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Languages, Volume 5, Issue 2 (June 2020) – 17 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): How do multilinguals restrict their language production to only one? Research suggests that various executive functions (EFs) contribute to the cognitive control of language production. We examine the role of three EFs (working memory updating, inhibitory control, and task-set switching) in trilingual language switching among native English (L1) speakers learning French (L2) and Spanish (L3). Results indicated complex interactions between EFs and language switching: better inhibitory control was related to smaller L1 switch costs, whereas better working memory was related to larger L1 switch costs. Working memory was also related to larger L2 switch costs, but only when switching from L1. These findings support theories of cognitive control that implicate both global and local control mechanisms and suggest unique contributions of EFs to global and local cognitive control in language [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
The Perception of Postalveolar English Obstruents by Spanish Speakers Learning English as a Foreign Language in Mexico
Languages 2020, 5(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages5020027 - 22 Jun 2020
Viewed by 1099
Abstract
The present study deals with the perception (identification and discrimination) of an English phonemic contrast (/t∫/–/∫/, as in cheat and sheet) by speakers of two Mexican varieties of Spanish who are learning English as a foreign language. Unlike English, Spanish does not [...] Read more.
The present study deals with the perception (identification and discrimination) of an English phonemic contrast (/t∫/–/∫/, as in cheat and sheet) by speakers of two Mexican varieties of Spanish who are learning English as a foreign language. Unlike English, Spanish does not contrast /t∫/ and /∫/ phonemically. Most Spanish varieties have [t∫], but not [∫]. In northwestern Mexico, [∫] and [t∫] find themselves in a situation of “free” variation—perhaps conditioned, to some extent, by social factors, but not in complementary distribution. In this variety, [∫] and [t∫] are variants of the same phoneme. The present study compares the perceptual behavior of English learners from northwestern Mexico, with that of learners from central Mexico, whose native dialect includes only [t∫]. The results of a word-categorization task show that both groups of learners find cheat and sheet difficult to identify in the context of each other, but that, relative to the other learner group, the group of learners in northwestern Mexico find this task to be particularly challenging. The results of a categorical discrimination task show that both learner groups find the members of the /t∫/–/∫/ contrast difficult to discriminate. On average, accuracy is lower for the group of learners in northwestern Mexico than it is for the central Mexicans. The findings suggest that the phonetic variants found in one’s native dialect modulate the perception of nonnative sounds and, consequently, that people who speak different regional varieties of the same language may face different obstacles when learning the sounds of their second language. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Syntactic and Discourse Features in Chinese Heritage Grammars: A Case of Acquiring Features in the Chinese Sentence-Final Particle ba
Languages 2020, 5(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages5020026 - 22 Jun 2020
Viewed by 1075
Abstract
This study investigates how syntactic and discourse features of Chinese sentence-final particles (the question particle ba and the suggestion particle ba) are reconfigured in Chinese heritage grammars. It has been argued that features of the Chinese particles ba are present in English [...] Read more.
This study investigates how syntactic and discourse features of Chinese sentence-final particles (the question particle ba and the suggestion particle ba) are reconfigured in Chinese heritage grammars. It has been argued that features of the Chinese particles ba are present in English but are configured differently. An acceptability judgment task, a discourse completion task, and a translation task were adopted in this study. In total, 35 Chinese heritage speakers and 18 Chinese native speakers took part in this study. The results show that none of the heritage speaker groups had any problem in configuring the discourse feature of the suggestion particle ba and the syntactic features of the question particle ba. However, none of them could successfully reconfigure the discourse feature of the question particle ba. It seems that the effects of dominant language transfer, reduced Chinese input, and limited processing resources play roles in the reconfiguration of discourse features in heritage grammars. As compared to previous L2 studies regarding the same phenomenon, heritage speakers with more and early Chinese input seem to have advantages over L2 learners in terms of syntactic features. L2 learners are found to be slightly better than heritage speakers in terms of reconfiguring some discourse properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Acquisition of Chinese as a First and Second Language)
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Open AccessArticle
Metadiscourse, Cohesion, and Engagement in L2 Written Discourse
Languages 2020, 5(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages5020025 - 05 Jun 2020
Viewed by 951
Abstract
The current study examines how L2 Chinese writers at different proficiencies employed various metadiscourse devices to shape their written descriptive discourse and also whether various metadiscourse features may distinguish levels of writing proficiency. The study also looks at how L2 learners’ use of [...] Read more.
