Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf., Volume 8, Issue 1 (January 2019)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) Geolocated big data paired with smaller (traditional) data opens new ways of understanding how [...] Read more.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-51
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle The Spatial and Social Patterning of Property and Violent Crime in Toronto Neighbourhoods: A Spatial-Quantitative Approach
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8010051
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
Viewed by 483 | PDF Full-text (2552 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Criminal activities are often unevenly distributed over space. The literature shows that the occurrence of crime is frequently concentrated in particular neighbourhoods and is related to a variety of socioeconomic and crime opportunity factors. This study explores the broad patterning of property and [...] Read more.
Criminal activities are often unevenly distributed over space. The literature shows that the occurrence of crime is frequently concentrated in particular neighbourhoods and is related to a variety of socioeconomic and crime opportunity factors. This study explores the broad patterning of property and violent crime among different socio-economic stratums and across space by examining the neighbourhood socioeconomic conditions and individual characteristics of offenders associated with crime in the city of Toronto, which consists of 140 neighbourhoods. Despite being the largest urban centre in Canada, with a fast-growing population, Toronto is under-studied in crime analysis from a spatial perspective. In this study, both property and violent crime data sets from the years 2014 to 2016 and census-based Ontario-Marginalisation index are analysed using spatial and quantitative methods. Spatial techniques such as Local Moran’s I are applied to analyse the spatial distribution of criminal activity while accounting for spatial autocorrelation. Distance-to-crime is measured to explore the spatial behaviour of criminal activity. Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) linear regression is conducted to explore the ways in which individual and neighbourhood demographic characteristics relate to crime rates at the neighbourhood level. Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) is used to further our understanding of the spatially varying relationships between crime and the independent variables included in the OLS model. Property and violent crime across the three years of the study show a similar distribution of significant crime hot spots in the core, northwest, and east end of the city. The OLS model indicates offender-related demographics (i.e., age, marital status) to be a significant predictor of both types of crime, but in different ways. Neighbourhood contextual variables are measured by the four dimensions of the Ontario-Marginalisation Index. They are significantly associated with violent and property crime in different ways. The GWR is a more suitable model to explain the variations in observed property crime rates across different neighbourhoods. It also identifies spatial non-stationarity in relationships. The study provides implications for crime prevention and security through an enhanced understanding of crime patterns and factors. It points to the need for safe neighbourhoods, to be built not only by the law enforcement sector but by a wide range of social and economic sectors and services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS for Safety & Security Management)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Web Service-Oriented Geoprocessing System for Supporting Intelligent Land Cover Change Detection
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8010050
Received: 5 November 2018 / Revised: 13 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 20 January 2019
Viewed by 425 | PDF Full-text (6957 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Remotely sensed imagery-based change detection is an effective approach for identifying land cover change information. A large number of change detection algorithms have been developed that satisfy different requirements. However, most change detection algorithms have been developed using desktop-based software in offline environments; [...] Read more.
Remotely sensed imagery-based change detection is an effective approach for identifying land cover change information. A large number of change detection algorithms have been developed that satisfy different requirements. However, most change detection algorithms have been developed using desktop-based software in offline environments; thus, it is increasingly difficult for common end-users, who have limited remote sensing experience and geographic information system (GIS) skills, to perform appropriate change detection tasks. To address this challenge, this paper proposes an online geoprocessing system for supporting intelligent land cover change detection (OGS-LCCD). This system leverages web service encapsulation technology and an automatic service composition approach to dynamically generate a change detection service chain. First, a service encapsulation strategy is proposed with an execution body encapsulation and service semantics description. Then, a constraint rule-based service composition method is proposed to chain several web services into a flexible change detection workflow. Finally, the design and implementation of the OGS-LCCD are elaborated. A step-by-step walk-through example for a web-based change detection task is presented using this system. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the prototype system. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Small Manhole Cover Detection in Remote Sensing Imagery with Deep Convolutional Neural Networks
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8010049
Received: 28 December 2018 / Revised: 13 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 19 January 2019
Viewed by 381 | PDF Full-text (13955 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the development of remote sensing technology and the advent of high-resolution images, obtaining data has become increasingly convenient. However, the acquisition of small manhole cover information still has shortcomings including low efficiency of manual surveying and high leakage rate. Recently, deep learning [...] Read more.
With the development of remote sensing technology and the advent of high-resolution images, obtaining data has become increasingly convenient. However, the acquisition of small manhole cover information still has shortcomings including low efficiency of manual surveying and high leakage rate. Recently, deep learning models, especially deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs), have proven to be effective at object detection. However, several challenges limit the applications of DCNN in manhole cover object detection using remote sensing imagery: (1) Manhole cover objects often appear at different scales in remotely sensed images and DCNNs’ fixed receptive field cannot match the scale variability of such objects; (2) Manhole cover objects in large-scale remotely-sensed images are relatively small in size and densely packed, while DCNNs have poor localization performance when applied to such objects. To address these problems, we propose an effective method for detecting manhole cover objects in remotely-sensed images. First, we redesign the feature extractor by adopting the visual geometry group (VGG), which can increase the variety of receptive field size. Then, detection is performed using two sub-networks: a multi-scale output network (MON) for manhole cover object-like edge generation from several intermediate layers whose receptive fields match different object scales and a multi-level convolution matching network (M-CMN) for object detection based on fused feature maps, which combines several feature maps that enable small and densely packed manhole cover objects to produce a stronger response. The results show that our method is more accurate than existing methods at detecting manhole covers in remotely-sensed images. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Consideration of Level of Confidence within Multi-Approach Satellite-Derived Bathymetry
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8010048
Received: 4 December 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 19 January 2019
Viewed by 483 | PDF Full-text (8412 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Canadian Hydrographic Service (CHS) publishes nautical charts covering all Canadian waters. Through projects with the Canadian Space Agency, CHS has been investigating remote sensing techniques to support hydrographic applications. One challenge CHS has encountered relates to quantifying its confidence in remote sensing [...] Read more.
