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Review

Plant Disease Detection and Classification by Deep Learning

1
Department of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, School of Food and Advanced Technology, Massey University, Auckland 0632, New Zealand
2
Massey Agritech Partnership Research Centre, School of Food and Advanced Technology, Massey University, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2019, 8(11), 468; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8110468
Received: 25 September 2019 / Revised: 14 October 2019 / Accepted: 29 October 2019 / Published: 31 October 2019
Plant diseases affect the growth of their respective species, therefore their early identification is very important. Many Machine Learning (ML) models have been employed for the detection and classification of plant diseases but, after the advancements in a subset of ML, that is, Deep Learning (DL), this area of research appears to have great potential in terms of increased accuracy. Many developed/modified DL architectures are implemented along with several visualization techniques to detect and classify the symptoms of plant diseases. Moreover, several performance metrics are used for the evaluation of these architectures/techniques. This review provides a comprehensive explanation of DL models used to visualize various plant diseases. In addition, some research gaps are identified from which to obtain greater transparency for detecting diseases in plants, even before their symptoms appear clearly. View Full-Text
Keywords: plant disease; deep learning; convolutional neural networks (CNN) plant disease; deep learning; convolutional neural networks (CNN)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Saleem, M.H.; Potgieter, J.; Arif, K.M. Plant Disease Detection and Classification by Deep Learning. Plants 2019, 8, 468. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8110468

AMA Style

Saleem MH, Potgieter J, Arif KM. Plant Disease Detection and Classification by Deep Learning. Plants. 2019; 8(11):468. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8110468

Chicago/Turabian Style

Saleem, Muhammad H., Johan Potgieter, and Khalid M. Arif 2019. "Plant Disease Detection and Classification by Deep Learning" Plants 8, no. 11: 468. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8110468

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