The current study examines how L2 Chinese writers at different proficiencies employed various metadiscourse devices to shape their written descriptive discourse and also whether various metadiscourse features may distinguish levels of writing proficiency. The study also looks at how L2 learners’ use of metadiscourse devices is related to their linguistic performances in descriptive writing. The findings revealed differential metadiscourse use by learners at different proficiencies on local, global, and textual organizational dimensions. For instance, compared to low-proficiency writers, more proficient writers used significantly more conditional/hypothetical markers, frame markers, and engagement markers. Multiple metadiscourse features also demonstrated significant positive and negative correlations with each other, suggesting patterns of decreases and increases in the use of particular organizational features. Several metadiscourse features characteristic of more advanced writers also displayed positive relationships with linguistic features. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Acquisition of Chinese as a First and Second Language)
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Open AccessArticle
Intercultural Responsiveness: Learning Languages Other Than English and Developing Intercultural Communication Competence
Languages 2020, 5(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages5020024 - 02 Jun 2020
Viewed by 1261
Abstract
This paper conceptually discusses why it is essential to foster intercultural responsiveness through learning a language other than English (LOTE) and developing intercultural communication competence at Australian universities. Learning a LOTE is meaningful and helps second language learners develop social skills and cognitive [...] Read more.
This paper conceptually discusses why it is essential to foster intercultural responsiveness through learning a language other than English (LOTE) and developing intercultural communication competence at Australian universities. Learning a LOTE is meaningful and helps second language learners develop social skills and cognitive competence, understand the linguistic system of the LOTEs, and sense differences between their home language/culture and target language/culture, and then pave the way to developing intercultural communication competence. However, a LOTE as a compulsory unit has little presence in Australian university curricula. No Australian universities require that students need to learn a LOTE to meet the course requirements. Learning a LOTE is conducive to both bilingual/multilingual and intercultural communication competence development. Furthermore, most current work studies intercultural verbal communication competence more than intercultural nonverbal communication competence. While intercultural verbal communication is audio-oriented, voiced, and externalized with open messages, intercultural nonverbal communication is visually oriented, silent, and internalized with hidden cues. Only when both components are considered can people achieve effective intercultural communication. The implications for learning a LOTE and developing intercultural communication competence are discussed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Longitudinal Study of the Acquisition of the Polysemous Verb in Mandarin Chinese
Languages 2020, 5(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages5020023 - 18 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 791
Abstract
Lexical ambiguity abounds in languages and multiple one-to-many form-function mappings create challenges for language learners. This study extends the theoretical approaches to the acquisition of polysemy to the Mandarin verb 打 dǎ, which is highly polysemous and among the earliest verbs in [...] Read more.
Lexical ambiguity abounds in languages and multiple one-to-many form-function mappings create challenges for language learners. This study extends the theoretical approaches to the acquisition of polysemy to the Mandarin verb 打 dǎ, which is highly polysemous and among the earliest verbs in child speech. It analyzes longitudinal naturalistic data of nine children (1;05–3;10) from two Mandarin child speech corpora to explore the developmental trajectory of different senses of 打 dǎ and the role of input. The results support a continuous derivational and restricted monosemy approach: children initially extract a core feature of 打 dǎ, but only apply it in a restricted way, reflected in a small number of senses in a limited set of semantic domains and syntactic frames, revealing an early preference for initial unambiguous form-meaning mappings. Mandarin-speaking children’s production mirrors the semantic and syntactic distribution of the input, supporting the usage-based approach to the acquisition of polysemy that meaning is derived from the confluence of lexical and syntactic cues in the usage patterns in the input. Our research is the first longitudinal study of the emergence and development of polysemous verbs in Mandarin and has pedagogical implications for teaching Mandarin as a second language. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Acquisition of Chinese as a First and Second Language)
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Open AccessArticle
Code-Switching in Linguistics: A Position Paper
Languages 2020, 5(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages5020022 - 18 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1425 | Correction
Abstract
This paper provides a critical review of the state of the art in code-switching research being conducted in linguistics. Three issues of theoretical and practical importance are explored: (a) code-switching vs. borrowing; (b) grammaticality; and (c) variability vs. uniformity, and I take a [...] Read more.
