Special Issue "Geo-Spatial Analysis in Hydrology"

A special issue of ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information (ISSN 2220-9964).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Qiming Zhou
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Geography, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong, China
Interests: change detection and land cover modelling with remote sensing; digital terrain analysis and hydrological modeling; climate change and its impacts on water resources and ecosystems; aridzone studies
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Jianfeng Li
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Geography, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong, China
Interests: hydroclimatology, hydrology and water resources, climate extremes and water hazards, climate change, regional water cycle

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

A scientific understanding of the spatial and temporal distribution, movement, and dynamics of key elements of the hydrological cycle, such as precipitation, surface runoff, groundwater, soil moisture, and evapotranspiration, is the ground to achieve water security and sustainable water management. The development of geo-spatial technology, such as Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing, provides more advanced and reliable platforms and tools to monitor, model, analyze, and visualize regional and global hydrological cycles in extensive spatial coverage and fine spatial/temporal resolutions. With the advancement of this technology, the volume of a variety of remotely sensed data have been substantially and rapidly increasing, which creates opportunities to further advance our understanding of the complex and spatial heterogenous hydrological systems but at the same time generates new challenges on efficiently using, mining, and analyzing this large amount of multi-source spatial data for hydrological studies.

This Special Issue seeks the newest research that integrates geo-spatial techniques in hydrological studies. As a platform for an exchange of ideas, this Special Issue aims to stimulate discussions on the development of geo-spatial methods and their applications in improving our understanding of the hydrological cycle, and solving scientific and practical challenges related to hydrological processes, the modelling of the water cycle, the monitoring and forecasting of water hazards, water security, and sustainable water management.

Themes of the Special Issue include, but are not limited to, the following topics:

  • The spatial heterogeneity of the quantity and quality of surface/underground water resources;
  • The monitoring of spatial/temporal dynamics of the water cycle;
  • The modelling of hydrological processes in a high spatial resolution;
  • The assessment, forecast, and prevention of water hazards, such as flood and drought;
  • New approaches or improvements of existing methods for spatial hydrology;
  • Sustainable water management and geo-spatial technology.

Prof. Qiming Zhou
Dr. Jianfeng Li
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Geo-spatial analysis
  • Hydrology
  • Spatial hydrology
  • GIS
  • Remote sensing
  • Hydrological cycle
  • Hydrological modelling
  • Hydrological processes
  • Water hazards
  • Sustainable water management

