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Languages, Volume 7, Issue 1 (March 2022) – 70 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Humans use a range of cues to communicate their feelings, including facial expressions (i.e., visual modality) and vocalizations (i.e., auditory modality). When perceiving the emotions of others, Westerners tend to rely more on the visual modality, while Easterners tend to rely more on the auditory modality. We examined whether the amount of daily exposure to a new culture and length of cultural immersion influence the way multisensory emotions are perceived in bilinguals who immigrated to the United States from China. Here, we show that daily exposure to new cultural norms increases the likelihood of adopting the modality interference pattern of the new culture, while increased length of immersion leads to similar patterns between old Eastern and new Western cultures. We conclude that cultural experience and migration influence multisensory emotion processing in bilinguals. View this paper
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Article
Approaching Composition as Showing–Telling through Translanguaging: Weaving Multilingualism, Multimodality, and Multiliteracies in a Digital Collage Proyecto Final
Languages 2022, 7(1), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7010070 - 21 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1289
Abstract
Couched in theories of translanguaging, multimodality, and multiliteracies, this article explores digital compositions (i.e., digital collages) as spaces for identity representation through the proyectos finales produced by 22 students in a Spanish composition class for heritage/native speakers in a U.S. university. Each digital [...] Read more.
Couched in theories of translanguaging, multimodality, and multiliteracies, this article explores digital compositions (i.e., digital collages) as spaces for identity representation through the proyectos finales produced by 22 students in a Spanish composition class for heritage/native speakers in a U.S. university. Each digital collage was accompanied by two written documents: one describing the processes leading to its creation, and another one explaining the meaning of the collage and its components. Qualitative content analysis was used to investigate the submissions, with particular attention paid to instances of identity, experience, and self-representation through complex orchestrations of flexible multilingual and multimodal meaning- and sense-making. The proyecto final is discussed in terms of the curricular innovation for courses designed for racialized language-minoritized multilingual students, describing the nature and affordances of translanguaging in this context, and advancing an approach to digital composing as showing–telling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue L2/HL Writing and Technology)
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Article
How Many Palabras? Codeswitching and Lexical Diversity in Spanish-English Picture Books
Languages 2022, 7(1), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7010069 - 16 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1273
Abstract
Bilingual picture books have been growing in popularity, with caregivers, teachers, and researchers increasingly interested in understanding how picture books might be able to support the learning of words in two languages. In this study, we present the first evaluation of the quantity [...] Read more.
Bilingual picture books have been growing in popularity, with caregivers, teachers, and researchers increasingly interested in understanding how picture books might be able to support the learning of words in two languages. In this study, we present the first evaluation of the quantity and quality of text contained within bilingual picture books in English and Spanish targeted to children ages 0–9 and available to parents in the United States. We focus specifically on a sample of codeswitching books (N = 45) which present text in one language embedded in another language. All books were transcribed and evaluated for (1) the number of words and utterances presented in each language; (2) the quality and complexity of text presented in each language; and (3) how switching occurred between the two languages. Results showed that although picture books in our sample presented predominantly English text and more complex English sentences, relatively more unique words were presented in Spanish. Furthermore, picture books in our sample presented frequent switching between languages, particularly within utterances. We suggest that bilingual picture books provide children with potentially enriching yet asymmetrical opportunities for learning in each language. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Cognitive Nature of Bilingual Reading)
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Article
Acquiring French Intonation against the Backdrop of Heritage Bilingualism: The Case of German–Turkish Learners
Languages 2022, 7(1), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7010068 - 15 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1059
Abstract
This paper investigates the intonation of L3 French, produced by six bilingual learners (ages: 15–17) who speak Turkish as a heritage language (HL) along with German and six same-aged monolingual German learners. We examined of a corpus of read speech in two respects: [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the intonation of L3 French, produced by six bilingual learners (ages: 15–17) who speak Turkish as a heritage language (HL) along with German and six same-aged monolingual German learners. We examined of a corpus of read speech in two respects: first, we determined the number of accentual phrases (APs) and, second, we extracted F0 values for each segment, normalized them, and calculated the deviations from the average values produced by three native controls (age: 21–23). Although the bilinguals were expected to outperform the monolinguals due to certain similarities between the intonational systems of French and Turkish, their mean deviation from the native contours was only slightly smaller than that of the monolinguals (difference not significant). To determine how strongly the bilinguals’ Turkish intonation was influenced by German and whether it could serve as a basis for positive transfer whatsoever, we compared their production in Turkish with data recorded from three monolingual Turkish L1 speakers (ages: 21–32) and five German learners of L2 Turkish (ages: 22–43). Results show that the bilinguals’ Turkish intonation does not deviate substantially from the monolinguals’ one, in contrast to the contours produced by the L2 learners. This suggests that metalinguistic and prosodic awareness should be fostered in heritage bilinguals to make them benefit from their full linguistic repertoire. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity in Patterns of L3 Phonological Acquisition)
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Article
Interactions of Nasal Harmony and Word-Internal Language Mixing in Paraguayan Guaraní
Languages 2022, 7(1), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7010067 - 14 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1175
Abstract
Words containing morphemes from multiple languages offer a unique look into the grammatical systems that constrain word formation. In this paper, I introduce novel data from nasal harmony patterns in contexts involving word-internal language mixing between Paraguayan Guaraní and Spanish, collected with native [...] Read more.