The Canadian Hydrographic Service (CHS) publishes nautical charts covering all Canadian waters. Through projects with the Canadian Space Agency, CHS has been investigating remote sensing techniques to support hydrographic applications. One challenge CHS has encountered relates to quantifying its confidence in remote sensing products. This is particularly challenging with Satellite-Derived Bathymetry (SDB) where minimal in situ data may be present for validation. This paper proposes a level of confidence approach where a minimum number of SDB techniques are required to agree within a defined level to allow SDB estimates to be retained. The approach was applied to a Canadian Arctic site, incorporating four techniques: empirical, classification and photogrammetric (automatic and manual). Based on International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) guidelines, each individual approach provided results meeting the CATegory of Zones Of Confidence (CATZOC) level C requirement. By applying the level of confidence approach, where technique combinations agreed within 1 m (e.g., all agree, three agree, two agree) large portions of the extracted bathymetry could now meet the CATZOC A2/B requirement. Areas where at least three approaches agreed have an accuracy of 1.2 m and represent 81% of the total surface. The proposed technique not only increases overall accuracy but also removes some of the uncertainty associated with SDB, particularly for locations where in situ validation data is not available. This approach could provide an option for hydrographic offices to increase their confidence in SDB, potentially allowing for increased SDB use within hydrographic products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geo-Spatial Analysis in Hydrology)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Deep Learning Segmentation and 3D Reconstruction of Road Markings Using Multiview Aerial Imagery
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8010047
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
Viewed by 624 | PDF Full-text (52187 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The 3D information of road infrastructures is growing in importance with the development of autonomous driving. In this context, the exact 2D position of road markings as well as height information play an important role in, e.g., lane-accurate self-localization of autonomous vehicles. In [...] Read more.
The 3D information of road infrastructures is growing in importance with the development of autonomous driving. In this context, the exact 2D position of road markings as well as height information play an important role in, e.g., lane-accurate self-localization of autonomous vehicles. In this paper, the overall task is divided into an automatic segmentation followed by a refined 3D reconstruction. For the segmentation task, we applied a wavelet-enhanced fully convolutional network on multiview high-resolution aerial imagery. Based on the resulting 2D segments in the original images, we propose a successive workflow for the 3D reconstruction of road markings based on a least-squares line-fitting in multiview imagery. The 3D reconstruction exploits the line character of road markings with the aim to optimize the best 3D line location by minimizing the distance from its back projection to the detected 2D line in all the covering images. Results showed an improved IoU of the automatic road marking segmentation by exploiting the multiview character of the aerial images and a more accurate 3D reconstruction of the road surface compared to the semiglobal matching (SGM) algorithm. Further, the approach avoids the matching problem in non-textured image parts and is not limited to lines of finite length. In this paper, the approach is presented and validated on several aerial image data sets covering different scenarios like motorways and urban regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Sensing - From Sensors to Methods and Applications)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle GEOBIA at the Terapixel Scale: Toward Efficient Mapping of Small Woody Features from Heterogeneous VHR Scenes
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8010046
Received: 10 August 2018 / Revised: 13 December 2018 / Accepted: 24 December 2018 / Published: 18 January 2019
Viewed by 316 | PDF Full-text (8621 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Land cover mapping has benefited a lot from the introduction of the Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) paradigm, that allowed to move from a pixelwise analysis to a processing of elements with richer semantic content, namely objects or regions. However, this paradigm requires [...] Read more.
Land cover mapping has benefited a lot from the introduction of the Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) paradigm, that allowed to move from a pixelwise analysis to a processing of elements with richer semantic content, namely objects or regions. However, this paradigm requires to define an appropriate scale, that can be challenging in a large-area study where a wide range of landscapes can be observed. We propose here to conduct the multiscale analysis based on hierarchical representations, from which features known as differential attribute profiles are derived over each single pixel. Efficient and scalable algorithms for construction and analysis of such representations, together with an optimized usage of the random forest classifier, provide us with a semi-supervised framework in which a user can drive mapping of elements such as Small Woody Features at a very large area. Indeed, the proposed open-source methodology has been successfully used to derive a part of the High Resolution Layers (HRL) product of the Copernicus Land Monitoring service, thus showing how the GEOBIA framework can be used in a big data scenario made of more than 38,000 Very High Resolution (VHR) satellite images representing more than 120 TB of data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GEOBIA in a Changing World)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Deep Neural Networks and Kernel Density Estimation for Detecting Human Activity Patterns from Geo-Tagged Images: A Case Study of Birdwatching on Flickr
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8010045
Received: 6 December 2018 / Revised: 7 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
Viewed by 530 | PDF Full-text (5140 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Thanks to recent advances in high-performance computing and deep learning, computer vision algorithms coupled with spatial analysis methods provide a unique opportunity for extracting human activity patterns from geo-tagged social media images. However, there are only a handful of studies that evaluate the [...] Read more.
Thanks to recent advances in high-performance computing and deep learning, computer vision algorithms coupled with spatial analysis methods provide a unique opportunity for extracting human activity patterns from geo-tagged social media images. However, there are only a handful of studies that evaluate the utility of computer vision algorithms for studying large-scale human activity patterns. In this article, we introduce an analytical framework that integrates a computer vision algorithm based on convolutional neural networks (CNN) with kernel density estimation to identify objects, and infer human activity patterns from geo-tagged photographs. To demonstrate our framework, we identify bird images to infer birdwatching activity from approximately 20 million publicly shared images on Flickr, across a three-year period from December 2013 to December 2016. In order to assess the accuracy of object detection, we compared results from the computer vision algorithm to concept-based image retrieval, which is based on keyword search on image metadata such as textual description, tags, and titles of images. We then compared patterns in birding activity generated using Flickr bird photographs with patterns identified using eBird data—an online citizen science bird observation application. The results of our eBird comparison highlight the potential differences and biases in casual and serious birdwatching, and similarities and differences among behaviors of social media and citizen science users. Our analysis results provide valuable insights into assessing the credibility and utility of geo-tagged photographs in studying human activity patterns through object detection and spatial analysis. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle TLS Measurement during Static Load Testing of a Railway Bridge
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8010044
Received: 10 December 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 14 January 2019 / Published: 17 January 2019
Viewed by 423 | PDF Full-text (5093 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) technology has become increasingly popular in investigating displacement and deformation of natural and anthropogenic objects. Regardless of the accuracy of deformation identification, TLS provides remote comprehensive information about the measured object in a short time. These features of TLS [...] Read more.
Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) technology has become increasingly popular in investigating displacement and deformation of natural and anthropogenic objects. Regardless of the accuracy of deformation identification, TLS provides remote comprehensive information about the measured object in a short time. These features of TLS were why TLS measurement was used for a static load test of an old, steel railway bridge. The results of the measurement using the Z + F Imager 5010 scanner and traditional surveying methods (for improved georeferencing) were compared to results of precise reflectorless tacheometry and precise levelling. The analyses involved various procedures for the determination of displacement from 3D data (black & white target analysis, point cloud analysis, and mesh surface analysis) and the need to pre-process the· 3D data was considered (georeferencing, automated filtering). The results demonstrate that TLS measurement can identify vertical displacement in line with the results of traditional measurements down to ±1 mm. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Recent NDVI Trends in Mainland Spain: Land-Cover and Phytoclimatic-Type Implications
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8010043
Received: 19 September 2018 / Revised: 3 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 17 January 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 414 | PDF Full-text (4835 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The temporal evolution of vegetation is one of the best indicators of climate change, and many earth system models are dependent on an accurate understanding of this process. However, the effect of climate change is expected to vary from one land-cover type to [...] Read more.
The temporal evolution of vegetation is one of the best indicators of climate change, and many earth system models are dependent on an accurate understanding of this process. However, the effect of climate change is expected to vary from one land-cover type to another, due to the change in vegetation and environmental conditions. Therefore, it is pertinent to understand the effect of climate change by land-cover type to understand the regions that are most vulnerable to climate change. Hence, in this study we analyzed the temporal statistical trends (2001–2016) of the MODIS13Q1 normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to explore whether there are differences, by land-cover class and phytoclimatic type, in mainland Spain and the Balearic Islands. We found 7.6% significant negative NDVI trends and 11.8% significant positive NDVI trends. Spatial patterns showed a non-random distribution. The Atlantic biogeographical region showed an unexpected 21% significant negative NDVI trends, and the Alpine region showed only 3.1% significant negative NDVI trends. We also found statistical differences between NDVI trends by land cover and phytoclimatic type. Variance explained by these variables was up to 35%. Positive trends were explained, above all, by land occupations, and negative trends were explained by phytoclimates. Warmer phytoclimatic classes of every general type and forest, as well as some agriculture land covers, showed negative trends. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Relationship between Winter Snow Cover Dynamics, Climate and Spring Grassland Vegetation Phenology in Inner Mongolia, China
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8010042
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 11 January 2019 / Accepted: 13 January 2019 / Published: 17 January 2019
Viewed by 317 | PDF Full-text (3990 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The onset date of spring phenology (SOS) is regarded as a key parameter for understanding and modeling vegetation–climate interactions. Inner Mongolia has a typical temperate grassland vegetation ecosystem, and has a rich snow cover during winter. Due to climate change, the winter snow [...] Read more.
The onset date of spring phenology (SOS) is regarded as a key parameter for understanding and modeling vegetation–climate interactions. Inner Mongolia has a typical temperate grassland vegetation ecosystem, and has a rich snow cover during winter. Due to climate change, the winter snow cover has undergone significant changes that will inevitably affect the vegetation growth. Therefore, improving our ability to accurately describe the responses of spring grassland vegetation phenology to winter snow cover dynamics would enhance our understanding of changes in terrestrial ecosystems due to their responses to climate changes. In this study, we quantified the spatial-temporal change of SOS by using the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from 1982 to 2015, and explored the relationships between winter snow cover, climate, and SOS across different grassland vegetation types. The results showed that the SOS advanced significantly at a rate of 0.3 days/year. Winter snow cover dynamics presented a significant positive correlation with the SOS, except for the start date of snow cover. Moreover, the relationship with the increasing temperature and precipitation showed a significant negative correlation, except that increasing Tmax (maximum air temperature) and Tavg (average air temperature) would lead a delay in SOS for desert steppe ecosystems. Sunshine hours and relative humidity showed a weaker correlation. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Role-Tailored Map Dashboards—A New Approach for Enhancing the Forest-based Supply Chain
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8010041
Received: 10 November 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 12 January 2019 / Published: 17 January 2019
Viewed by 384 | PDF Full-text (5496 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The article presents a map dashboard aimed at enhancing the information flow in the forest-based supply chain (FbSC). We especially focus on the procurement stage and connect the stakeholders in (near) real-time via standardized data models, interfaces and services, as well as using [...] Read more.
The article presents a map dashboard aimed at enhancing the information flow in the forest-based supply chain (FbSC). We especially focus on the procurement stage and connect the stakeholders in (near) real-time via standardized data models, interfaces and services, as well as using open-source software only. For the communication strategy, we use a new approach that incorporates the user’s roles and tasks to create role-tailored views on the dashboard showing specific task-oriented web maps. Hence, the first research question aims at identifying the roles and tasks in Austrian forestry. We identified four major roles (site managers & foresters, forest workers, truck drivers, customers) and six tasks during group discussions. The second research question deals with the effects of a role-tailored map dashboard. Therefore, we evaluated the prototype in a two-week test phase that concludes with a field study with five experts. The results are twofold: qualitative using the results from field interviews and quantitative based on a now vs. then comparison with regard to the number of media disruptions. This comparison reveals that up to 80% of the media disruption in our use case scenario could be removed by using the role-tailored map dashboard. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Semi-Automatic Versus Manual Mapping of Cold-Water Coral Carbonate Mounds Located Offshore Norway
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8010040
Received: 2 November 2018 / Revised: 21 December 2018 / Accepted: 10 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
Viewed by 390 | PDF Full-text (8210 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cold-water coral reefs are hotspots of biological diversity and play an important role as carbonate factories in the global carbon cycle. Reef-building corals can be found in cold oceanic waters around the world. Detailed knowledge on the spatial location and distribution of coral [...] Read more.
