks are financial intermediaries who transform deposits into loans. Banks in the MENA (Middle East and North Africa) region use large deposits from oil companies and big businesses to finance trade, and fund government and private sector infrastructure projects. The role of banks in financing trade and development is significant as undeveloped capital markets are unable to perform this function. During the COVID-19 crisis, banks sustained liquidity shocks, as deposits were withdrawn to meet personal and business needs. Essentially, banks could not make loans, as the funds to make loans were depleted. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of liquidity creation as a main force, in conjunction with other performance predictors such as efficient asset management, asset quality, and bank size, on bank financial performance, either individually or in conjunction with liquidity creation during the COVID-19 financial crisis. We used bank financial data from a sample of 298 banks from 11 countries in the MENA region, including Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Qatar, Bahrain, Oman, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Jordan, and Israel, from 2020 to2021. Liquidity creation, efficient asset management, asset quality, and bank size increased bank return on assets and return on equity. Bank size and asset quality acted jointly with liquidity creation to increase return on assets and increase return on equity. We conclude that as liquidity creation acts individually, and in conjunction with asset quality and bank size to increase bank profits, both its main effect and its moderated effect, can maintain bank profitability, during periods of extreme liquidity supply shocks, such as the COVID-19 crisis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corporate Finance)
Article
GALSTM-FDP: A Time-Series Modeling Approach Using Hybrid GA and LSTM for Financial Distress Prediction
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2023, 11(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijfs11010038 - 21 Feb 2023
Viewed by 834
Abstract
Despite the obvious benefits and growing popularity of Machine Learning (ML) technology, there are still concerns regarding its ability to provide Financial Distress Prediction (FDP). An accurate FDP model is required to avoid financial risk at the lowest possible cost. However, in the [...] Read more.
Despite the obvious benefits and growing popularity of Machine Learning (ML) technology, there are still concerns regarding its ability to provide Financial Distress Prediction (FDP). An accurate FDP model is required to avoid financial risk at the lowest possible cost. However, in the Internet era, financial data are exploding, and they are being coupled with other kinds of risk data, making an FDP model challenging to operate. As a result, researchers presented several novel FDP models based on ML and Deep Learning. Time series data is are important to reflect the multi-source and heterogeneous aspects of financial data. This paper gives insight into building a time-series model and forecasting distress far in advance of its occurrence. To build an efficient FDP model, we provide a hybrid model (GALSTM-FDP) that incorporates LSTM and GA. Unlike other previous studies, which established models that predicted distress probability only within one year, our approach predicts distress two years ahead. This research integrates GA with LSTM to find the optimum hyperparameter configuration for LSTM. Using GA, we focus on optimizing architectural aspects for modeling the optimal network based on prediction accuracy. The results showed that our algorithm outperforms other state-of-the-art methods in terms of predictive accuracy. Full article
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Article
Financial Market Participation and Retirement Age of the UK Population
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2023, 11(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijfs11010037 - 20 Feb 2023
Viewed by 738
Abstract
Recently, many papers have shown evidence of a positive association between financial market participation and wealth holdings. It is often claimed that individuals with a higher level of financial market participation exhibit a higher propensity for planning retirement. In their planning process, individuals [...] Read more.
Recently, many papers have shown evidence of a positive association between financial market participation and wealth holdings. It is often claimed that individuals with a higher level of financial market participation exhibit a higher propensity for planning retirement. In their planning process, individuals seek to achieve an optimal wealth level before their retirement by considering both their average saving rate and their retirement age. In this paper, we tested whether UK individuals with a higher level of financial market participation and, therefore, with a higher propensity for planning retirement were more likely to delay their retirement age than individuals with lower financial participation. On the basis of regression analyses using the English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA) database for waves 1–6, our results support the hypothesis of a positive relationship between financial market participation and retirement age, reinforcing previous results. Full article
Article
Corporate Governance Effects on Bank Profits in Gulf Cooperation Council Countries during the Pandemic
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2023, 11(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijfs11010036 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1076
Abstract
During the COVID-19 lockdown, the typical bank in the Middle East lost liquidity due to deposit drains and experienced increases in nonperforming loans. The loss of liquidity was a supply shock, while the increase in nonperforming loans was a demand shock. Corporate governance [...] Read more.