Words containing morphemes from multiple languages offer a unique look into the grammatical systems that constrain word formation. In this paper, I introduce novel data from nasal harmony patterns in contexts involving word-internal language mixing between Paraguayan Guaraní and Spanish, collected with native speakers of Guaraní. I provide the first full formal constraint-based analysis of nasal harmony in Paraguayan Guaraní, then show that nasal consonants within Spanish roots trigger nasal harmony in Guaraní affixal morphology, providing evidence for an emergent case of long-distance nasal harmony in the language. I demonstrate that this data supports an analysis in which a single phonological system has access to two different strata based on language of origin, countering predictions made by some previous approaches to the phonology of language mixing. My analysis combines Cophonology Theory and Agreement by Correspondence with phase faithfulness: a root is first evaluated according to the phonological grammar associated with its lexical stratum, and is then subject to faithfulness to that output. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Word Formation and Language Contact: A Formal Perspective)
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Article
Language Norm and Usage Change in Catalan Discourse Markers: The Case of Contrastive Connectives
Languages 2022, 7(1), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7010066 - 14 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 903
Abstract
Language norms are dynamic conventions that change over time. In the case of Catalan, the 20th century represents a critical codification period. In this paper, the author discusses the influence of internal and external factors on the evolution of four connectives mainly used [...] Read more.
Language norms are dynamic conventions that change over time. In the case of Catalan, the 20th century represents a critical codification period. In this paper, the author discusses the influence of internal and external factors on the evolution of four connectives mainly used in formal (written) communication (nogensmenys ‘nonetheless’, emperò ‘but’, no obstant (això) ‘nevertheless’ and tanmateix ‘however’), which have experienced remarkable change during the 20th century. Three sources of information are considered: dictionaries, grammars, and corpus examples (from Corpus Textual Informatitzat de la Llengua Catalana) in the period 1904–2013. The review of dictionaries and grammars shows that descriptions and norms change over time. The corpus reveals the impact of prescription on the use of the connectives in formal registers. The basic research question asks: to what extent do linguistic and socio-cultural factors have an influence on change in the field of connectives and how do norms and formal use interact? The analysis shows that external factors (i.e., bilingual context and codification processes) in correlation with internal ones (i.e., paradigmatic relations) affect both linguistic change and norm change. The evolution of the four connectives analyzed is the result of a changing language norm forbidding or encouraging the use of certain forms, almost always triggered by an intent to compensate for the influence of the dominant language, Spanish. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Variation and Change in Language Norm)
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Article
Evaluating Perceptions towards the Consequential Validity of Integrated Language Proficiency Assessment
Languages 2022, 7(1), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7010065 - 09 Mar 2022
Viewed by 990
Abstract
This research study explores teacher and student perceptions to verify consequential validity and the potential washback effect of a locally developed university-level English language proficiency test which consists of reading and listening-to-writing assessment tasks. The integrated language proficiency test is used upon completion [...] Read more.
This research study explores teacher and student perceptions to verify consequential validity and the potential washback effect of a locally developed university-level English language proficiency test which consists of reading and listening-to-writing assessment tasks. The integrated language proficiency test is used upon completion of the English language preparatory program in the Turkish context to determine learners’ access to further English medium academic courses in their departments. To examine whether this source-based proficiency test has achieved its intended outcomes, 39 freshman students and 19 university instructors, who offered courses in various departments, were surveyed through questionnaires. Interviews were conducted with the instructors to gauge their perspectives about the validity of the integrated proficiency test-based decisions (whether students pass or fail) over time in terms of the language competency and academic skills of their learners. Quantitative and qualitative data analysis also revealed evidence both for positive and negative issues concerning the consequential validity of the test. Findings may help educators to reach a better understanding of the construct of integrated language assessment tasks in EAP contexts and the consequences of their use in achieving the intended and unintended curricular goals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Developments in Language Testing and Assessment)
Article
Overall, a Good Test, but…—Swedish Lower Secondary Teachers’ Perceptions and Use of National Test Results of English
Languages 2022, 7(1), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7010064 - 08 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1073
Abstract
This article builds on a study set within the Swedish educational system and focuses on lower secondary teachers’ use of national test results when awarding final grades of English as a foreign language (EFL). In Sweden, teachers are entrusted with the responsibility of [...] Read more.
This article builds on a study set within the Swedish educational system and focuses on lower secondary teachers’ use of national test results when awarding final grades of English as a foreign language (EFL). In Sweden, teachers are entrusted with the responsibility of assessing their own students’ competences as well as assigning grades. To support them, there are compulsory national tests to be used as important advisory tools; however, they are not exams in a strict decisive sense. After a brief contextualization and conceptualization regarding language education in Sweden, including the assessment, teachers’ somewhat contradictory perceptions and use of results from the national EFL test for 11–12-year-olds are described and discussed. Data emanate from large-scale teacher questionnaires conducted for three years (2013, 2016 and 2019), which are analyzed from quantitative as well as qualitative angles. Results indicate that a number of teachers struggle with factors related to the language construct as well as to the educational context and consequences at individual, pedagogical and structural levels. This is discussed from various angles, linked not least to the policy, curriculum and other frame factors. Furthermore, the need for further research in direct collaboration with teachers is emphasized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Developments in Language Testing and Assessment)
Article
Language Play with Formulas in an EFL Classroom
Languages 2022, 7(1), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7010063 - 04 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 937
Abstract
Language learners’ play with language can be a useful and effective tool for learning. Since language play generally involves deviating from the norms, one potential source for it can be multiword units of language known as formulaic sequences. This study is informed by [...] Read more.
