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Special Issue "Language Practices in English Classrooms – from Primary School to Higher Education"

A special issue of Languages (ISSN 2226-471X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 November 2021) | Viewed by 20571

Special Issue Editors

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Pia Sundqvist
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Teacher Education and School Research, University of Oslo, PO Box 1099 Blindern, N-0317 Oslo, Norway
Interests: informal language learning; extramural English; gaming and L2 learning; assessment of L2 oral proficiency; English language teaching; multilingualism
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Erica Sandlund
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Language, Literature, and Intercultural Studies, Karlstad University, SE-65188 Karlstad, Sweden
Interests: institutional interaction; conversation analysis; language testing; English language teaching; assessment of L2 oral proficiency; multilingualism; professional meetings
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Marie Källkvist
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Centre for Languages and Literature, Lund University, Box 201, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden
2. Department of Languages, Linnæus University, SE-35195 Växjö, Sweden
Interests: english language education; multilingualism; second language acquisition; language policy and planning; higher education pedagogy
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Henrik Gyllstad
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Centre for Languages and Literature, Lund University, Box 201, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden
Interests: multilingualism; language testing and assessment; second language acquisition; vocabulary; phraseology; formulaic language; lexical processing

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

English is taught in classrooms across the globe to learners of all ages, from very young learners in primary school to older learners who have reached retirement and occupy their time in the so-called third age by studying English (see, e.g., Cox, 2017; Ellis, 2013; Gabryś-Barker, 2018; Mackey & Sachs, 2012; Murray, 2011; Nikolov & Mihaljević Djigunović, 2006). Further, depending on the (national) context as well as researchers’ preferred theoretical approaches to teaching and learning, English is sometimes described as a foreign language (EFL), a second language (ESL), or an additional language (EAL) in the literature. In this Special Issue, we aim to collect papers on the topic of Language Practices in English Classrooms. That is, language practices is the common core of all contributions. We welcome both empirical and conceptual papers and are open to different theoretical frameworks and methodologies, as long as the focus is on language practices in the English classroom (regardless of preferred ‘label’ for English). We are interested in studies that examine language practices in English classrooms with learners of different ages and in different contexts. Further, we welcome studies that investigate practices in classrooms at all levels of education that may be linguistically homogenous, but also language practices in classrooms that are more linguistically diverse (multilingual English classrooms). Moreover, we welcome papers that study teachers’ (or learners’) beliefs (e.g., Borg, 2006; 2010) or ideologies (e.g., Blommaert & Verschueren, 1998) that underpin practices, as long as beliefs and ideologies are discussed in relation to English classroom practices. Methodological approaches can include qualitative studies (for example, linguistic ethnographies, conversation analysis, interviews, or video-based language research), quantitative studies (for example, analyzing language practices with the help of quantifiable measures, including classroom-based testing and assessment practices, and intervention studies), and mixed-methods studies (for example, studies that draw on both survey data and qualitative classroom data). Theoretically-oriented papers should offer a solid conceptual discussion targeting classroom practices and the teaching/learning of English, and may include language policy (e.g., Hult, 2017).

Thus, for this Special Issue, we seek proposals that specifically target language practices in English (EFL, ESL, EAL) classrooms. Topics could cover, but are not limited to:

  • Primary/secondary school English classroom practices
  • English teaching practices in higher education
  • English classroom practices in learning centers
  • Language use in English classrooms
  • Classroom-based assessment and testing (formative and summative)
  • Language practices in monolingual/multilingual English classrooms
  • Teachers’ (or learners’) beliefs about language practices
  • Oral interaction in English classrooms
  • Language play in English classrooms
  • Teaching English grammar/pronunciation/vocabulary/phraseology/formulaic language
  • Focus on form in English classrooms
  • Language practices in the course of an English lesson (introduction/lesson/end)
  • Pedagogical approaches to English language teaching
  • Translanguaging/multilingual practices (including code-switching)
  • Language and culture in the English classroom
  • Learner voices about language practices in the English classroom
  • ICT for teaching/learning, including CALL and game-based teaching and learning
  • Task-based language learning in English classrooms

Potential contributors should submit a word document with a title, a 300-word abstract, and a short 50-word bio (for each author) to our Editorial Office ([email protected]) by 1 June, 2021. Authors of successful abstracts will be invited to submit full papers by 31 October, 2021, which will be sent out for peer review. In line with the international diverse spirit of Languages, we encourage the submission of papers that study English language classrooms across the globe. Abstracts will be reviewed by the Guest Editors to ensure proper fit within the scope of the Special Issue. Full manuscripts will undergo double-blind peer-review.

