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Recent NDVI Trends in Mainland Spain: Land-Cover and Phytoclimatic-Type Implications

1
Departamento de Tecnología Química y Ambiental, ESCET, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, C/Tulipán s/n, Móstoles, 28933 Madrid, Spain
2
Geography Group, Departamento de Ciencias de la Educación, Lenguaje, Cultura y Artes, Ciencias Histórica-Jurídicas y Humanísticas y Lenguas Modernas, Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Sociales, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Paseo de los Artilleros s/n, Vicálvaro, 28032 Madrid, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8010043
Received: 19 September 2018 / Revised: 3 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 17 January 2019
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Abstract

The temporal evolution of vegetation is one of the best indicators of climate change, and many earth system models are dependent on an accurate understanding of this process. However, the effect of climate change is expected to vary from one land-cover type to another, due to the change in vegetation and environmental conditions. Therefore, it is pertinent to understand the effect of climate change by land-cover type to understand the regions that are most vulnerable to climate change. Hence, in this study we analyzed the temporal statistical trends (2001–2016) of the MODIS13Q1 normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to explore whether there are differences, by land-cover class and phytoclimatic type, in mainland Spain and the Balearic Islands. We found 7.6% significant negative NDVI trends and 11.8% significant positive NDVI trends. Spatial patterns showed a non-random distribution. The Atlantic biogeographical region showed an unexpected 21% significant negative NDVI trends, and the Alpine region showed only 3.1% significant negative NDVI trends. We also found statistical differences between NDVI trends by land cover and phytoclimatic type. Variance explained by these variables was up to 35%. Positive trends were explained, above all, by land occupations, and negative trends were explained by phytoclimates. Warmer phytoclimatic classes of every general type and forest, as well as some agriculture land covers, showed negative trends. View Full-Text
Keywords: Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor; remote-sensing monitoring; vegetation time series; vegetation index Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor; remote-sensing monitoring; vegetation time series; vegetation index
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Novillo, C.J.; Arrogante-Funes, P.; Romero-Calcerrada, R. Recent NDVI Trends in Mainland Spain: Land-Cover and Phytoclimatic-Type Implications. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8, 43.

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