During the COVID-19 lockdown, the typical bank in the Middle East lost liquidity due to deposit drains and experienced increases in nonperforming loans. The loss of liquidity was a supply shock, while the increase in nonperforming loans was a demand shock. Corporate governance increases the board’s oversight of top management’s implementation of strategies to reduce these shocks. Two corporate governance measures include a political concentration in the ownership and the presence of independent directors on the board of directors. Politically connected shareholders can ensure the continuous flow of deposits through their access to large depositors, thereby reducing supply shocks. Supply shocks may also be overcome by the large deposit balances from oil wealth. Independent directors are not employees of the banks on whose boards they serve, thereby providing objective evaluations of management’s performance. Managers who are evaluated by independent directors can reduce nonperforming loans by strictly evaluating the creditworthiness of borrowers and providing incentives for timely repayment. Thus, demand shocks may be overcome by the scrutiny of management by independent directors. These conditions prevail in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries). Using a sample of 326 GCC banks, we perform OLS regressions followed by two-stage least squares and GMM estimator robustness checks of ownership’s political concentration, independent directors, bank size, and bank liquidity on returns on assets and equity. Ownership political concentration, independent directors, bank size, and liquidity ratio significantly explained the return on assets and on equity. We conclude that large shareholders use political connections to cope with crises and that large banks are able to make new loans due to liquidity from large reserves. Independent directors evaluate management performance objectively, thereby requiring that management reduce nonperforming loans. We close research gaps of bank performance in GCC countries, as opposed to the entire MENA region, the latter being the focus of the literature. The significance of this paper is that it demonstrates the ability of banks to employ corporate governance to cope with crises. This is an original approach, as it seeks the outcome of a positive signal on bank performance of the reduction in the supply shock through ownership political concentration and reduction in the demand shock by independent directors. As corporate governance variables mitigate both shocks, corporate governance may assist banks in coping with liquidity crises. Full article
Article
Nexus between Macroeconomic Factors and Corporate Investment: Empirical Evidence from GCC Markets
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2023, 11(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijfs11010035 - 15 Feb 2023
Viewed by 998
Abstract
The current study aims to explore the role of various macroeconomic factors in determining corporate investment. Using firm-level data of six Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region countries for a 14 year period (2007–2020), the current study establishes the empirical analysis by employing the [...] Read more.
The current study aims to explore the role of various macroeconomic factors in determining corporate investment. Using firm-level data of six Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region countries for a 14 year period (2007–2020), the current study establishes the empirical analysis by employing the system generalized method of moments (GMM) technique. The empirical results reveal the negative impact of foreign direct investment whilst the positive impact of economic growth, financial development, and inflation rate on corporate investment decisions. Due to high market competition, foreign direct investment can hamper the growth of domestic industrial sectors. However, economic growth, financial development, and inflation rate positively drive the investment by enhancing the demand for industrial products, cheap financing, and price appreciation effect on production enrichment respectively. Based on results, it is suggested that corporate managers should consider the economic sensitivity of investment. The novelty of study can be listed, as the current analysis presents the dynamic role of various economic factors in determining the corporate investment decisions specifically in GCC region countries. Full article
Article
Does the Level of Enforcement Shape the Complexity in Accounting Standards?
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2023, 11(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijfs11010034 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 810
Abstract
This paper examines whether the level of enforcement shapes the complexity in accounting standards. First, in order to identify the level of complexity in accounting standards, we calculated a new measure that conceptualizes accounting complexity based on the theoretical dimensions of multiplicity and [...] Read more.