Tentative completion schedule:

Abstract submission deadline: 1 June, 2021

Invitation to authors to submit full papers: 15 June, 2021

Full manuscript submission deadline: 31 October, 2021

References

Blommaert, J., & Verschueren, J. (1998). Debating diversity: Analysing the discourse of tolerance. London: Routledge.

Borg, S. (2006). Teacher cognition and language education: Research and practice. London: Continuum.

Borg, S. (2010). Language teacher research engagement. Language Teaching, 43(4), 391-429. doi:10.1017/S0261444810000170

Cox, J. G. (2017). Explicit instruction, bilingualism, and the older adult learner. Studies in second language acquisition, 39(1), 29-58. doi:10.1017/S0272263115000364

Ellis, G. (2013). ‘Young learners’: clarifying our terms. ELT Journal, 65(1), 75–78. doi:10.1093/elt/cct062

Gabryś-Barker, D. (Ed.) (2018). Third age learners of foreign languages. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Hult, F. M. (2017). More than a lingua franca: Functions of English in a globalised educational language policy. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 30(3), 265–282. doi:10.1080/07908318.2017.1321008

Mackey, A., & Sachs, R. (2012). Older learners in SLA research: A first look at working memory, feedback, and L2 development. Language Learning, 62(3), 704-740. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9922.2011.00649.x

Murray, G. (2011). Older language learners, social learning spaces and community. In P. Benson & H. Reinders (Eds.), Beyond the language classroom (pp. 132–145). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Nikolov, M., & Mihaljević Djigunović, J. (2006). Recent research on age, second language acquisition, and early foreign language learning. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 26, 234–260. doi:10.1017/S0267190506000122

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Pia Sundqvist
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Erica Sandlund
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Marie Källkvist
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Henrik Gyllstad
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Languages is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • classroom-based assessment
  • classroom interaction
  • code-switching
  • English as a foreign language (EFL)
  • English as a second language (ESL)
  • English as an additional language (EAL)
  • English language teaching (ELT)
  • ideology
  • language diversity
  • language practices
  • languaging
  • learners’ beliefs
  • multilingualism
  • plurilingualism
  • teachers’ beliefs
  • translanguaging