Cold-water coral reefs are hotspots of biological diversity and play an important role as carbonate factories in the global carbon cycle. Reef-building corals can be found in cold oceanic waters around the world. Detailed knowledge on the spatial location and distribution of coral reefs is of importance for spatial management, conservation and science. Carbonate mounds (reefs) are readily identifiable in high-resolution multibeam echosounder data but systematic mapping programs have relied mostly on visual interpretation and manual digitizing so far. Developing more automated methods will help to reduce the time spent on this laborious task and will additionally lead to more objective and reproducible results. In this paper, we present an attempt at testing whether rule-based classification can replace manual mapping when mapping cold-water coral carbonate mounds. To that end, we have estimated and compared the accuracies of manual mapping, pixel-based terrain analysis and object-based image analysis. To verify the mapping results, we created a reference dataset of presence/absence points agreed upon by three mapping experts. There were no statistically significant differences in the overall accuracies of the maps produced by the three approaches. We conclude that semi-automated rule-based methods might be a viable option for mapping carbonate mounds with high spatial detail over large areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GEOBIA in a Changing World)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Identifying Asphalt Pavement Distress Using UAV LiDAR Point Cloud Data and Random Forest Classification
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8010039
Received: 22 December 2018 / Accepted: 13 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
Viewed by 482 | PDF Full-text (13498 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Asphalt pavement ages and incurs various distresses due to natural and human factors. Thus, it is crucial to rapidly and accurately extract different types of pavement distress to effectively monitor road health status. In this study, we explored the feasibility of pavement distress [...] Read more.
Asphalt pavement ages and incurs various distresses due to natural and human factors. Thus, it is crucial to rapidly and accurately extract different types of pavement distress to effectively monitor road health status. In this study, we explored the feasibility of pavement distress identification using low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle light detection and ranging (UAV LiDAR) and random forest classification (RFC) for a section of an asphalt road that is located in the suburb of Shihezi City in Xinjiang Province of China. After a spectral and spatial feature analysis of pavement distress, a total of 48 multidimensional and multiscale features were extracted based on the strength of the point cloud elevations and reflection intensities. Subsequently, we extracted the pavement distresses from the multifeature dataset by utilizing the RFC method. The overall accuracy of the distress identification was 92.3%, and the kappa coefficient was 0.902. When compared with the maximum likelihood classification (MLC) and support vector machine (SVM), the RFC had a higher accuracy, which confirms its robustness and applicability to multisample and high-dimensional data classification. Furthermore, the method achieved an overall accuracy of 95.86% with a validation dataset. This result indicates the validity and stability of our method, which highway maintenance agencies can use to evaluate road health conditions and implement maintenance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications and Potential of UAV Photogrammetric Survey)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Automated Matching of Multi-Scale Building Data Based on Relaxation Labelling and Pattern Combinations
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8010038
Received: 4 November 2018 / Revised: 24 December 2018 / Accepted: 10 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
Viewed by 315 | PDF Full-text (4078 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the increasingly urgent demand for map conflation and timely data updating, data matching has become a crucial issue in big data and the GIS community. However, non-rigid deviation, shape homogenization, and uncertain scale differences occur in crowdsourced and official building data, causing [...] Read more.
With the increasingly urgent demand for map conflation and timely data updating, data matching has become a crucial issue in big data and the GIS community. However, non-rigid deviation, shape homogenization, and uncertain scale differences occur in crowdsourced and official building data, causing challenges in conflating heterogeneous building datasets from different sources and scales. This paper thus proposes an automated building data matching method based on relaxation labelling and pattern combinations. The proposed method first detects all possible matching objects and pattern combinations to create a matching table, and calculates four geo-similarities for each candidate-matching pair to initialize a probabilistic matching matrix. After that, the contextual information of neighboring candidate-matching pairs is explored to heuristically amend the geo-similarity-based matching matrix for achieving a contextual matching consistency. Three case studies are conducted to illustrate that the proposed method obtains high matching accuracies and correctly identifies various 1:1, 1:M, and M:N matching. This indicates the pattern-level relaxation labelling matching method can efficiently overcome the problems of shape homogeneity and non-rigid deviation, and meanwhile has weak sensitivity to uncertain scale differences, providing a functional solution for conflating crowdsourced and official building data. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Threat of Pollution Hotspots Reworking in River Systems: Case Study of the Ploučnice River (Czech Republic)
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8010037
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 13 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
Viewed by 274 | PDF Full-text (14246 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As fluvial pollution may endanger the quality of water and solids transported by rivers, mapping and evaluation of historically polluted fluvial sediments is an urgent topic. The Ploučnice River and its floodplain were polluted by local uranium mining from 1971–1989. We have studied [...] Read more.
As fluvial pollution may endanger the quality of water and solids transported by rivers, mapping and evaluation of historically polluted fluvial sediments is an urgent topic. The Ploučnice River and its floodplain were polluted by local uranium mining from 1971–1989. We have studied this river since 2013 using a combination of diverse methods, including geoinformatics, to identify pollution hotspots in floodplains and to evaluate the potential for future reworking. Archival information on pollution history and past flooding was collected to understand floodplain dynamics and pollution heterogeneity. Subsequently, a digital terrain model based on laser scanning data and data analysis were used to identify the sites with river channel shifts. Finally, non-invasive geochemical mapping was employed, using portable X-ray fluorescence and gamma spectrometers. The resulting datasets were processed with geostatistical tools. One of the main outputs of the study was a detailed map of pollution distribution in the floodplain. The results showed a relationship between polluted sediment deposition, past channel shifts and floodplain development. We found that increased concentration of pollution occurred mainly in the cut-off meanders and lateral channel deposits from the mining period, the latter in danger of reworking (reconnecting to the river) in the coming decades. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS for Safety & Security Management)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Dynamic Monitoring of Forest Land in Fuling District Based on Multi-Source Time Series Remote Sensing Images
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8010036
Received: 28 October 2018 / Revised: 24 December 2018 / Accepted: 10 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
Viewed by 313 | PDF Full-text (4072 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Time series remote sensing images can be used to monitor the dynamic changes of forest lands. Due to consistent cloud cover and fog, a single sensor typically provides limited data for dynamic monitoring. This problem is solved by combining observations from multiple sensors [...] Read more.