This paper examines whether the level of enforcement shapes the complexity in accounting standards. First, in order to identify the level of complexity in accounting standards, we calculated a new measure that conceptualizes accounting complexity based on the theoretical dimensions of multiplicity and diversity. To calculate this new measure, the content of each International Financial Reporting Standard and International Accounting Standard, in 2018, was analyzed. Second, we investigated whether the level of enforcement affects this score, using the number of enforcements published by the European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA). Our results show that accounting standards with a higher number of enforcements by ESMA are also more complex, suggesting that enforcement is an important factor that explains the level of complexity of an accounting standard. This study is particularly relevant for regulators in the accounting, auditing, and enforcement fields, since it provides evidence of how enforcement contributes to increasing the level of complexity of accounting standards. This study contributes to the debate on the interdependence of enforcement and accounting regulation, showing that enforcement mechanisms can influence accounting standards. This study also calculates a new measure of complexity in accounting standards, rather than using a quantitative proxy. Full article
Article
The Effects of Service Quality Performance on Customer Satisfaction for Non-Banking Financial Institutions in an Emerging Economy
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2023, 11(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijfs11010033 - 15 Feb 2023
Viewed by 2171
Abstract
This study aims to explore the effects of service-quality dimensions on the customer satisfaction of non-banking financial institutions in an emerging economy by adopting the renowned SERVPERF model. To verify the proposed model, data was collected from thirteen non-banking financial institutions in Bangladesh [...] Read more.
This study aims to explore the effects of service-quality dimensions on the customer satisfaction of non-banking financial institutions in an emerging economy by adopting the renowned SERVPERF model. To verify the proposed model, data was collected from thirteen non-banking financial institutions in Bangladesh using a questionnaire survey with a purposive random sampling method. Through the Smart PLS 2 software, the partial least squares structural equation modelling approach was used to analyze the collected data. Research findings reveal that, among the six dimensions of the revised SERVPERF model, assurance, reliability, responsiveness and tangibility have significant effects on customer satisfaction, but accessibility and empathy do not for the non-banking financial institutions in Bangladesh. According to the research results, implications and suggestions have been discussed for non-banking financial institution managers. Full article
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Article
Efficiency of the Islamic Banking Sector: Evidence from Two-Stage DEA Double Frontiers Analysis
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2023, 11(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijfs11010032 - 14 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1284
Abstract
This paper examines the multi-dimensional efficiency of the Islamic banking sector and its determinants, including the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. To do that, we use a novel approach of two-stage data envelopment analysis (DEA) double frontiers to evaluate the overall efficiency of [...] Read more.
This paper examines the multi-dimensional efficiency of the Islamic banking sector and its determinants, including the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. To do that, we use a novel approach of two-stage data envelopment analysis (DEA) double frontiers to evaluate the overall efficiency of 79 Islamic banks across 16 countries (2005–2020). In the first-stage analysis, we found that the Islamic banking sector experienced an increasing trend in its efficiency and performance, even during the recent pandemic, although it varied across banks and countries. Our empirical results of the second-stage analysis further showed that economic development can help countries both withstand the recent pandemic and improve the efficiency and performance of their (Islamic) banking system. This, in turn, could help speed up the recovery process of the global economy. Since there is evidence that the Islamic banking sector is resilient to the COVID-19 pandemic, it is expected that this sector will be a driving force of such recovery. Full article
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Article
Behavior of Banks’ Stock Market Prices during Long-Term Crises
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2023, 11(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijfs11010031 - 06 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1651
Abstract
Countries are drastically impacted by financial and fiscal crises. Financial crises have the worst impact on not only society, but also the economy. The Canadian economy underwent financial crises and recessions several times during the last century. In this paper, daily closing stock [...] Read more.
