With the huge volume of location-based point data being generated by Internet of Things (IoT) devices and subsequent rising interest from the Digital Earth community, a need has emerged for spatial operations that are compatible with Digital Earth frameworks, the foundation of which are Discrete Global Grid Systems (DGGSs). Offsetting is a fundamental spatial operation that allows us to determine the region within a given distance of an IoT device location, which is important for visualizing or querying nearby location-based data. Thus, in this paper, we present methods of modelling an offset region around the point location of an IoT device (both static and mobile) that is quantized into a cell of a DGGS. Notably, these methods illustrate how the underlying indexing structure of a DGGS can be utilized to determine the cells in an offset region at different spatial resolutions. For a static IoT device location, we describe a single resolution approach as well as a multiresolution approach that allows us to efficiently determine the cells in an offset region at finer (or coarser) resolutions. For mobile IoT device locations, we describe methods to efficiently determine the cells in successive offset regions at fine and coarse resolutions. Lastly, we present a variety of results that demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
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