Language learners’ play with language can be a useful and effective tool for learning. Since language play generally involves deviating from the norms, one potential source for it can be multiword units of language known as formulaic sequences. This study is informed by sociocultural perspective and Bakhtinian dialogism and investigates language play with sequences among young foreign language learners in a classroom context. A class of 11 pupils (aged 9 to 11), in Iran, was observed and video recorded for 16 × 90 min sessions. Across recordings, episodes where pupils were engaged in language play were identified and analyzed qualitatively to document patterns of use and participation. Additionally, formulaic sequences were identified based on pre-established criteria. Results revealed that the young learners of the present study were recurrently engaged in different types of language play with formulaic sequences such as playing with sounds, manipulating some units of sequences or using a sequence to play a role. The data provide examples illustrating the role of language play in generating occasions for learners to practice, repeat, explore, and interact with the language in a more lively and low stress environment. Full article
Article
The Impact of Student Teachers’ Pre-Existing Conceptions of Assessment on the Development of Language Assessment Literacy within an LTA Course
Languages 2022, 7(1), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7010062 - 04 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1097
Abstract
The paper proposes the preparation of a new generation of assessment literate teachers. The issues of student assessment literacy and, more specifically, prospective language teacher assessment literacy have not been sufficiently investigated as of yet, although research into the topic seems to have [...] Read more.
The paper proposes the preparation of a new generation of assessment literate teachers. The issues of student assessment literacy and, more specifically, prospective language teacher assessment literacy have not been sufficiently investigated as of yet, although research into the topic seems to have gained momentum. Recent studies state that the assessment literacy of teachers is essentially affected by their pre-existing conceptions of assessments), and teacher education should integrate shaping such conceptions into courses; the process of shaping conceptions is quite long and, because it is time-consuming, it may deter assessment literacy building. The current study explores the conceptions of the assessments shaped by prospective teachers within a general English course. The two major conceptions of assessment, relevant for the framework of teaching general English to second-year student teachers of English, are the understanding of feedback and knowledge of assessment construct and criteria. The findings of the study in this cohort of students of the particular course in language assessment shows that the students’ progress was considerably higher than that of a comparison group in the previous 2020 study. The author suggests two types of AL, i.e., student and prospective teacher assessment literacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Developments in Language Testing and Assessment)
Article
The Writing Process of Bilingual Students with Focus on Revisions and Spelling Errors in Their Final Texts
Languages 2022, 7(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7010061 - 04 Mar 2022
Viewed by 998
Abstract
Research on writing that focuses on what writers do when they compose shows that processes such as planning, transfer to writing and editing are recursive and affect the writing process of first and second language writers differently. To our knowledge, what has yet [...] Read more.
Research on writing that focuses on what writers do when they compose shows that processes such as planning, transfer to writing and editing are recursive and affect the writing process of first and second language writers differently. To our knowledge, what has yet to be explored in research is the writing process of young bilingual students. The present study focused on the revisions and spelling errors made by 9-year-old bilingual students during a writing activity in their L2. Details about the writing process (e.g., revisions) were taken from statistics registered in the keystroke logging program ScriptLog and were analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Results from the quantitative analysis show that the mean proportion of the students’ revisions is relatively low compared to results in previous research. The qualitative analysis showed both surface and meaning changes; the latter were found at both the micro- and macrostructural levels. Bilingual students exhibit a creative writing process in which several meaning changes occur in a language (in this case Swedish) that they are particularly competent in. The spelling error analysis indicated that the bilingual students make the same type of spelling errors as monolingual students in their initial stages of learning to write. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Perspectives on Swedish as a Second Language)
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Article
Can Heritage Speakers Predict Lexical and Morphosyntactic Information in Reading?
Languages 2022, 7(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7010060 - 04 Mar 2022
Viewed by 976
Abstract
Ample evidence suggests that monolingual adults can successfully generate lexical and morphosyntactic predictions in reading and that correct predictions facilitate sentence comprehension. In this eye-tracking corpus reading study, we investigate whether the same is true for reading in heritage language. Specifically, we ask [...] Read more.