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Language Practices in English Classrooms: Guest Editors’ Introduction to the Special Issue
Languages 2022, 7(4), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7040291 - 14 Nov 2022
Viewed by 432
Abstract
English is taught in classrooms across the globe to learners of all ages, from very young learners in primary school to older learners who have reached retirement and occupy their time in the so-called third age by studying English [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Article
Insights into Teacher Beliefs and Practice in Primary-School EFL in France
Languages 2022, 7(3), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7030185 - 19 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 880
Abstract
Teacher beliefs affect choices of methods, representations of learning, and classroom practice, and are important in understanding primary EFL teaching in France, where language teaching has been a compulsory subject entrusted to generalist class teachers for 20 years. This quantitative study explores questionnaire [...] Read more.
Teacher beliefs affect choices of methods, representations of learning, and classroom practice, and are important in understanding primary EFL teaching in France, where language teaching has been a compulsory subject entrusted to generalist class teachers for 20 years. This quantitative study explores questionnaire data from 254 primary teachers, associating teacher beliefs and classroom practice. With respect to views of language teaching and learning, the study reveals a three-way division of teachers between grammar-oriented teaching (PPP), communicative-language teaching (CLT), and ‘sceptical’ teachers. The PPP (n = 72) group employed the smallest range of teaching activities and rarely taught older pupils. The CLT group (n = 60) tended to have higher English proficiency and more in-service training and offered the widest range of oral activities. The sceptical group (n = 85) took no strong theoretical position, had lower English proficiency, and focused on listening and speaking skills. We found no correlation between teacher age and language learning beliefs or teaching practices. However, teachers who offered a wider range of activities in any of the five competences tended to have more in-service training and higher English proficiency. Further correlations were found between oral language teaching and technology integration, and written language teaching and teaching experience. The paper concludes with links to previous teacher cognition research and suggestions for teacher education. Full article
Article
“Good Foreign Language Teachers Pay Attention to Heterogeneity”: Conceptualizations of Differentiation and Effective Teaching Practice in Inclusive EFL Classrooms by German Pre-Service Teachers
Languages 2022, 7(3), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7030162 - 29 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 755
Abstract
This paper explores how pre-service EFL teachers perceive the variety of methodic-didactic and pedagogical forms of differentiation that they consider as acceptable in their teaching practice and which shed light on knowledge areas related to adaptivity competence. Our investigation looks into (a) qualitative [...] Read more.
This paper explores how pre-service EFL teachers perceive the variety of methodic-didactic and pedagogical forms of differentiation that they consider as acceptable in their teaching practice and which shed light on knowledge areas related to adaptivity competence. Our investigation looks into (a) qualitative questionnaire data that depict pre-service FL teachers’ conceptualizations of what it means to be a “good” and “bad” foreign language teacher; and (b) pre-service FL teachers’ quantitative evaluations of existing differentiation approaches designed for accommodating learners, especially ones experiencing specific learning differences such as difficulties with memorization, classroom communication, anxiety, or lexical and grammar confusion. Our results show that, despite expressing general agreement towards supporting individual learners’ needs, participants’ knowledge regarding how to respond to the needs of all FL learners appropriately is incomplete. Full article
Article
Multimodal Resolution of Overlapping Talk in Video-Mediated L2 Instruction
Languages 2022, 7(2), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7020154 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1045
Abstract
This paper investigates a pervasive phenomenon in video-mediated interaction (VMI), namely, simultaneous start-ups, which happen when two speakers produce a turn beginning in overlap. Based on the theoretical and methodological tenets of conversation analysis and interactional linguistics, the present study offers a [...] Read more.
This paper investigates a pervasive phenomenon in video-mediated interaction (VMI), namely, simultaneous start-ups, which happen when two speakers produce a turn beginning in overlap. Based on the theoretical and methodological tenets of conversation analysis and interactional linguistics, the present study offers a multimodal and sequential account of how simultaneous start-ups are oriented to and solved in the context of English as an additional language (L2) tutoring. The micro- and sequential analysis of ten hours of screen-recorded video-mediated data from tutoring sessions between an experienced tutor and an advanced-level tutee reveals that the typical overlap resolution trajectory results in the tutor withdrawing from the interactional floor. The same analysis uncovered a range of resources, such as lip pressing and the verbal utterance ‘go ahead’, employed in what we call enhanced explicitness, through which the withdrawal is done. The orchestration of these resources allows the tutor to exploit the specific features of the medium to resolve simultaneous start-ups while also supporting the continuation of student talk. We maintain that this practice is used in the service of securing the learner’s interactional space, and consequently in fostering the use of the language being learned. The results of the study help advance current understandings of L2 instructors’ specialized work of managing participation and creating learning opportunities. Being one of the first studies to detail the practices involved in overlap resolution in the micro-context of simultaneous talk on Zoom-based L2 instruction, this study also makes a significant contribution to research on video-mediated instruction and video-mediated interaction more generally. Full article
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Article
Two Oral Exam Formats for Literary Analysis in the Tertiary English as a Foreign Language Seminar
Languages 2022, 7(2), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7020076 - 28 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1146
Abstract
For novice students, developing disciplinary literacy in literature courses in English as a Foreign Language education (EFL) at university entails mastering a number of skills. The purpose of this small-scale action research study is to investigate the extent to which two different oral [...] Read more.
For novice students, developing disciplinary literacy in literature courses in English as a Foreign Language education (EFL) at university entails mastering a number of skills. The purpose of this small-scale action research study is to investigate the extent to which two different oral exam formats can serve to make explicit commonly held warrants in the discourse community of literary studies. The material consists of observation notes from Socratic seminars and Thought-Question-Epiphany (TQE) seminars, both of which are analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The results show that most students adopt disciplinary conventions, such as building on each other’s ideas, using critical lenses, showing contextual awareness, and supporting claims with textual evidence. While the Socratic seminar format generates lively discussions, the sole focus on questions prevents students from preparing textual evidence for specific literary elements in the analysis. In the TQE seminar, some students react negatively to the forced inclusion of an epiphany, but the format also gives an opportunity to identify significant quotes in advance and to expand on interpretative ideas prompted by the three components. Full article
Article
Getting Students to Talk: A Practice-Based Study on the Design and Implementation of Problem-Solving Tasks in the EFL Classroom
Languages 2022, 7(2), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7020075 - 24 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1434
Abstract
This study addresses a pedagogical practice-based issue, that is, difficulties with eliciting student–student co-constructed oral interaction in the EFL classroom. The study was conducted with a bottom-up approach to pedagogical research through the close collaboration of teachers and researchers who were equal partners [...] Read more.
This study addresses a pedagogical practice-based issue, that is, difficulties with eliciting student–student co-constructed oral interaction in the EFL classroom. The study was conducted with a bottom-up approach to pedagogical research through the close collaboration of teachers and researchers who were equal partners in the research team. It was observed that students often engage in parallel monologues or unauthentic question–response sequences when accomplishing oral activities; thus, the research team aimed to design tasks providing opportunities for meaningful, co-constructed talk. The research design involved an iteration of task design and classroom testing in three cycles, and the student–student interaction was analyzed using conversation analysis. Findings show that the divergent problem-based task designed in this process did elicit purposeful and collaborative oral interaction, as the students engaged in co-constructed talk by visibly attending to each other’s turns-at-talk and by formulating fitting turns that fostered the progressivity of the activity. The task also included artifacts (i.e., material objects), the manipulation of which played an important role in the emerging collaborative interaction. These findings suggest that the implementation of open-ended problem-based tasks can develop students’ interactional competence, while the use of artifacts can help students make their reasoning tangible and visually accessible. Full article