Time series remote sensing images can be used to monitor the dynamic changes of forest lands. Due to consistent cloud cover and fog, a single sensor typically provides limited data for dynamic monitoring. This problem is solved by combining observations from multiple sensors to form a time series (a satellite image time series). In this paper, the pixel-based multi-source remote sensing image fusion (MulTiFuse) method is applied to combine the Landsat time series and Huanjing-1 A/B (HJ-1 A/B) data in the Fuling district of Chongqing, China. The fusion results are further corrected and improved with spatial features. Dynamic monitoring and analysis of the study area are subsequently performed on the improved time series data using the combination of Mann-Kendall trend detection method and Theil Sen Slope analysis. The monitoring results show that a majority of the forest land (60.08%) has experienced strong growth during the 1999–2013 period. Accuracy assessment indicates that the dynamic monitoring using the fused image time series produces results with relatively high accuracies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Source Geoinformation Fusion)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle An Analysis of the Evolution, Completeness and Spatial Patterns of OpenStreetMap Building Data in China
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8010035
Received: 24 October 2018 / Revised: 11 December 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 324 | PDF Full-text (5863 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
OpenStreetMap (OSM) is a free map that can be created, edited, and updated by volunteers globally. The quality of OSM datasets is therefore of great concern. Extensive studies have focused on assessing the completeness (a quality measure) of OSM datasets in various countries, [...] Read more.
OpenStreetMap (OSM) is a free map that can be created, edited, and updated by volunteers globally. The quality of OSM datasets is therefore of great concern. Extensive studies have focused on assessing the completeness (a quality measure) of OSM datasets in various countries, but very few have been paid attention to investigating the OSM building dataset in China. This study aims to present an analysis of the evolution, completeness and spatial patterns of OSM building data in China across the years 2012 to 2017. This is done using two quality indicators, OSM building count and OSM building density, although a corresponding reference dataset for the whole country is not freely available. Development of OSM building counts from 2012 to 2017 is analyzed in terms of provincial- and prefecture-level divisions. Factors that may affect the development of OSM building data in China are also analyzed. A 1 × 1 km2 regular grid is overlapped onto urban areas of each prefecture-level division, and the OSM building density of each grid cell is calculated. Spatial distributions of high-density grid cells for prefecture-level divisions are analyzed. Results show that: (1) the OSM building count increases by almost 20 times from 2012 to 2017, and in most cases, economic (gross domestic product) and OSM road length are two factors that may influence the development of OSM building data in China; (2) most grid cells in urban areas do not have any building data, but two typical patterns (dispersion and aggregation) of high-density grid cells are found among prefecture-level divisions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Free and Open Source Tools for Geospatial Analysis and Mapping)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessConcept Paper Taming Disruption? Pervasive Data Analytics, Uncertainty and Policy Intervention in Disruptive Technology and its Geographic Spread
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8010034
Received: 25 November 2018 / Revised: 20 December 2018 / Accepted: 10 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
Viewed by 478 | PDF Full-text (8244 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The topic of technology development and its disruptive effects has been the subject of much debate over the last 20 years with numerous theories at both macro and micro scales offering potential models of technology progression and disruption. This paper focuses on how [...] Read more.
The topic of technology development and its disruptive effects has been the subject of much debate over the last 20 years with numerous theories at both macro and micro scales offering potential models of technology progression and disruption. This paper focuses on how theories of technology progression may be integrated and considers whether suitable indicators of this progression and any subsequent disruptive effects might be derived, based on the use of big data analytic techniques. Given the magnitude of the economic, social, and political implications of many disruptive technologies, the ability to quantify disruptive change at the earliest possible stage could deliver major returns by reducing uncertainty, assisting public policy intervention, and managing the technology transition through disruption into deployment. However, determining when this stage has been reached is problematic because small random effects in the timing, direction of development, the availability of essential supportive technologies or “platform” technologies, market response or government policy can all result in failure of a technology, its form of adoption or optimality of implementation. This paper reviews key models of technology evolution and their disruptive effect including the geographical spread of disruption. The paper then describes a use case and an experiment in disruption prediction, looking at the geographical spread of disruption using internet derived historic data. The experiment, although limited to one specific aspect of the integrated model outlined in the paper, provides an initial example of the type of analysis envisaged. This example offers a glimpse into the potential indicators and how they might be used to measure disruption hinting at what might be possible using big data approaches. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle A Geospatial Application Framework for Directional Relations
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8010033
Received: 6 December 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 13 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
Viewed by 300 | PDF Full-text (10413 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Geographic data analysis is based on the use of spatial relations as a means of selecting and processing geometric data associated with geographic features. Starting from 1990, topological relations have been recognized as fundamental criteria in geographic data processing, leaving out other kinds [...] Read more.
Geographic data analysis is based on the use of spatial relations as a means of selecting and processing geometric data associated with geographic features. Starting from 1990, topological relations have been recognized as fundamental criteria in geographic data processing, leaving out other kinds of spatial relations, such as directional relations. The latter ones, despite having quite an important role in geospatial applications, have been developed as theoretical models but very little implemented in systems. We refer in this paper to the 5-intersection model for expressing projective relations that can be used to implement directional relations in various frames of reference. We design an application framework in Java and use the framework for answering various categories of queries involving directions. We finally outline how to use the framework for validating the cognitive adequacy of relations with user tests. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Probabilistic Model of Random Encounter in Obstacle Space
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8010032
Received: 7 December 2018 / Revised: 7 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
Viewed by 297 | PDF Full-text (2840 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Based on probabilistic time-geography, the encounter between two moving objects is random. The quantitative analysis of the probability of encounter needs to consider the actual geographical environment. The existing encounter probability algorithm is based on homogeneous space, ignoring the wide range of obstacles [...] Read more.