Ample evidence suggests that monolingual adults can successfully generate lexical and morphosyntactic predictions in reading and that correct predictions facilitate sentence comprehension. In this eye-tracking corpus reading study, we investigate whether the same is true for reading in heritage language. Specifically, we ask whether heritage speakers (HSs) of Russian are able to anticipate lexical and/or morphosyntactic information of the upcoming words in the sentence and whether they differ in the predictions from monolingual children and L2 learners. We are also interested in whether the literacy level (i.e., Russian literacy experience or reading fluency in English) influences lexical and morphosyntactic prediction. Our results indicate that HSs as well as other groups were able to anticipate the specific lexical item, and the ability was contingent on the Russian literacy experience and reading fluency in dominant English as evident in some of the early and late eye-tracking measures. Similar to children and L2 learners, the word class and the verb number predictability affected reading times in HSs, but HSs were the only group to anticipate the number of the upcoming noun. We discuss findings in respect to the utility account of the bilingual prediction and divergent attainment trajectory of the heritage language development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Cognitive Nature of Bilingual Reading)
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Article
More than Relata Refero: Representing the Various Roles of Reported Speech in Argumentative Discourse
Languages 2022, 7(1), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7010059 - 03 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 997
Abstract
Reported speech, or relata refero, although not always part of the argumentation tout court, can be an important element of argumentative discourse. It might, for instance, provide information on the position of another party in the discussion or function as part [...] Read more.
Reported speech, or relata refero, although not always part of the argumentation tout court, can be an important element of argumentative discourse. It might, for instance, provide information on the position of another party in the discussion or function as part of the premise of an argument from authority. Whereas existing methods of representing argumentative discourse focus on arguments and their interrelations, this paper develops a method that enables the analyst to also include informative elements in the representation, focusing on reported speech. It does so by incorporating the notion of ‘voice’ into the representation framework of Adpositional Argumentation (AdArg). In particular, the paper explains how to formalize the constituents of this notion and illustrates its use in representing (1) an author’s report of the position of another party (including the supporting argumentation); (2) an author’s own position (including the supporting argumentation); and (3) source-based arguments such as the argument from authority, with an indication of the distance of the source from the author. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pragmatics and Argumentation)
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Editorial
Preface
Languages 2022, 7(1), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7010058 - 03 Mar 2022
Viewed by 875
Abstract
To seek for knowledge is to strive for systematization [...] Full article
Article
Hypercorrection as a Symptom of Language Change: Majorcan Catalan Standard Pronunciation
Languages 2022, 7(1), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7010057 - 03 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1195
Abstract
The mutual influence between dialects and standard language in terms of upward or downward convergence, the creation of a diaglossic repertoire, and a typology of relations dialects/standard is of utmost importance for the analysis of language evolution. Majorcan Catalan is an eastern Catalan [...] Read more.
The mutual influence between dialects and standard language in terms of upward or downward convergence, the creation of a diaglossic repertoire, and a typology of relations dialects/standard is of utmost importance for the analysis of language evolution. Majorcan Catalan is an eastern Catalan dialect, traditionally considered as archaic. Data from television programs show a tendency to adapt pronunciation to a standard mainly based on central Catalan dialects, even disregarding concessions granted by the prescriptive grammar. This article is focused on the causes of this centripetal movement and on the function either accelerating or decelerating of (para)prescriptive works in the process. Data from an annotated oral corpus (Corpus Oral de la Llengua Catalana) are used. The results are consistent with a centripetal movement in the construction of the standard Catalan as used in formal registers in the Balearic Islands. A proposal is made for the interpretation of the relevant data as evidence of an evolution from a gliding access to standard to a shifting access. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Variation and Change in Language Norm)
Article
Not…Until across European Languages: A Parallel Corpus Study
Languages 2022, 7(1), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7010056 - 01 Mar 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1567
Abstract
We present a parallel corpus study on the expression of the temporal construction ‘not…until’ in a sample of European languages. We use data from the Europarl corpus and create semantic maps by multidimensional scaling, in order to analyze cross-linguistic and language-internal variation. This [...] Read more.
We present a parallel corpus study on the expression of the temporal construction ‘not…until’ in a sample of European languages. We use data from the Europarl corpus and create semantic maps by multidimensional scaling, in order to analyze cross-linguistic and language-internal variation. This paper builds on formal semantic and typological work, extending it by including conditional constructions, as well as connectives of the type as long as. In an investigation of 7 languages, we find that (i) languages use many more different constructions to convey this meaning than was expected from the literature; and (ii) the combination of polarity marking (negation/assertion) strongly correlates with the type of connective. We corroborate our results in a larger sample of 21 European languages. An analysis of clusters and dimensions of the semantic maps based on the enlarged dataset shows that connectives are not randomly distributed across the semantic space of the ‘not…until’-domain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tense and Aspect Across Languages)
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Article
Vocabulary Teaching Practices of L2 English in Upper Secondary Vocational Classrooms
Languages 2022, 7(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7010055 - 01 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1253
Abstract
This qualitative study investigates language teaching practices relating to L2 English vocabulary instruction in upper secondary school vocational classrooms in Norway. It builds on previous research describing technical vocabulary as an area of particular importance for vocational students’ English language development and relies [...] Read more.