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Article
Language Play with Formulas in an EFL Classroom
Languages 2022, 7(1), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7010063 - 04 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1399
Abstract
Language learners’ play with language can be a useful and effective tool for learning. Since language play generally involves deviating from the norms, one potential source for it can be multiword units of language known as formulaic sequences. This study is informed by [...] Read more.
Language learners’ play with language can be a useful and effective tool for learning. Since language play generally involves deviating from the norms, one potential source for it can be multiword units of language known as formulaic sequences. This study is informed by sociocultural perspective and Bakhtinian dialogism and investigates language play with sequences among young foreign language learners in a classroom context. A class of 11 pupils (aged 9 to 11), in Iran, was observed and video recorded for 16 × 90 min sessions. Across recordings, episodes where pupils were engaged in language play were identified and analyzed qualitatively to document patterns of use and participation. Additionally, formulaic sequences were identified based on pre-established criteria. Results revealed that the young learners of the present study were recurrently engaged in different types of language play with formulaic sequences such as playing with sounds, manipulating some units of sequences or using a sequence to play a role. The data provide examples illustrating the role of language play in generating occasions for learners to practice, repeat, explore, and interact with the language in a more lively and low stress environment. Full article
Article
Vocabulary Teaching Practices of L2 English in Upper Secondary Vocational Classrooms
Languages 2022, 7(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7010055 - 01 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1837
Abstract
This qualitative study investigates language teaching practices relating to L2 English vocabulary instruction in upper secondary school vocational classrooms in Norway. It builds on previous research describing technical vocabulary as an area of particular importance for vocational students’ English language development and relies [...] Read more.
This qualitative study investigates language teaching practices relating to L2 English vocabulary instruction in upper secondary school vocational classrooms in Norway. It builds on previous research describing technical vocabulary as an area of particular importance for vocational students’ English language development and relies on observation data from eight vocational classrooms. The study found that vocabulary work has a strong presence within vocational orientation (VO) instruction, across whole-class instruction, group or pair work, and individual work. Most target vocabulary could be classified as words relating to work practices and vocational content knowledge. Many instances of L1–L2 translation tasks were observed. Target words were not practiced across the four language skills and were rarely utilized in productive tasks. The study concludes that observed practices can be improved by prioritizing ways of combining target vocabulary with students’ language production and by including more opportunities to practice independent language strategies. Full article
Article
Comparing Teacher Priorities and Student Uptake in EMI Lectures: An Exploratory Study
Languages 2022, 7(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7010039 - 17 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1231
Abstract
English medium instruction (EMI) has been increasing in higher education with broad intentions of stimulating internationalization and cross-cultural learning experiences. This form of education presents opportunities and challenges for teachers and students alike. Key challenges involve various levels of second language (L2) speaking [...] Read more.
English medium instruction (EMI) has been increasing in higher education with broad intentions of stimulating internationalization and cross-cultural learning experiences. This form of education presents opportunities and challenges for teachers and students alike. Key challenges involve various levels of second language (L2) speaking and listening abilities among teachers and students operating in EMI contexts. This exploratory study therefore examines the relationship between the main ideas two EMI lecturers in Sweden intended for their students to learn during lectures and the main ideas that EMI students report learning in the same lectures. Prior to six lectures, the teachers summarized to the researcher the main ideas to be included in the respective lecture. Immediately following the lecture, students provided their own summaries of the main ideas. A keyword analysis comparing the teachers’ intended messages and students’ reports shows that students may not be recognizing and acquiring the main ideas that the teacher intends. Further analysis distinguished two sub-groups of students: those with self-reported Swedish as a first language (L1) and those with self-reported L1s other than Swedish. A binomial proportion test showed that L1 impacted the amount of lecture main idea key words reported by the students in this study. The paper closes with a pedagogic perspective encouraging EMI lecturers to monitor student uptake on a regular basis and adjust their lecture delivery to support better learning and retention of content delivered via EMI. Full article
Article
Accuracy and Fluency Teaching and the Role of Extramural English: A Tale of Three Countries
Languages 2022, 7(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7010035 - 14 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1358
Abstract
European learners of English are increasingly using this language recreationally, which is referred to as Extramural English (henceforth EE). The level of EE use in a given country might be reflected in English Language Teaching (ELT) practices. Yet, no research so far has [...] Read more.
European learners of English are increasingly using this language recreationally, which is referred to as Extramural English (henceforth EE). The level of EE use in a given country might be reflected in English Language Teaching (ELT) practices. Yet, no research so far has examined cross-nationally what potential for language learning teachers perceive in their learners’ EE engagement and how this relates to ELT practices. To address this gap, the present study draws on interview data from lower secondary English teachers from Austria, France, and Sweden (n = 20). They were enquired about (1) their students’ EE engagement and its effects on learning, (2) their accuracy and fluency teaching methods, and (3) the perceived link between EE and ELT. Swedish teachers seemed to have a more positive and fine-grained conceptualization of the impact of EE on learning than Austrian and French participants, especially in terms of grammar acquisition. The implicit learning environment that Swedish students encounter extramurally might extend to the classroom, where the use of explicit grammar rules occurs less dominantly than in the Austrian and French samples. The countries converged in the type of fluency-based instruction they reported. Gaps in language areas not (fully) developed through EE seem to be more intentionally addressed in ELT in Sweden. Full article
Article
Study Abroad in Sweden: Japanese Exchange Students’ Perspectives of Language Use in University EMI Courses
Languages 2022, 7(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7010003 - 28 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2013
Abstract
With the availability of English as a Medium of Instruction (EMI) courses, an increasing number of international students have been joining Swedish universities. However, the language use in Swedish EMI courses may display unique features; while many Swedish students have high English language [...] Read more.
With the availability of English as a Medium of Instruction (EMI) courses, an increasing number of international students have been joining Swedish universities. However, the language use in Swedish EMI courses may display unique features; while many Swedish students have high English language proficiency, code-switching between Swedish and English is reported as a common practice by both lecturers and students, even when international students are present. Moreover, the term “international students” is often used to include students of various statuses and linguistic abilities, and the experiences and perspectives of short-term exchange students towards the language use in Swedish EMI courses are rarely documented. The current study investigates the perspectives of short-term exchange students from Japan enrolled in EMI courses at a university in Sweden. Questionnaire and focus group interview confirmed previous studies regarding the language-use practices in the classrooms. Moreover, the rate of speech, turn-taking, and background knowledge were found to hinder the learning and participation of the exchange students. The findings suggest the need to raise awareness of the language practices in Swedish EMI courses to students, lecturers, and other universities in order to support the learning experience of short-term exchange students. Full article