Based on probabilistic time-geography, the encounter between two moving objects is random. The quantitative analysis of the probability of encounter needs to consider the actual geographical environment. The existing encounter probability algorithm is based on homogeneous space, ignoring the wide range of obstacles and their impact on encounter events. Based on this, this paper introduces obstacle factors, proposes encounter events that are constrained by obstacles, and constructs a model of the probability of encounters of moving objects based on the influence of obstacles on visual perception with the line-of-sight view analysis principle. In realistic obstacle space, this method provides a quantitative basis for predicting the encountering possibility of two mobile objects and the largest possible encounter location. Finally, the validity of the model is verified by experimental results. The model uses part of the Wuhan digital elevation model (DEM) data to calculate the encounter probability of two moving objects on it, and analyzes the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of these probabilities. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Spatial–Temporal Evolution and Regional Differentiation Features of Urbanization in China from 2003 to 2013
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8010031
Received: 14 November 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 10 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
Viewed by 387 | PDF Full-text (3380 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Quantifying the temporal and spatial patterns of impervious surfaces (IS) is important for assessing the environmental and ecological impacts of urbanization. In order to better extract IS, and to explore the divergence in urbanization in different regions, research on the regional differentiation features [...] Read more.
Quantifying the temporal and spatial patterns of impervious surfaces (IS) is important for assessing the environmental and ecological impacts of urbanization. In order to better extract IS, and to explore the divergence in urbanization in different regions, research on the regional differentiation features and regional change difference features of IS are required. To extract China’s 2013 urban impervious area, we used the 2013 night light (NTL) data and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) temporal series data, and used three urban impervious surface extraction indexes—Human Settlements Index, Vegetation-Adjusted NTL Urban Index, and the EVI-adjusted NTL index (EANTLI)—which are recognized as the best and most widely used indexes for extracting urban impervious areas. We used the classification results of the Landsat-8 images as the benchmark data to visually compare and verify the results of the urban impervious area extracted by the three indexes. We determined that the EANTLI index better reflects the distribution of the impervious area. Therefore, we used the EANTLI index to extract the urban impervious area from 2003 to 2013 in the study area, and researched the spatial and temporal differentiation in urban IS. The results showed that China’s urban IS area was 70,179.06 km2, accounting for 0.73% of the country’s land area in 2013, compared with 20,565.24 km2 in 2003, which accounted for 0.21% of the land area, representing an increase of 0.52%. On a spatial scale, like economic development, the distribution of urban impervious surfaces was different in different regions. The overall performance of the urban IS percentage was characterized by a decreasing trend from Northwest China, Southwest China, the Middle Reaches of the Yellow River, Northeast China, the Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River, Southern Coastal China, and Northern Coastal China to Eastern Coastal China. On the provincial scale, the urban IS expansion showed considerable differences in different regions. The overall performance of the Urban IS Expansion index showed that the eastern coastal areas had higher values than the western inland areas. The cities or provinces of Beijing, Tianjin, Jiangsu, and Shanghai had the largest growth in impervious areas. Spatially and temporally quantifying the change in urban impervious areas can help to better understand the intensity of urbanization in a region. Therefore, quantifying the change in urban impervious area has an important role in the study of regional environmental and economic development, policy formulation, and the rational use of resources in both time and space. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human-Centric Data Science for Urban Studies)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Effect of DEM Interpolation Neighbourhood on Terrain Factors
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8010030
Received: 3 November 2018 / Revised: 25 December 2018 / Accepted: 10 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
Viewed by 307 | PDF Full-text (13853 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Topographic factors such as slope and aspect are essential parameters in depicting the structure and morphology of a terrain surface. We study the effect of the number of points in the neighbourhood of a digital elevation model (DEM) interpolation method on mean slope, [...] Read more.
Topographic factors such as slope and aspect are essential parameters in depicting the structure and morphology of a terrain surface. We study the effect of the number of points in the neighbourhood of a digital elevation model (DEM) interpolation method on mean slope, mean aspect, and RMSEs of slope and aspect from the interpolated DEM. As the moving least squares (MLS) method can maintain the inherent properties and other characteristics of a surface, this method is chosen for DEM interpolation. Three areas containing different types of topographic features are selected for study. Simulated data from a Gauss surface is also used for comparison. First, the impact of the number of points on the DEM root mean square error (RMSE) is analysed. The DEM RMSE in the three study areas decreases gradually with the number of points in the neighbourhood. In addition, the effect of the number of points in the neighbourhood on mean slope and mean aspect was studied across varying topographies through regression analysis. The two variables respond differently to changes in terrain. However, the RMSEs of the slope and aspect in all study areas are logarithmically related to the number of points in the neighbourhood and the values decrease uniformly as the number of points in the neighbourhood increases. With more points in the neighbourhood, the RMSEs of the slope and aspect are not sensitive to topography differences and the same trends are observed for the three studied quantities. Results for the Gauss surface are similar. Finally, this study analyses the spatial distribution of slope and aspect errors. The slope error is concentrated in ridges, valleys, steep-slope areas, and ditch edges while the aspect error is concentrated in ridges, valleys, and flat regions. With more points in the neighbourhood, the number of grid cells in which the slope error is greater than 15° is gradually reduced. With similar terrain types and data sources, if the calculation efficiency is not a concern, sufficient points in the spatial autocorrelation range should be analysed in the neighbourhood to maximize the accuracy of the slope and aspect. However, selecting between 10 and 12 points in the neighbourhood is economical. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Social Media Big Data Mining and Spatio-Temporal Analysis on Public Emotions for Disaster Mitigation
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8010029
Received: 30 October 2018 / Revised: 21 December 2018 / Accepted: 10 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
Viewed by 423 | PDF Full-text (6670 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Social media contains a lot of geographic information and has been one of the more important data sources for hazard mitigation. Compared with the traditional means of disaster-related geographic information collection methods, social media has the characteristics of real-time information provision and low [...] Read more.