Countries are drastically impacted by financial and fiscal crises. Financial crises have the worst impact on not only society, but also the economy. The Canadian economy underwent financial crises and recessions several times during the last century. In this paper, daily closing stock prices of five large Canadian banks were studied during the last five crisis periods. It is aimed to determine the most effective or dominant index prices on the daily closing stock price of the banks during the crisis periods. The five periods were selected from secondary data from January 1975 to December 2020 by using the graphs and the crises in the literature. Multiple linear regression was performed to analyze the impact of price indexes during crisis periods. Findings show that “price index—financials” had a positive impact on the daily closing price of banks during the last five economic crises in Canada. Since the banks have different investment tools in their portfolio, the impacts of price indexes on the daily closing prices depend on these portfolios, which ultimately could have led to the economic crises. Full article
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Article
How Do Stock Market Development and Competitiveness Affect Equity Risk Premium? Implications from World Economies
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2023, 11(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijfs11010030 - 02 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1379
Abstract
Purpose: This paper examines the interrelatedness between countries’ stock market development and competitiveness and the equity risk premium (hereinafter, ERP). In addition, this paper examines the length of time that stock market development takes to have an impact of ERP. The [...] Read more.
Purpose: This paper examines the interrelatedness between countries’ stock market development and competitiveness and the equity risk premium (hereinafter, ERP). In addition, this paper examines the length of time that stock market development takes to have an impact of ERP. The results offer an empirical guide to stock market authorities about the robust factors that help reduce ERP, which, in turn, encourages raising equity financing. Design/methodology: The dataset includes 59 countries that are listed in the market potential index (hereinafter, MPI) covering the years 1996 to 2020. The MPI provides comprehensive macroeconomic factors that can be used for examining stock market competitiveness and, thus, its potential effects on ERP. Findings: The results of the robustness test show that (a) a negative and significant association exists between the turnover ratio of domestic shares to stocks traded and ERP, (b) the increases in stock market competitiveness are associated with increases in the number of listed companies, (c) lowly ranked countries in the MPI are associated with increasing ERP, and (d) in terms of the interaction between duration of stock market development and competitiveness, the relatively competitive stock markets take 2–6 years for stock market development indicators to have a significant effect on ERP. Originality: This paper offers two main contributions to the related literature. The first contribution is to offer a measure of stock market competitiveness using indicators of stock market development. Therefore, robust indicators of stock market development can be reached. The second contribution is to offer empirical results about the length of time (referred to in this paper as duration) required for the indicators of stock market development to have a favorable effect on ERP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cross-Correlation Analysis in Financial Markets)
Article
Analyzing the Relationship between the Features of Direct Real Estate Assets and Their Corresponding Australian—REITs
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2023, 11(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijfs11010029 - 01 Feb 2023
Viewed by 860
Abstract
This study investigated the relationship between a sector-specific Australian Real Estate Investment Trust (A-REITs) and the underlying property assets in its property portfolio. The existing studies have assessed the connectedness/correlation between the A-REITs market and a variety of other asset markets, including the [...] Read more.
This study investigated the relationship between a sector-specific Australian Real Estate Investment Trust (A-REITs) and the underlying property assets in its property portfolio. The existing studies have assessed the connectedness/correlation between the A-REITs market and a variety of other asset markets, including the overall stock, bond, and direct real estate markets. This study applied regression analysis methods and discovered that there exists a certain degree of linear correlation between the underlying property assets and the return of the subject A-REITs. The most significant variable is the occupancy of the offices. The higher the occupancy is, the better the dividend can be. Features of the A-REITs also affect the dividend outcomes, specifically, the total portfolio market value and the capitalization rate. This suggests that the annual valuation outcomes show a positive relation with the performance of the A-REITs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cross-Correlation Analysis in Financial Markets)
Article
The Efficiency of Indonesian Pension Funds: A Two-Stage Additive Network DEA Approach
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2023, 11(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijfs11010028 - 01 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1385
Abstract
Employer pension funds (EPFs) manage funds contributed by their members and sponsors with the ultimate goal of providing adequate pension benefits for beneficiaries upon retirement. The critical issue for EPFs is, therefore, their efficiency. This study aims to investigate Indonesian EPFs’ technical efficiency [...] Read more.