This qualitative study investigates language teaching practices relating to L2 English vocabulary instruction in upper secondary school vocational classrooms in Norway. It builds on previous research describing technical vocabulary as an area of particular importance for vocational students’ English language development and relies on observation data from eight vocational classrooms. The study found that vocabulary work has a strong presence within vocational orientation (VO) instruction, across whole-class instruction, group or pair work, and individual work. Most target vocabulary could be classified as words relating to work practices and vocational content knowledge. Many instances of L1–L2 translation tasks were observed. Target words were not practiced across the four language skills and were rarely utilized in productive tasks. The study concludes that observed practices can be improved by prioritizing ways of combining target vocabulary with students’ language production and by including more opportunities to practice independent language strategies. Full article
Article
Adjective Placement in English/Spanish Mixed Determiner Phrases: Insights from Acceptability Judgments
Languages 2022, 7(1), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7010054 - 28 Feb 2022
Viewed by 972
Abstract
The present study examines the relative order of noun-adjective sequences within code-switched Determiner Phrases. Several hypotheses have been considered: (i) Order is a property defined by the noun; (ii) it is a property defined by the adjective; (iii) it is a property governed [...] Read more.
The present study examines the relative order of noun-adjective sequences within code-switched Determiner Phrases. Several hypotheses have been considered: (i) Order is a property defined by the noun; (ii) it is a property defined by the adjective; (iii) it is a property governed by the carrier phrase. The studies that have investigated the issue all assume that the class of adjectives is homogeneous, but in fact, there exist several sub-classes of adjectives which in many languages, including Spanish, exhibit distinct ordering properties. We propose to add the variable ‘adjective type’ to our study and use code-switching of English/Spanish, two languages that differ in the position of adjectives, as our database. A total of thirty English/Spanish heritage speakers took part in an experiment. Our results show that both the language of the adjective and the carrier phrase are significant factors of word order in the noun phrase; on the other hand, the noun itself does not seem to play a role. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exploring the Syntactic Properties of Code-Switching)
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Article
Spanish in Albuquerque, New Mexico: Spanish-English Bilingual Adults’ and Children’s Vocalic Realizations
Languages 2022, 7(1), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7010053 - 28 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1336
Abstract
This study explores vocalic production and variation in 29 Spanish-English bilingual children and adults from Albuquerque, New Mexico. Linear mixed-effects models analyzed the effects of lexical stress, word position, phonetic context, Spanish use, and lexical frequency on the F1 (height) and F2 (frontedness) [...] Read more.
This study explores vocalic production and variation in 29 Spanish-English bilingual children and adults from Albuquerque, New Mexico. Linear mixed-effects models analyzed the effects of lexical stress, word position, phonetic context, Spanish use, and lexical frequency on the F1 (height) and F2 (frontedness) values of 2041 /i e a o u/ vowels. Importantly, results show that /u/ fronting is pervasive in both children and adults’ speech, but in contrast to adults’ more general /u/ fronting, children’s Spanish use also predicted atonic /u/ fronting. Expanding the range of data to include children also showed that children’s realizations displayed a generalized stress effect, whereby the atonic space was condensed compared to the tonic space. The generalized stress effect was absent among the adults. Changes in the degree of phonetic convergence between the adults and children are attributed to acquisitional paths and demographic changes in their community. Full article
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Article
On Syntactic Integration and Semantico-Pragmatic Distribution of Mbya Guarani Purpose Coding Strategies
Languages 2022, 7(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7010052 - 25 Feb 2022
Viewed by 776
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to describe the available strategies for coding purpose relations in Mbya, focusing on their semantico-pragmatic distribution. According to Dooley, Mbya Guarani presents two main different strategies involved in the coding of purpose relations: aguã nominalizations and vy [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to describe the available strategies for coding purpose relations in Mbya, focusing on their semantico-pragmatic distribution. According to Dooley, Mbya Guarani presents two main different strategies involved in the coding of purpose relations: aguã nominalizations and vy-dependent clauses, and among the latter a motion-cum-purpose (MCP) construction subtype is included. These strategies differ in regard to the semantic class of the main verb, referential continuity between the dependent and the main unit, and the fact that the dependent form can be negated independently from the main clause—thus, establishing different degrees of integration within the main unit in each case—, but overlap in same-subject contexts that involve a directed motion verb. However, according to our data, speakers do not use these constructions interchangeably, whereas aguã nominalizations portray an intended hypothetical outcome of the event or state-of-affair (hereafter SoA) expressed in the matrix clause; vy-dependent clauses and motion-cum-purpose constructions consistently trigger a result interpretation, entailing that the intended SoA was successfully accomplished. Full article
Article
Predictors of Word and Text Reading Fluency of Deaf Children in Bilingual Deaf Education Programmes
Languages 2022, 7(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7010051 - 25 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1550
Abstract
Reading continues to be a challenging task for most deaf children. Bimodal bilingual education creates a supportive environment that stimulates deaf children’s learning through the use of sign language. However, it is still unclear how exposure to sign language might contribute to improving [...] Read more.