This paper provides a critical review of the state of the art in code-switching research being conducted in linguistics. Three issues of theoretical and practical importance are explored: (a) code-switching vs. borrowing; (b) grammaticality; and (c) variability vs. uniformity, and I take a position on all three issues. Regarding switching vs. borrowing, I argue that not all lone other-language items are borrowings once more subtle measures of integration are used. I defend the use of empirical data to compare competing theoretical frameworks of grammaticality, and I exemplify quantitative research on variability in code-switching, showing that it also reveals uniformity and the possible influence of community norms. I conclude that more research is needed on a range of bilingual communities in order to determine the relative contribution of individual factors, processing and community norms to the variability and uniformity of code-switching. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Code-Switching)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Metacognitive Strategy Training on Chinese Listening Comprehension
Languages 2020, 5(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages5020021 - 15 May 2020
Viewed by 982
Abstract
In an exploration of solutions to improve Chinese second language learners’ listening comprehension, this quantitative quasi-experimental study examines the effects of metacognitive strategy training (MST) on learners’ metacognitive awareness, listening performance, and proficiency in an intensive language training program. In contrast with the [...] Read more.
In an exploration of solutions to improve Chinese second language learners’ listening comprehension, this quantitative quasi-experimental study examines the effects of metacognitive strategy training (MST) on learners’ metacognitive awareness, listening performance, and proficiency in an intensive language training program. In contrast with the extant research, this study designed a metacognitive learning cycle model, including self-diagnosis, planning, monitoring, evaluation, regulation, and reflection strategies, as the content of the MST. Six classes, comprised of a total of 80 participants, were assigned into three groups: Self-directed, teacher-led, and control groups. The Metacognitive Awareness Listening Questionnaire and a listening comprehension test were administered as pre- and post-tests, in addition to a proficiency test as a post-test only. Results demonstrate no significant differences in metacognitive awareness development, listening performance gains, and proficiency test results among the three groups. The results do indicate that the self-directed MST better enhances development of students’ planning and evaluation awareness, and teacher-led MST workshops with special emphasis on the area of monitoring strategy will help students raise awareness. The findings of this study reveal that insufficient training time and MST without the integration of cognitive strategies do not yield significant effects. It is suggested that future MSTs should involve sufficient training time and effective follow-ups to ensure its positive effects. This study proposes that the effectiveness of MST could be improved by combining it with cognitive strategies training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Acquisition of Chinese as a First and Second Language)
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Open AccessArticle
The Acquisition of Mandarin Consonants by English Learners: The Relationship between Perception and Production
Languages 2020, 5(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages5020020 - 13 May 2020
Viewed by 941
Abstract
This study investigates native English CFL (Chinese as a Foreign Language) learners’ difficulties with Mandarin consonants at the initial stage of learning and explores the relationship between second language (L2) speech perception and production. Twenty-five native English CFL learners read the eight Mandarin [...] Read more.