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Estimation of Crop Water Deficit in Lower Bari Doab, Pakistan Using Reflection-Based Crop Coefficient
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(3), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9030173 - 13 Mar 2020
Abstract
There is a global realization in all governmental setups of the need to provoke the efficient appraisal of crop water budgeting in order to manage water resources efficiently. This study aims to use the satellite remote sensing techniques to determine the water deficit [...] Read more.
There is a global realization in all governmental setups of the need to provoke the efficient appraisal of crop water budgeting in order to manage water resources efficiently. This study aims to use the satellite remote sensing techniques to determine the water deficit in the crop rich Lower Bari Doab Canal (LBDC) command area. Crop classification was performed using multi-temporal NDVI profiles of Landsat-8 imagery by distinguishing the crop cycles based on reflectance curves. The reflectance-based crop coefficients (Kc) were derived by linear regression between normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) cycles of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) MOD13Q1 and MYD13Q1 products and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) defined crop coefficients. A MODIS 250 m NDVI product of the last 10 years (2004-2013) was used to identify the best performing crop cycle using Fourier filter method. The meteorological parameters including rainfall and temperature substantiated the reference evapotranspiration (ET0) calculated using the Hargreaves method. The difference of potential ET and actual ET, derived from the reflectance-based Kc calculated using reference NDVI and current NDVI, generates the water deficit. Results depict the strong correlation between ET, temperature and rainfall, as the regions having maximum temperature resulted in high ET and low rainfall and vice versa. The derived Kc values were observed to be accurate when compared with the crop calendar. Results revealed maximum water deficit at middle stage of the crops, which were observed to be particularly higher at the tail of the canal command. Moreover, results also depicted that kharif (summer) crops suffer higher deficit in comparison to rabi (winter) crops due to higher ET demand caused by higher temperature. Results of the research can be utilized for rational allocation of canal supplies and guiding farmers towards usage of alternate sources to avoid crop water stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geo-Spatial Analysis in Hydrology)
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Open AccessArticle
Integrated Hazard Modeling for Simulating Torrential Stream Response to Flash Flood Events
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9010001 - 18 Dec 2019
Abstract
This study aims to monitor the flash flood response of Vidor/Wadore hill torrent in Pakistan by the integration of Personal Computer Storm Water Management Model PCSWMM (hydrologic) and HEC-RAS 5.x (hydraulic) models. The method leverages remote sensing and GIS derive estimates of measured [...] Read more.
This study aims to monitor the flash flood response of Vidor/Wadore hill torrent in Pakistan by the integration of Personal Computer Storm Water Management Model PCSWMM (hydrologic) and HEC-RAS 5.x (hydraulic) models. The method leverages remote sensing and GIS derive estimates of measured and inferred parameters of Vidor rural catchment to quantify the flash flood events of the last four years: 2014–2017. The calibration of the PCSWMM is performed using the sensitivity-based radio tuning calibration (SRTC) tool. The Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), coefficient of determination (R2), and relative error (RE) values were found between 0.75–0.97, 0.94–0.98, and −0.22–−0.09 respectively. The statistical indicators prove the accuracy of PCSWMM for rural catchments. The runoff response of Vidor torrent is also analyzed for 0.5/12.7, 1.5/38.1, and 2.0/50.8-inch/mm rainfall hyetographs. The generated hydrographs are used to simulate 2D-module in HEC-RAS 5.x for floodplain demarcation in the piedmont area. The accuracy of the flood extent is analyzed using spatial overlay analogy in the ArcGIS environment by comparing simulated and historically available flood extents. The simulated flood extent shows 76% accuracy with historic flood extent. The impact of flash flood events shows wheat, maize, and fruit orchards are the most effected agriculture in piedmont area. The results revealed that the integration of hydrological, hydraulic, and geospatial modeling approaches can be used to model a full picture of catchment response during flash flood events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geo-Spatial Analysis in Hydrology)
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Open AccessArticle
Monitoring the Water Quality of Small Water Bodies Using High-Resolution Remote Sensing Data
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(12), 553; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8120553 - 02 Dec 2019
Abstract
Remotely sensed data can reinforce the abilities of water resources researchers and decision-makers to monitor water quality more effectively. In the past few decades, remote sensing techniques have been widely used to measure qualitative water quality parameters. However, the use of moderate resolution [...] Read more.
Remotely sensed data can reinforce the abilities of water resources researchers and decision-makers to monitor water quality more effectively. In the past few decades, remote sensing techniques have been widely used to measure qualitative water quality parameters. However, the use of moderate resolution sensors may not meet the requirements for monitoring small water bodies. Water quality in a small dam was assessed using high-resolution satellite data from RapidEye and in situ measurements collected a few days apart. The satellite carries a five-band multispectral optical imager with a ground sampling distance of 5 m at its nadir and a swath width of 80 km. Several different algorithms were evaluated using Pearson correlation coefficients for electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved soils (TDS), water transparency, water turbidity, depth, suspended particular matter (SPM), and chlorophyll-a. The results indicate strong correlation between the investigated parameters and RapidEye reflectance, especially in the red and red-edge portion with highest correlation between red-edge band and water turbidity (r2 = 0.92). Two of the investigated indices showed good correlation in almost all of the water quality parameters with correlation higher than 0.80. The findings of this study emphasize the use of both high-resolution remote sensing imagery and red-edge portion of the electromagnetic spectrum for monitoring several water quality parameters in small water areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geo-Spatial Analysis in Hydrology)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