Reading continues to be a challenging task for most deaf children. Bimodal bilingual education creates a supportive environment that stimulates deaf children’s learning through the use of sign language. However, it is still unclear how exposure to sign language might contribute to improving reading ability. Here, we investigate the relative contribution of several cognitive and linguistic variables to the development of word and text reading fluency in deaf children in bimodal bilingual education programmes. The participants of this study were 62 school-aged (8 to 10 years old at the start of the 3-year study) deaf children who took part in bilingual education (using Dutch and Sign Language of The Netherlands) and 40 age-matched hearing children. We assessed vocabulary knowledge in speech and sign, phonological awareness in speech and sign, receptive fingerspelling ability, and short-term memory at time 1 (T1). At times 2 (T2) and 3 (T3), we assessed word and text reading fluency. We found that (1) speech-based vocabulary strongly predicted word and text reading at T2 and T3, (2) fingerspelling ability was a strong predictor of word and text reading fluency at T2 and T3, (3) speech-based phonological awareness predicted word reading accuracy at T2 and T3 but did not predict text reading fluency, and (4) fingerspelling and STM predicted word reading latency at T2 while sign-based phonological awareness predicted this outcome measure at T3. These results suggest that fingerspelling may have an important function in facilitating the construction of orthographical/phonological representations of printed words for deaf children and strengthening word decoding and recognition abilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Cognitive Nature of Bilingual Reading)
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Article
Stød Timing and Domain in Danish
Languages 2022, 7(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7010050 - 24 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 768
Abstract
This study investigates the timing of stød, a type of phonological nonmodal phonation related to creaky voice in Danish, relative to the syllable. Stød-bearing syllables are characterized by high fundamental frequency (F0) and modal phonation at the beginning of the syllable followed by [...] Read more.
This study investigates the timing of stød, a type of phonological nonmodal phonation related to creaky voice in Danish, relative to the syllable. Stød-bearing syllables are characterized by high fundamental frequency (F0) and modal phonation at the beginning of the syllable followed by nonmodal, often creaky phonation and low F0 towards the end of the syllable (the stød phase proper). However, the timing of these two phases relative to the syllable and to each other has been debated. To investigate this, F0 throughout the word and the timing of the stød phase proper relative to the syllable were analyzed in five types of monosyllabic words. The results show that across word types the first stød phase (high F0) coordinates with the syllable rhyme onset, whilst the second phase is timed to the center of the sonorant rhyme, in contrast to previous hypotheses of stød timing. This relationship is formalized using the framework of Articulatory Phonology. In doing so, two additions to the theory are proposed to account for the biphasic nature of stød and the timing of the stød phase proper relative to the syllable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exploring the Interaction between Phonation and Prosody)
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Article
The Vulnerability of Emerging Sign Languages: (E)merging Sign Languages?
Languages 2022, 7(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7010049 - 24 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 981
Abstract
Emerging sign languages offer linguists an opportunity to observe language emergence in real time, far beyond the capabilities of spoken language studies. Sign languages can emerge in different social circumstances—some in larger heterogeneous communities, while others in smaller and more homogeneous communities. Often, [...] Read more.
Emerging sign languages offer linguists an opportunity to observe language emergence in real time, far beyond the capabilities of spoken language studies. Sign languages can emerge in different social circumstances—some in larger heterogeneous communities, while others in smaller and more homogeneous communities. Often, examples of the latter, such as Ban Khor Sign Language (in Thailand), Al Sayyid Bedouin Sign Language (in Israel), and Mardin Sign Language (in Turkey), arise in communities with a high incidence of hereditary deafness. Traditionally, these communities were in limited contact with the wider deaf community in the region, and so the local sign language remained relatively uninfluenced by the surrounding signed language(s). Yet, in recent years, changes in education, mobility, and social communication patterns have resulted in increased interaction between sign languages. Rather than undergoing language emergence, these sign languages are now facing a state of “mergence” with the majority sign language used by the wider deaf community. This study focuses on the language contact situation between two sign languages in Kufr Qassem, Israel. In the current situation, third-generation deaf signers in Kufr Qassem are exposed to the local sign language, Kufr Qassem Sign Language (KQSL), and the dominant sign language of the wider Israeli deaf community, Israeli Sign Language (ISL), both of which emerged around 90 years ago. In the current study, we analyzed the signing of twelve deaf sign-bilinguals from Kufr Qassem whilst they engaged in a semi-spontaneous task in three language conditions: (1) with another bilingual signer, (2) with a monolingual KQSL signer, and (3) with a monolingual ISL signer. The results demonstrate that KQSL-ISL sign-bilinguals show a preference for ISL in all conditions, even when paired with a monolingual KQSL signer. We conclude that the degree of language shift in Kufr Qassem is considerable. KQSL may be endangered due to the risk of social and linguistic mergence of the KQSL community with the ISL community in the near future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Emergence of Sign Languages)
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Article
States, Changes of State, and ‘Feigned States’ in Paraguayan Guarani Je-/Ñe- Predicates
Languages 2022, 7(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7010048 - 24 Feb 2022
Viewed by 731
Abstract
Paraguayan Guarani features a pervasive pattern of aspectual polysemy whereby an underived monovalent predicate conveys both state and change of state senses, such as -o’ysã ‘be cold/get cold.’ The language also allows the derivation of monovalent predicates from causative verbs by the [...] Read more.