This study investigates native English CFL (Chinese as a Foreign Language) learners’ difficulties with Mandarin consonants at the initial stage of learning and explores the relationship between second language (L2) speech perception and production. Twenty-five native English CFL learners read the eight Mandarin consonants (j/tɕ/, q /tɕʰ/, x /ɕ/, zh /tʂ/, ch /tʂʰ/, sh /ʂ/, z /ts/, and c /tsʰ/) in sentences and identified the target sounds in a forced-choice identification task. Native Mandarin listeners identified the consonants produced by the learners and rated the quality of each sound they identified along a scale of 1 (poor) to 7 (good). The learners’ mean percentage accuracy scores ranged from 29% to 80% for perception and 25% to 88% for production. Moderate correlations between the perception and production scores were found for two of the eight target sounds. The Mandarin retroflex, palatal, and dental fricatives and affricates, though all lack counterparts in English, pose different problems to the English CFL learners. The misperceived retroflex and palatal sounds were substituted with each other in perception but mis-produced palatal sounds were substituted with each other, not with retroflex sounds. The relationship between perception and production of L2 consonants is not straightforward. The findings are discussed in terms of current speech learning models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Acquisition of Chinese as a First and Second Language)
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Open AccessArticle
The Differential Role of Executive Functions in the Cognitive Control of Language Switching
Languages 2020, 5(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages5020019 - 05 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1171
Abstract
Studies of bilingual speech production suggest that different executive functions (EFs) contribute to the cognitive control of language production. However, no study has simultaneously examined the relationship between different EFs and language control during online speech production. The current study examined individual differences [...] Read more.
Studies of bilingual speech production suggest that different executive functions (EFs) contribute to the cognitive control of language production. However, no study has simultaneously examined the relationship between different EFs and language control during online speech production. The current study examined individual differences in three EFs (working memory updating, inhibitory control, and task-set switching) and their relationship with performance in a trilingual language-switching task for a group of forty-seven native English (L1) speakers learning French (L2) and Spanish (L3). Analyses indicate complex interactions between EFs and language switching: better inhibitory control was related to smaller L1 switch costs, whereas better working memory was related to larger L1 switch costs. Working memory was also related to larger L2 switch costs, but only when switching from L1. These results support theories of cognitive control that implicate both global and local control mechanisms, and suggest unique contributions of each EF to both global and local cognitive control during language switching. Finally, we discuss the implications for theories of multilingual language control. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Exploratory Study of the Effect of Spanish Immersion Education on the Acquisition of Pronominal Subjects in Child Heritage Speakers
Languages 2020, 5(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages5020018 - 27 Apr 2020
Viewed by 837
Abstract
Studies have found that aspects of grammar that lie at the syntax–pragmatics interface, such as the use of pronominal subjects in null-subject languages, are likely to undergo cross-linguistic influence in bilingual speakers. This study contributes to our understanding of the role of Spanish [...] Read more.
Studies have found that aspects of grammar that lie at the syntax–pragmatics interface, such as the use of pronominal subjects in null-subject languages, are likely to undergo cross-linguistic influence in bilingual speakers. This study contributes to our understanding of the role of Spanish immersion academic instruction on the comprehension of null subjects in English-dominant, Spanish-heritage children living in the United States. Two groups of bilingual children aged 4 to 7 (those attending a Spanish immersion school and those not) completed an acceptability judgment task in both English and Spanish. English monolingual children and monolingually raised Spanish children of the same ages also completed the task in their respective languages. The findings revealed that children in the Spanish immersion school performed on par with their monolingual peers in Spanish, but accepted significantly more ungrammatical null subjects in English than the other groups. These results suggest that immersion schooling plays a role in extending the English null subject stage in bilingual children due to competing input and cross-linguistic influence. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
The Making of MOBILLE a Year Later
Languages 2020, 5(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages5020017 - 27 Apr 2020
Viewed by 675
Abstract
Over a year has passed since the 2019 MOBILLE International Conference took place at the Lycée Français de New York [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MOBILLE 2019)
Open AccessArticle
Perfective -le Use and Consciousness-Raising among Beginner-Level Chinese Learners
by
Languages 2020, 5(2), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages5020016 - 17 Apr 2020
Viewed by 850
Abstract
Within the framework of explicit learning and consciousness-raising, this study investigates patterns in the use of -le in authentic classroom tasks by beginner-level learners of Chinese as a foreign language (CFL). It also explores the role and the processes of student-centered consciousness-raising [...] Read more.