Employer pension funds (EPFs) manage funds contributed by their members and sponsors with the ultimate goal of providing adequate pension benefits for beneficiaries upon retirement. The critical issue for EPFs is, therefore, their efficiency. This study aims to investigate Indonesian EPFs’ technical efficiency and its determinants using data from 38 EPFs actively operating in 2011–2017. By conceptualizing EPFs’ management processes as a network, this study employs the two-stage additive network data envelopment analysis (DEA) to measure the performance of EPFs based on their overall efficiency, operational efficiency, and investment efficiency. A regression analysis is then performed to examine the determinants of EPFs’ efficiency. The results reveal that investment efficiency is the main source of EPFs’ overall inefficiency, implying that more attention should be directed towards investment management when the EPFs seek to improve their overall performance. The regression analysis shows that size and ownership are the most significant factors that determine EPFs’ efficiency. Ownership positively correlates with both overall efficiency and investment efficiency, while size negatively affects investment efficiency. This study concludes that in order to improve their overall performance, EPFs need to make more efforts in investment management, while accounting for size and ownership as important determinants. This study provides a projection analysis model as a practical guidline for EPFs to improve their performance. Full article
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Article
Maize Productivity and Household Welfare Impacts of Mobile Money Usage in Tanzania
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2023, 11(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijfs11010027 - 31 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 942
Abstract
This study examined the determinants and impacts of mobile money (MM) usage on maize productivity and poverty likelihood (i.e., the probability of a household falling below the international poverty line at USD 1.9 per capita per day) in the Mbeya Region, Tanzania. The [...] Read more.
This study examined the determinants and impacts of mobile money (MM) usage on maize productivity and poverty likelihood (i.e., the probability of a household falling below the international poverty line at USD 1.9 per capita per day) in the Mbeya Region, Tanzania. The analysis was conducted using the endogenous switching regression (ESR) model on data from a random sample of 1310 households selected from seven districts in the region. Results of the ESR estimation show that MM usage is strongly and positively associated with the education level of the household head, asset ownership, credit access, input access, and social networks. MM usage is also significantly associated with increased maize productivity and a reduced poverty likelihood. Farmers who chose to use MM services increased their maize productivity by about 124 kg/acre and reduced their poverty likelihood by nearly 25 percentage points, as measured by the progress out of poverty index. These findings call for a targeted approach to reaching and supporting MM usage among households with constrained access to formal financial services to increase maize productivity and reduce poverty likelihood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Financial Inclusion)
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Article
The Symmetric and Asymmetric Effect of Remittances on Financial Development: Evidence from South Africa
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2023, 11(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijfs11010026 - 30 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1018
Abstract
Investigating the remittance-financial development relationship is an ongoing endeavor among economists and policy makers. Building and improving on the existing work, this study considers the possibility that the relation between remittances and financial development is potentially asymmetric. This study applies the linear ARDL [...] Read more.
Investigating the remittance-financial development relationship is an ongoing endeavor among economists and policy makers. Building and improving on the existing work, this study considers the possibility that the relation between remittances and financial development is potentially asymmetric. This study applies the linear ARDL and captures the possibility of an asymmetrical relationship by applying the non-linear Autoregressive Model (NARDL). Using NARDL, an attempt is made to estimate the short-run and long-run asymmetric responses of financial development through positive and negative partial sum decompositions of changes in remittances. To assess the robustness of the ARDL and NARDL estimates, a battery of long-run robustness tests were employed, including the linear and nonlinear versions of the fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS). Annual data series from 1980 to 2017, derived from the World Development Indicators, Fred Economic data and Penn World Tables were used for this study. The ARDL results reveal a positive and significant impact of remittances on financial development, whereas NARDL estimations suggest a both positive and negative shock of remittances on financial development in the long run: a percentage (%) increase in the remittances brings about 0.121568 percent increase in financial development, whereas a one-percent decrease in remittances produces a 0.33363 percent decrease in financial development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Financial Inclusion)
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Article
Increasing Income Generation: The Role of Staff Participation and Awareness
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2023, 11(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijfs11010025 - 30 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1260
Abstract
The policy of educational autonomy through legal entity state universities is a very interesting issue. Universities have the authority to manage finances and collect additional income, specifically generated income. Its successful implementation also provides more significant income to everyone in the institution through [...] Read more.