A Method of Watershed Delineation for Flat Terrain Using Sentinel-2A Imagery and DEM: A Case Study of the Taihu Basin
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(12), 528; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8120528 - 26 Nov 2019
Abstract
Accurate watershed delineation is a precondition for runoff and water quality simulation. Traditional digital elevation model (DEM) may not generate realistic drainage networks due to large depressions and subtle elevation differences in local-scale plains. In this study, we propose a new method for [...] Read more.
Accurate watershed delineation is a precondition for runoff and water quality simulation. Traditional digital elevation model (DEM) may not generate realistic drainage networks due to large depressions and subtle elevation differences in local-scale plains. In this study, we propose a new method for solving the problem of watershed delineation, using the Taihu Basin as a case study. Rivers, lakes, and reservoirs were obtained from Sentinel-2A images with the Canny algorithm on Google Earth Engine (GEE), rather than from DEM, to compose the drainage network. Catchments were delineated by modifying the flow direction of rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and overland flow, instead of using DEM values. A watershed was divided into the following three types: Lake, reservoir, and overland catchment. A total of 2291 river segments, seven lakes, eight reservoirs, and 2306 subwatersheds were retained in this study. Compared with results from HydroSHEDS and Arc Hydro, the proposed method retains crisscross structures in the topology and prevented erroneous streamlines in large lakes. High-resolution Sentinel-2A images available on the GEE have relatively greater merits than DEMs for precisely representing drainage networks and catchments, especially in the plains area. Because of the higher accuracy, this method can be used as a new solution for watershed division in the plains area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geo-Spatial Analysis in Hydrology)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Dynamic 3D Simulation of Flood Risk Based on the Integration of Spatio-Temporal GIS and Hydrodynamic Models
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(11), 520; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8110520 - 18 Nov 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Dynamic visual simulation of flood risk is crucial for scientific and intelligent emergency management of flood disasters, in which data quality, availability, visualization, and interoperability are important. Here, a seamless integration of a spatio-temporal Geographic Information System (GIS) with one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional [...] Read more.
Dynamic visual simulation of flood risk is crucial for scientific and intelligent emergency management of flood disasters, in which data quality, availability, visualization, and interoperability are important. Here, a seamless integration of a spatio-temporal Geographic Information System (GIS) with one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic models is achieved for data flow, calculation processes, operation flow, and system functions. Oblique photography-based three-dimensional (3D) modeling technology is used to quickly build a 3D model of the study area (including the hydraulic engineering facilities). A multisource spatio-temporal data platform for dynamically simulating flood risk was built based on the digital earth platform. Using the spatio-temporal computation framework, a dynamic visual simulation and decision support system for flood risk management was developed for the Xiashan Reservoir. The integration method proposed here was verified using flood simulation calculations, dynamic visual simulations, and downstream river channel and dam-break flood simulations. The results show that the proposed methods greatly improve the efficiency of flood risk simulation and decision support. The methods and system put forward in this study can be applied to flood risk simulations and practical management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geo-Spatial Analysis in Hydrology)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Consideration of Level of Confidence within Multi-Approach Satellite-Derived Bathymetry
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8010048 - 19 Jan 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The Canadian Hydrographic Service (CHS) publishes nautical charts covering all Canadian waters. Through projects with the Canadian Space Agency, CHS has been investigating remote sensing techniques to support hydrographic applications. One challenge CHS has encountered relates to quantifying its confidence in remote sensing [...] Read more.
The Canadian Hydrographic Service (CHS) publishes nautical charts covering all Canadian waters. Through projects with the Canadian Space Agency, CHS has been investigating remote sensing techniques to support hydrographic applications. One challenge CHS has encountered relates to quantifying its confidence in remote sensing products. This is particularly challenging with Satellite-Derived Bathymetry (SDB) where minimal in situ data may be present for validation. This paper proposes a level of confidence approach where a minimum number of SDB techniques are required to agree within a defined level to allow SDB estimates to be retained. The approach was applied to a Canadian Arctic site, incorporating four techniques: empirical, classification and photogrammetric (automatic and manual). Based on International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) guidelines, each individual approach provided results meeting the CATegory of Zones Of Confidence (CATZOC) level C requirement. By applying the level of confidence approach, where technique combinations agreed within 1 m (e.g., all agree, three agree, two agree) large portions of the extracted bathymetry could now meet the CATZOC A2/B requirement. Areas where at least three approaches agreed have an accuracy of 1.2 m and represent 81% of the total surface. The proposed technique not only increases overall accuracy but also removes some of the uncertainty associated with SDB, particularly for locations where in situ validation data is not available. This approach could provide an option for hydrographic offices to increase their confidence in SDB, potentially allowing for increased SDB use within hydrographic products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geo-Spatial Analysis in Hydrology)
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