Within the framework of explicit learning and consciousness-raising, this study investigates patterns in the use of -le in authentic classroom tasks by beginner-level learners of Chinese as a foreign language (CFL). It also explores the role and the processes of student-centered consciousness-raising in explicit knowledge building. Twenty-five participants completed a grammaticality judgment task, an interactive role-play task, and a written editing task. The experiment group received role-play sheets with explicit forms of -le provided, and participants engaged in rule induction of -le in forbidden context in the role-play session. Results showed that beginner-level learners’ difficulty with -le use manifested in different ways in these tasks, and -le underuse occurred more than overuse in the control group’s oral role-play task. Consciousness-raising through unguided small group rule induction supported participants’ learning of -le usage constraints, shown by differences between the control and experiment groups’ performances in the posttest. Through a qualitative analysis of participants’ analytical talk transcripts, the processes and outcomes of small group rule induction are examined and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Acquisition of Chinese as a First and Second Language)
Open AccessArticle
Towards Modeling Second Dialect Speech Learning: The Production of Bogota [s] in Ciudad Bolivar by Speakers of Three Different Varieties of Colombian Spanish
Languages 2020, 5(2), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages5020015 - 16 Apr 2020
Viewed by 754
Abstract
This study investigates the second dialect production of Bogota Spanish /s/ in coda position by speakers of three different varieties of Colombian Spanish, who have been in contact in Ciudad Bolivar, a community located in Bogota, Colombia. The study has three aims. First, [...] Read more.
This study investigates the second dialect production of Bogota Spanish /s/ in coda position by speakers of three different varieties of Colombian Spanish, who have been in contact in Ciudad Bolivar, a community located in Bogota, Colombia. The study has three aims. First, it will examine the role of phonetic distance in the acquisition of /s/ production. Second, it will determine the linguistic factors that constrain the realization of /s/ sound by the speakers of the three varieties studied. Third, it will look into the role of extralinguistic factors in the production of /s/. A total of 2322 tokens extracted from sociolinguistic interviews with 50 participants were acoustically analyzed in PRAAT. Statistical analyses were conducted using GoldVarb. The results showed the highest rate of [s] was produced by the speakers of the Eastern Andean variety, followed by the Western Andean, and then by the Coastal variety, suggesting that first dialect phonological processes may affect the acquisition of second dialect sounds. Consistent with previous studies that have examined /s/ variation and change, the linguistic factors position in the word, following segment, and syllable stress were also predictors of /s/ in second dialect production. The extralinguistic factors of age of arrival, age, and gender also had a significant effect on /s/ production in this study. Implications are discussed for models of second dialect speech learning. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Information Structure and Word Order Preference in Child and Adult Speech of Mandarin Chinese
Languages 2020, 5(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages5020014 - 14 Apr 2020
Viewed by 927
Abstract
The acquisition of appropriate linguistic markers of information structure (IS), e.g., word order and specific lexical and syntactic constructions, is a rather late development. This study revisits the debate on language-general preferred word order in IS and examines the use of language-specific means [...] Read more.
The acquisition of appropriate linguistic markers of information structure (IS), e.g., word order and specific lexical and syntactic constructions, is a rather late development. This study revisits the debate on language-general preferred word order in IS and examines the use of language-specific means to encode IS in Mandarin Chinese. An elicited production study of conjunct noun phrases (NPs) of new and old referents was conducted with native Mandarin-speaking children (N = 24, mean age 4;6) and adults (N = 25, mean age 26). (The age of children is conventionally notated as years;months). The result shows that adults differ significantly from children in preferring the “old-before-new” word order. This corroborates prior findings in other languages (e.g., German, English, Arabic) that adults prefer a language-general “old-before-new” IS, whereas children disprefer or show no preference for that order. Despite different word order preferences, Mandarin-speaking children and adults resemble each other in the lexical and syntactic forms to encode old and new referents: bare NPs dominate the conjunct NPs, and indefinite classifier NPs are used for both the old and the new referents, but when only one classifier phrase is produced, it is predominantly used to refer to the new referents, which suggests children’s early sensitivity to language-specific syntactic devices to mark IS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Acquisition of Chinese as a First and Second Language)
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Open AccessArticle
Relating Lexical Access and Second Language Speaking Performance
by
Languages 2020, 5(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages5020013 - 13 Apr 2020
Viewed by 853
Abstract
Vocabulary plays a key role in speech production, affecting multiple stages of language processing. This pilot study investigates the relationships between second language (L2) learners’ lexical access and their speaking fluency, speaking accuracy, and speaking complexity. Fifteen L2 learners of Chinese participated in [...] Read more.