Paraguayan Guarani features a pervasive pattern of aspectual polysemy whereby an underived monovalent predicate conveys both state and change of state senses, such as -o’ysã ‘be cold/get cold.’ The language also allows the derivation of monovalent predicates from causative verbs by the je-/ñe- prefix, yielding two distinct classes. The first one, called Class I, comprises predicates derived from causatives without an underived intransitive counterpart, such as -je-pe’a, from -pe’a ‘open (tr.).’ The second class, called Class II, are predicates derived from causatives with an underived intransitive counterpart, such as -je-jeko and -ñe-moro’ysã, from -jeko ‘break (tr.)’ and -moro’ysã ‘make cold,’ which are associated with the underived intransitives -jeka ‘break (intr.)’ and -o’ysã ‘be cold/get cold,’ respectively. It is shown that the aspectual polysemy pattern extends to je-/ñe-derived predicates, but that its distribution is restricted to Class I predicates. An apparent exception to this are some Class II predicates with a ‘feigned state’ interpretation, such as -ñembotavy ‘pretend to be dumb.’ The evidence reveals, however, that these are not true states, but instead activities. Furthermore, it is argued that the je-/ñe- predicates with this interpretation are not the product of a derivation process but are rather best analyzed as an independent construction. Full article
Article
Checked Syllables, Checked Tones, and Tone Sandhi in Xiapu Min
Languages 2022, 7(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7010047 - 24 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1057
Abstract
A “checked” syllable usually refers to one with a short vowel and an oral or glottal coda, which results impressionistically in a “short” and “abrupt” quality. Although common in languages of the world, it is unclear how to characterize checked syllables phonetically. In [...] Read more.
A “checked” syllable usually refers to one with a short vowel and an oral or glottal coda, which results impressionistically in a “short” and “abrupt” quality. Although common in languages of the world, it is unclear how to characterize checked syllables phonetically. In this study, we investigated the acoustic features of checked syllables in citation and sandhi forms in Xiapu Min, an under-documented language from China. We conducted a production experiment and analyzed the F0, phonatory quality, vowel duration, and vowel quality in checked syllables. The results show that, in citation tones, checked syllables are realized with distinct F0 contours from unchecked syllables, along with glottalization in the end and a shorter duration overall. In sandhi tones, checked syllables lose their distinct F0 contours and become less glottalized. However, the shorter duration of checked syllables is retained in sandhi forms. This study lays out the acoustic properties that tend to be associated with checked syllables and can be used when testing checked syllables in other language varieties. The fact that in Xiapu Min sandhi checked tones become less glottalized but preserve their shorter duration suggests that, when checked syllables become unchecked diachronically, glottalization might be lost prior to duration lengthening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exploring the Interaction between Phonation and Prosody)
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Article
From Latin to Modern Italian: Some Notes on Negation
Languages 2022, 7(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7010046 - 24 Feb 2022
Viewed by 850
Abstract
This article aims at investigating some diachronic aspects of the Italian negative system, considering a time span ranging from Old Latin to Modern Italian. Most of the negative polarity phenomena populating the Modern Italian system are consequences of a crucial change that occurred [...] Read more.
This article aims at investigating some diachronic aspects of the Italian negative system, considering a time span ranging from Old Latin to Modern Italian. Most of the negative polarity phenomena populating the Modern Italian system are consequences of a crucial change that occurred in Old Latin: The Latin negative morpheme nōn (“not”), which initially displayed a maximal projection status, and became a syntactic (negative) head. This change caused the shift from a double negation system to a negative concord one, which affects many Romance languages (and their dialects). It also determines the availability of the expletive reading of negation in Italian, as well as in other Romance languages (ex. French), calling for a new generalization: only languages (and structures) displaying a negative head allow the expletive interpretation of negation, languages displaying a maximal projection status do not. Full article
Article
Preposition Stranding in Spanish–English Code-Switching
Languages 2022, 7(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7010045 - 22 Feb 2022
Viewed by 953
Abstract
This study tests the acceptability of preposition stranding in the intrasentential code-switching of US heritage speakers of Spanish. Because languages vary when extracting determiner phrases from prepositional phrases, known as preposition stranding or p-stranding, a contrast arises for Spanish–English bilinguals. English allows [...] Read more.
This study tests the acceptability of preposition stranding in the intrasentential code-switching of US heritage speakers of Spanish. Because languages vary when extracting determiner phrases from prepositional phrases, known as preposition stranding or p-stranding, a contrast arises for Spanish–English bilinguals. English allows p-stranding, but in Spanish the preposition is traditionally pied-piped with the DP. Heritage speakers of Spanish, though, have shown variability, with child sequential bilinguals requiring said pied-piping, but simultaneous bilinguals allowing p-stranding in Spanish. Participants (n = 24) completed a written acceptability judgment task with a 7-point Likert scale. The task included code-switched sentences (n = 16) with p-stranding, switching from either English to Spanish or vice versa, with comparison monolingual equivalents for Spanish (n = 8) and English (n = 8) included as well. The results found that the simultaneous bilinguals accepted p-stranding in both languages, while also showing no restriction in either code-switching condition. Child sequential bilinguals, however, showed the expected monolingual distinction between Spanish and English, and p-stranding was only accepted with Spanish determiner phrases extracted from an English prepositional phrase (i.e., Spanish-to-English). These findings support the previously reported differentiation between simultaneous and child sequential bilinguals regarding p-stranding, while expanding it to code-switching. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exploring the Syntactic Properties of Code-Switching)
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Article
The Jargon of Italian Travellers in Change: A New Social Scenario for Relexification
Languages 2022, 7(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7010044 - 22 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 890
Abstract
The present research paper explores the effects of relexification in the context of an in-group jargon variety. Specifically, it addresses the role of Romani as a supplier language in the process of lexical renewal that is ongoing in Dritto—the jargon of the Italian [...] Read more.