The policy of educational autonomy through legal entity state universities is a very interesting issue. Universities have the authority to manage finances and collect additional income, specifically generated income. Its successful implementation also provides more significant income to everyone in the institution through greater incentives, thereby helping to improve the economic conditions of staff, institutions, and all academics. This study examines the empirical evidence of factors influencing university income-generating performance. This study presents the direct and indirect effects of staff awareness, staff participation, and top management support on income-generating performance. This research used a quantitative approach utilizing the structural equation model with WarpPLS. A questionnaire-based survey collected 111 valid responses. Surveys were distributed to the appointed persons in charge of each unit, faculty, and university. The results show that staff awareness influences top management support. Top management support also affects income-generating performance, so it impacts the role of top management support, which can mediate the influence of managers’ awareness on income-generating performance. On the other hand, staff participation cannot influence top management support and income-generating performance. This means that top management support cannot mediate the effect of staff participation on income-generating performance. Full article
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Article
Retirement Income and Financial Market Participation in New Zealand
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2023, 11(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijfs11010024 - 30 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1026
Abstract
Using New Zealand Household Economic Survey (HES) 2018 data, we examine the impact of direct financial market participation post-retirement on retirement income in New Zealand. Our results demonstrate the importance of post-retirement financial market participation in the enhancement of retirees’ financial well-being. We [...] Read more.
Using New Zealand Household Economic Survey (HES) 2018 data, we examine the impact of direct financial market participation post-retirement on retirement income in New Zealand. Our results demonstrate the importance of post-retirement financial market participation in the enhancement of retirees’ financial well-being. We conclude that retirees who participate in the financial market enjoy a 78% increase in overall annuitised net wealth; further analysis also reveals a substantial 154% increase if government pensions are excluded from calculations of annuitised net wealth. Moreover, these retiree participants also show higher probabilities of financial-situation satisfaction. These results highlight the significant contribution to retirement income of direct financial market participation. Our paper sheds extra light on issues related to retirement financial well-being and has important implications for policy makers in New Zealand. Full article
Article
Examining the Effects of Big Data Analytics Capabilities on Firm Performance in the Malaysian Banking Sector
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2023, 11(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijfs11010023 - 28 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1145
Abstract
Banks’ primary goal is to gain profit for survival and to thrive. Therefore, they have to take various measures, such as data analysis, to maintain their sustainable competitiveness. Along with the rapid development of information technology, big data analytics capabilities (BDAC) is considered [...] Read more.
Banks’ primary goal is to gain profit for survival and to thrive. Therefore, they have to take various measures, such as data analysis, to maintain their sustainable competitiveness. Along with the rapid development of information technology, big data analytics capabilities (BDAC) is considered essential for banks in the highly dynamic market. To gain an in-depth understanding of the economic importance of BDAC in the banking sector in Malaysia, this research examines the relationship between BDAC and firm performance (i.e., market performance and operational performance) based on the resource-based view (RBV) and the contingent resource-based view (CRBV). The partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) was adopted to analyse the collected data from 162 bank managers in Malaysia. The findings verify that BDAC is composed of seven tangible/intangible resources and human skills, and it significantly influences firm performance in the banking sector. Full article
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