Social media contains a lot of geographic information and has been one of the more important data sources for hazard mitigation. Compared with the traditional means of disaster-related geographic information collection methods, social media has the characteristics of real-time information provision and low cost. Due to the development of big data mining technologies, it is now easier to extract useful disaster-related geographic information from social media big data. Additionally, many researchers have used related technology to study social media for disaster mitigation. However, few researchers have considered the extraction of public emotions (especially fine-grained emotions) as an attribute of disaster-related geographic information to aid in disaster mitigation. Combined with the powerful spatio-temporal analysis capabilities of geographical information systems (GISs), the public emotional information contained in social media could help us to understand disasters in more detail than can be obtained from traditional methods. However, the social media data is quite complex and fragmented, both in terms of format and semantics, especially for Chinese social media. Therefore, a more efficient algorithm is needed. In this paper, we consider the earthquake that happened in Ya’an, China in 2013 as a case study and introduce the deep learning method to extract fine-grained public emotional information from Chinese social media big data to assist in disaster analysis. By combining this with other geographic information data (such population density distribution data, POI (point of interest) data, etc.), we can further assist in the assessment of affected populations, explore emotional movement law, and optimize disaster mitigation strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Big Data Computing for Geospatial Applications)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Multisource Hyperspectral and LiDAR Data Fusion for Urban Land-Use Mapping based on a Modified Two-Branch Convolutional Neural Network
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8010028
Received: 4 November 2018 / Revised: 4 January 2019 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 14 January 2019
Viewed by 407 | PDF Full-text (8691 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Accurate urban land-use mapping is a challenging task in the remote-sensing field. With the availability of diverse remote sensors, synthetic use and integration of multisource data provides an opportunity for improving urban land-use classification accuracy. Neural networks for Deep Learning have achieved very [...] Read more.
Accurate urban land-use mapping is a challenging task in the remote-sensing field. With the availability of diverse remote sensors, synthetic use and integration of multisource data provides an opportunity for improving urban land-use classification accuracy. Neural networks for Deep Learning have achieved very promising results in computer-vision tasks, such as image classification and object detection. However, the problem of designing an effective deep-learning model for the fusion of multisource remote-sensing data still remains. To tackle this issue, this paper proposes a modified two-branch convolutional neural network for the adaptive fusion of hyperspectral imagery (HSI) and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data. Specifically, the proposed model consists of a HSI branch and a LiDAR branch, sharing the same network structure to reduce the time cost of network design. A residual block is utilized in each branch to extract hierarchical, parallel, and multiscale features. An adaptive-feature fusion module is proposed to integrate HSI and LiDAR features in a more reasonable and natural way (based on “Squeeze-and-Excitation Networks”). Experiments indicate that the proposed two-branch network shows good performance, with an overall accuracy of almost 92%. Compared with single-source data, the introduction of multisource data improves accuracy by at least 8%. The adaptive fusion model can also increase classification accuracy by more than 3% when compared with the feature-stacking method (simple concatenation). The results demonstrate that the proposed network can effectively extract and fuse features for a better urban land-use mapping accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Source Geoinformation Fusion)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Exploiting the Potential of Integrated Public Building Data: Energy Performance Assessment of the Building Stock in a Case Study in Northern Italy
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8010027
Received: 5 October 2018 / Revised: 28 December 2018 / Accepted: 7 January 2019 / Published: 14 January 2019
Viewed by 380 | PDF Full-text (10273 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Smart management of urban built environment relies on the availability of data supporting sound policy making and guiding city renovation processes toward more sustainable and performant models. Nevertheless, public managers are unlikely to have comprehensive information on the existing building stock. In addition, [...] Read more.
Smart management of urban built environment relies on the availability of data supporting sound policy making and guiding city renovation processes toward more sustainable and performant models. Nevertheless, public managers are unlikely to have comprehensive information on the existing building stock. In addition, tools providing effective insights on potential costs and benefits of retrofit strategies at city/district scale are hardly available. This article describes how data related to existing buildings may be effectively combined together into a so-called Building Information System, and discusses the advantages and shortcomings related to this process. At the same time, the implementation on a real case study in northern Italy demonstrates how the effort due to data harmonization and integration is able to foster applications to support policy makers in the management of the built environment and in the definition of urban sustainability strategies. Building data were harmonized according to the requirements of the international open standard CityGML, therefore facilitating the exchange of building information. The whole project was carried out while considering the characteristics of data sources that are available for each public body in Italy and, as a consequence, it may be replicated to other Italian municipalities. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Adaptive Non-Negative Geographically Weighted Regression for Population Density Estimation Based on Nighttime Light
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8010026
Received: 14 November 2018 / Revised: 3 January 2019 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 12 January 2019
Viewed by 465 | PDF Full-text (3363 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nighttime light imagery provides a perspective for studying urbanization and socioeconomic changes. Traditional global regression models have been applied to explore the nonspatial relationship between nighttime lights and population density. In this study, geographically weighted regression (GWR) identifies the spatially varying relationships between [...] Read more.
Nighttime light imagery provides a perspective for studying urbanization and socioeconomic changes. Traditional global regression models have been applied to explore the nonspatial relationship between nighttime lights and population density. In this study, geographically weighted regression (GWR) identifies the spatially varying relationships between population density and nighttime lights in mainland China. However, the rural population does not have a strong relationship with remote-sensing spectral features. The rural population estimation using nighttime light data alone easily identifies meaningless negative population density in the rural area. This study proposes an adaptive non-negative GWR (ANNGWR) to explore the spatial pattern of population density by using nonnegative constraints with an adaptive bandwidth of kernel. The ANNGWR solves the negative value of population density and serious overestimation of the western boundary. The result shows that the ANNGWR provides the best goodness-of-fit compared with linear regression and original GWR. This study applies Moran’s I index to prove that the ANNGWR substantially decreases the spatial autocorrelation of the model residual. The model offers a robust and effective approach for estimating the spatial patterns of regional population density solely on the basis of nighttime light imagery. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Application of UAV Photogrammetry in Displacement Measurement of the Soil Nail Walls Using Local Features and CPDA Method
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8010025
Received: 13 November 2018 / Revised: 18 December 2018 / Accepted: 6 January 2019 / Published: 11 January 2019
Viewed by 434 | PDF Full-text (7552 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The high cost of land across urban areas has made the excavation a typical practice to construct multiple underground stories. Various methods have been used to restrain the excavated walls and keep them from a possible collapse, including nailing and anchorage. The excavated [...] Read more.