The present research paper explores the effects of relexification in the context of an in-group jargon variety. Specifically, it addresses the role of Romani as a supplier language in the process of lexical renewal that is ongoing in Dritto—the jargon of the Italian Travellers. Considered the most ancient descendant of the Italian historical jargon of the Roads, Dritto is a secret code which is still actively used within some socially marginalized service-provider communities, such as the families involved in the circus and the travelling show business. At the margins of the mainstream society, the families of Dritti entertainers share their living and economic spaces with the families of Italian Sinti, whose presence has been documented in Italy for centuries. As a consequence of this intense and prolonged cohabitation, Romani elements have always been documented in the corpora of Italian historical jargon. However, a considerably more significant contribution has recently been documented by researchers among the funfair workers in northern Italy. This work examines the driving factors behind this contact-induced shift by considering the changing socio-economic context faced by the travelling community in the last decades. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Investigating Language Contact and New Varieties)
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Article
Catalan as a Heritage Language in Germany
Languages 2022, 7(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7010043 - 22 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1050
Abstract
Germany is currently the third country with more Catalan residents mainly characterized as families with children born in Germany but raised with Catalan as heritage language (HL). Only few studies have investigated Catalan as an HL in Germany. Our study tries to fill [...] Read more.
Germany is currently the third country with more Catalan residents mainly characterized as families with children born in Germany but raised with Catalan as heritage language (HL). Only few studies have investigated Catalan as an HL in Germany. Our study tries to fill this gap with spontaneous recordings of 16 bilingual and trilingual children (mean age 5;7). In terms of language competence (measured via MLU), balanced bilingualism is present in most children (44%), followed by those showing a dominance into German (38%). Interestingly, regarding language use (measured in w/minute), both balanced and Catalan dominants were fluent in both L1s similarly, while the German dominant group mostly prefer German. Moreover, the parents filled in a questionnaire on current and cumulative input from which some factors were examined such as family language policies (FLP), child’s language choice to the Catalan-speaking parent, Catalan skills of the non-native parent, family language and frequency of comprehension and production activities. In a nutshell, the results show that FLP and HL as FL or no FL seem to have an impact in the child’s grammatical development in the very early years, as opposed to family language. Children mostly direct their speech in the HL when talking to the Catalan-speaking parent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heritage Languages in Germany)
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Article
Are We Indeed So Illuded? Recency and Frequency Illusions in Dutch Prescriptivism
Languages 2022, 7(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7010042 - 22 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 950
Abstract
In 2005, Arnold Zwicky posited two misapprehensions about language: the Recency Illusion, or the false idea that certain language variation is new, and the Frequency Illusion, the erroneous belief that a particular word or phrase occurs often. Since their conception, these concepts have [...] Read more.
In 2005, Arnold Zwicky posited two misapprehensions about language: the Recency Illusion, or the false idea that certain language variation is new, and the Frequency Illusion, the erroneous belief that a particular word or phrase occurs often. Since their conception, these concepts have received widespread attention in popular scientific linguistics, but quantitative research investigating their application is scarce. The purpose of this paper is to provide an empirical investigation of Zwicky’s proposed illusions. It does so by collecting statements about recency (‘this word is new’) and frequency (‘this construction occurs often’) from a database of Dutch prescriptive publications (1900–2018). I assessed their accuracy by comparing them to linguistic sources, including dictionaries, and usage corpora and other data. Our research showed that recency statements were rare, but that frequency statements, especially using high frequency terms such as vaak (‘often’), were commonplace. Compared to usage, most prescriptive recency and frequency statements for both lexis and grammar indeed constituted Zwickian illusions. This seems partly due to genuine erroneous or unsupported beliefs by authors, but also partly to prescriptive genre conventions and rhetorical choices. Our explorative research highlights the complex usage–prescriptivism interface, and argues for more research into this aspect of language perceptions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Variation and Change in Language Norm)
Article
Technical Language as Evidence of Expertise
Languages 2022, 7(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7010041 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 864
Abstract
In this paper, I focus on one argumentative strategy with which experts (or putative experts) in a particular field provide evidence of their expertise to a lay audience. The strategy consists in using technical vocabulary that the speaker knows the audience does not [...] Read more.
In this paper, I focus on one argumentative strategy with which experts (or putative experts) in a particular field provide evidence of their expertise to a lay audience. The strategy consists in using technical vocabulary that the speaker knows the audience does not comprehend with the intention of getting the audience to infer that the speaker possesses expert knowledge in the target domain. This strategy has received little attention in argumentation theory and epistemology. For this reason, the aim of the present paper is not to reach any definitive conclusions, but mainly exploratory. After introducing the phenomenon, I discuss various examples. Next, I analyse the phenomenon from an argumentative perspective. I discuss the pragmatic mechanism that underlies it, the quality of the evidence offered, and its capacity to persuade. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pragmatics and Argumentation)
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