Vocabulary plays a key role in speech production, affecting multiple stages of language processing. This pilot study investigates the relationships between second language (L2) learners’ lexical access and their speaking fluency, speaking accuracy, and speaking complexity. Fifteen L2 learners of Chinese participated in the experiment. A task-specific, native-referenced vocabulary test was used to measure learners’ vocabulary size and lexical retrieval speed. Learners’ speaking performance was measured by thirteen variables. The results showed that lexical access was significantly correlated with learners’ speech rate, lexical accuracy, syntactic accuracy, and lexical complexity. Vocabulary size and lexical retrieval speed were significant predictors of speech rate. However, vocabulary size and lexical retrieval speed each affected learners’ speaking performance differently. Learners’ speaking fluency, accuracy, and complexity were all affected by vocabulary size. No significant correlation was found between lexical retrieval speed and syntactic complexity. Findings in this study support the Model of Bilingual Speech Production, revealing the significant role lexical access plays in L2 speech production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Acquisition of Chinese as a First and Second Language)
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Open AccessArticle
Case, Concord and the Emergence of Default
Languages 2020, 5(2), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages5020012 - 09 Apr 2020
Viewed by 667
Abstract
This article provides initial evidence that the head K, which may spell out as case morphology, drives the operations of concord within the noun phrase. Evidence for this claim comes from three code-switching varieties: Basque/Spanish, German/Turkish and Russian/Kazakh. By placing the switch at [...] Read more.
This article provides initial evidence that the head K, which may spell out as case morphology, drives the operations of concord within the noun phrase. Evidence for this claim comes from three code-switching varieties: Basque/Spanish, German/Turkish and Russian/Kazakh. By placing the switch at the border between case morphology and the rest of the noun phrase the properties of K can be isolated and inspected. We find that if K is drawn from the lexicon of a non-concord language, constituents within the noun phrase adopt a default morphology. It is suggested that the data presented in this paper provide evidence for approaches that take Concord to be a form of Agree (probe, goal) and against an approach that takes it to be the result of feature percolation from the bottom up. An analysis of default morphology is proposed that argues that default forms are inserted as vocabulary items in syntactic terminals that, as a result of a failure of Agree, are populated with unvalued features. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Pronouns, Interrogatives, and (Quichua-Media Lengua) Code-Switching: The Eyes Have It
Languages 2020, 5(2), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages5020011 - 27 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 828
Abstract
This study examines the processing of two putatively problematic intra-sentential code-switching configurations, following subject pronouns and interrogatives, in a bilingual speech community in which there are no confounding grammatical differences. The languages are Ecuadoran Quichua and the mixed language known as Media Lengua, [...] Read more.
This study examines the processing of two putatively problematic intra-sentential code-switching configurations, following subject pronouns and interrogatives, in a bilingual speech community in which there are no confounding grammatical differences. The languages are Ecuadoran Quichua and the mixed language known as Media Lengua, consisting of the entire Quichua morphosyntactic system but with all lexical roots replaced by their Spanish counterparts. In eye-tracking processing experiments utilizing the visual world paradigm with auditorily presented stimuli, Quichua–Media Lengua bilinguals identified the languages more quickly after pronouns and interrogatives than after lexical items, while acknowledgement of code-switches after pronouns and interrogatives was delayed in comparison with switches following lexical items. The facilitation effect of pronouns and interrogatives evidently provokes a surprise reaction when they are immediately followed by items from another language, and this relative delay may play a role in the low acceptability of code-switched utterances that otherwise violate no grammatical constraints. Full article
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