The high cost of land across urban areas has made the excavation a typical practice to construct multiple underground stories. Various methods have been used to restrain the excavated walls and keep them from a possible collapse, including nailing and anchorage. The excavated wall monitoring, especially during the drilling and restraining operations, is necessary for preventing the risk of such incidents as an excavated wall collapse. In the present research, an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry-based algorithm was proposed for accurate, fast and low-cost monitoring of excavated walls. Different stages of the proposed methodology included design of the UAV photogrammetry network for optimal imaging, local feature extraction from the acquired images, a special optimal matching method and finally, displacement estimation through a combined adjustment method. Results of implementations showed that, using the proposed methodology, one can achieve a precision of ±7 mm in positioning local features on the excavated walls. Moreover, the wall displacement could be measured at an accuracy of ±1 cm. Having high flexibility, easy implementation, low cost and fast pace; the proposed methodology provides an appropriate alternative to micro-geodesic procedures and the use of instrumentations for excavated wall displacement monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications and Potential of UAV Photogrammetric Survey)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle A Comparison of Standard Modeling Techniques Using Digital Aerial Imagery with National Elevation Datasets and Airborne LiDAR to Predict Size and Density Forest Metrics in the Sapphire Mountains MT, USA
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8010024
Received: 21 November 2018 / Revised: 26 December 2018 / Accepted: 7 January 2019 / Published: 11 January 2019
Viewed by 328 | PDF Full-text (6202 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology has received a great deal of attention. Using airborne LiDAR, analysts have successfully related height measurements to forest characteristics such as tree size, basal area, and number of trees. Similarly, National Agricultural Imagery [...] Read more.
In recent years airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology has received a great deal of attention. Using airborne LiDAR, analysts have successfully related height measurements to forest characteristics such as tree size, basal area, and number of trees. Similarly, National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP) digital aerial imagery in combination with elevation datasets such as the National Elevation Dataset (NED) have been used to estimate similar forest characteristics. Few comparisons, however, have been made between using airborne LiDAR, NAIP, and NED to estimate forest characteristics. In this study we compare airborne LiDAR, NAIP, and NAIP assisted NED based models of forest characteristics commonly used within forest management at the spatial scale of field plots and forest stands. Our findings suggest that there is a high degree of similarity in model fit and estimated values when using LiDAR, NAIP, and NAIP assisted NED predictor variables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geographic Information Science in Forestry)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Spatiotemporal Influence of Urban Environment on Taxi Ridership Using Geographically and Temporally Weighted Regression
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8010023
Received: 20 November 2018 / Revised: 5 January 2019 / Accepted: 7 January 2019 / Published: 11 January 2019
Viewed by 354 | PDF Full-text (5995 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Taxicabs play an important role in urban transit systems, and their ridership is significantly influenced by the urban built environment. The intricate relationship between taxi ridership and the urban environment has been explored using either conventional ordinary least squares (OLS) regression or geographically [...] Read more.
Taxicabs play an important role in urban transit systems, and their ridership is significantly influenced by the urban built environment. The intricate relationship between taxi ridership and the urban environment has been explored using either conventional ordinary least squares (OLS) regression or geographically weighted regression (GWR). However, time constitutes a significant dimension, particularly when analyzing spatiotemporal hourly taxi ridership, which is not effectively incorporated into conventional models. In this study, the geographically and temporally weighted regression (GTWR) model was applied to model the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of hourly taxi ridership, and visualize the spatial and temporal coefficient variations. To test the performance of the GTWR model, an empirical study was implemented for Xiamen city in China using a set of weekday taxi pickup point data. Using point-of-interest (POI) data, hourly taxi ridership was analyzed by incorporating it to various spatially urban environment variables based on a 500 × 500 m grid unit. Compared to the OLS and GWR, the GTWR model obtained the best performance, both in terms of model fit and explanatory accuracy. Moreover, the urban environment was revealed to have a significant impact on taxi ridership. Road density was found to decrease the number of taxi trips in particular places, and the density of bus stops competed with taxi ridership over time. The GTWR modelling provides valuable insights for investigating taxi ridership variation as a function of spatiotemporal urban environment variables, thereby facilitating an optimal allocation of taxi resources and transportation planning. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Investigating the Utility Potential of Low-Cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in the Temporal Monitoring of a Landfill
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8010022
Received: 17 November 2018 / Revised: 28 December 2018 / Accepted: 7 January 2019 / Published: 11 January 2019
Viewed by 343 | PDF Full-text (7477 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The collection of solid waste is a challenging issue, especially in highly urbanized areas. In developing countries, landfilling is currently the preferred method for disposing of solid waste, but each landfill has a limited lifecycle. Therefore, changes in the amount of stored waste [...] Read more.
The collection of solid waste is a challenging issue, especially in highly urbanized areas. In developing countries, landfilling is currently the preferred method for disposing of solid waste, but each landfill has a limited lifecycle. Therefore, changes in the amount of stored waste should be monitored for the sustainable management of such areas. In this study, volumetric changes in a landfill were examined using a low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Aerial photographs obtained from five different flights, covering approximately two years, were used in the volume calculations. Values representing the amount of remaining space between the solid waste and a reference plane were determined using digital elevation models, which were produced based on the structure from motion (SfM) approach. The obtained results and potential of UAVs in the photogrammetric survey of a landfill were further evaluated and interpreted by considering other possible techniques, ongoing progress, and the information existing in an environmental impact assessment report. As a result of the study, it was proved that SfM carried out using a low-cost UAV has a high potential for use in the reconstruction of a landfill. Outcomes were obtained over a short period, without the need for direct contact with the solid waste, making the UAV preferable for use in planning and decision-making studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications and Potential of UAV Photogrammetric Survey)
Figures

Figure 1

ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. EISSN 2220-9964 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top