Review

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Review
Examining Pedagogical Translanguaging: A Systematic Review of the Literature
Languages 2021, 6(4), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages6040180 - 26 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3648
Abstract
In the past two decades translanguaging has proven to be a potent concept in applied linguistics, having generated a large amount of literature that explores theoretical and empirical dimensions of this linguistically inclusive pedagogical approach to language teaching and learning. This systematic literature [...] Read more.
In the past two decades translanguaging has proven to be a potent concept in applied linguistics, having generated a large amount of literature that explores theoretical and empirical dimensions of this linguistically inclusive pedagogical approach to language teaching and learning. This systematic literature review focuses on empirical studies that draw on the translanguaging framework in English language teaching (ELT) and beyond. Following PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews, this study aims to shed light on the current state of knowledge about the affordances of translanguaging pedagogies in a plethora of educational contexts worldwide and to highlight possible avenues for future research. Eleven databases were searched to obtain a dataset spanning from 2011 till February of 2021 and yielding nearly 3000 publications. After duplicate removal, abstract screening, and application of the inclusion/exclusion criteria, a total of 233 studies were coded and analysed to address the research questions. As a result, this systematic review synthesizes the state of knowledge on pedagogical translanguaging, with the aim to inform educators about developments in this rapidly growing field and support researchers in identifying future research priorities on the subject of drawing on learners’ full linguistic repertoires for linguistically inclusive education. Full article
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