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ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf., Volume 7, Issue 12 (December 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Vegetation mapping and classification has been a major component of remote sensing since its [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Air Pollution Dispersion Modelling Using Spatial Analyses
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(12), 489; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7120489
Received: 8 October 2018 / Revised: 18 November 2018 / Accepted: 15 December 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
Air pollution dispersion modelling via spatial analyses (Land Use Regression—LUR) is an alternative approach to the standard air pollution dispersion modelling techniques in air quality assessment. Its advantages are mainly a much simpler mathematical apparatus, quicker and simpler calculations and a possibility to [...] Read more.
Air pollution dispersion modelling via spatial analyses (Land Use Regression—LUR) is an alternative approach to the standard air pollution dispersion modelling techniques in air quality assessment. Its advantages are mainly a much simpler mathematical apparatus, quicker and simpler calculations and a possibility to incorporate more factors affecting pollutant’s concentration than standard dispersion models. The goal of the study was to model the PM10 particles dispersion via spatial analyses in the Czech–Polish border area of the Upper Silesian industrial agglomeration and compare the results with the results of the standard Gaussian dispersion model SYMOS’97. The results show that standard Gaussian model with the same data as the LUR model gives better results (determination coefficient 71% for Gaussian model to 48% for LUR model). When factors of the land cover were included in the LUR model, the LUR model results improved significantly (65% determination coefficient) to a level comparable with the Gaussian model. A hybrid approach of combining the Gaussian model with the LUR gives superior quality of results (86% determination coefficient). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS for Safety & Security Management)
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Open AccessArticle Comparison of Independent Component Analysis, Principal Component Analysis, and Minimum Noise Fraction Transformation for Tree Species Classification Using APEX Hyperspectral Imagery
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(12), 488; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7120488
Received: 2 October 2018 / Revised: 10 December 2018 / Accepted: 17 December 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
Hyperspectral imagery provides detailed spectral information that can be used for tree species discrimination. The aim of this study is to assess spectral–spatial complexity reduction techniques for tree species classification using an airborne prism experiment (APEX) hyperspectral image. The methodology comprised the following [...] Read more.
Hyperspectral imagery provides detailed spectral information that can be used for tree species discrimination. The aim of this study is to assess spectral–spatial complexity reduction techniques for tree species classification using an airborne prism experiment (APEX) hyperspectral image. The methodology comprised the following main steps: (1) preprocessing (removing noisy bands) and masking out non-forested areas; (2) applying dimensionality reduction techniques, namely, independent component analysis (ICA), principal component analysis (PCA), and minimum noise fraction transformation (MNF), and stacking the selected dimensionality-reduced (DR) components to create new data cubes; (3) super-pixel segmentation on the original image and on each of the dimensionality-reduced data cubes; (4) tree species classification using a random forest (RF) classifier; and (5) accuracy assessment. The results revealed that tree species classification using the APEX hyperspectral imagery and DR data cubes yielded good results (with an overall accuracy of 80% for the APEX imagery and an overall accuracy of more than 90% for the DR data cubes). Among the classification results of the DR data cubes, the ICA-transformed components performed best, followed by the MNF-transformed components and the PCA-transformed components. The best class performance (according to producer’s and user’s accuracy) belonged to Picea abies and Salix alba. The other classes (Populus x (hybrid), Alnus incana, Fraxinus excelsior, and Quercus robur) performed differently depending on the different DR data cubes used as the input to the RF classifier. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GEOBIA in a Changing World)
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Open AccessArticle Checking the Consistency of Volunteered Phenological Observations While Analysing Their Synchrony
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(12), 487; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7120487
Received: 21 October 2018 / Revised: 9 December 2018 / Accepted: 13 December 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
The increasing availability of volunteered geographic information (VGI) enables novel studies in many scientific domains. However, inconsistent VGI can negatively affect these studies. This paper describes a workflow that checks the consistency of Volunteered Phenological Observations (VPOs) while considering the synchrony of observations [...] Read more.
The increasing availability of volunteered geographic information (VGI) enables novel studies in many scientific domains. However, inconsistent VGI can negatively affect these studies. This paper describes a workflow that checks the consistency of Volunteered Phenological Observations (VPOs) while considering the synchrony of observations (i.e., the temporal dispersion of a phenological event). The geographic coordinates, day of the year (DOY) of the observed event, and the accumulation of daily temperature until that DOY were used to: (1) spatially group VPOs by connecting observations that are near to each other, (2) define consistency constraints, (3) check the consistency of VPOs by evaluating the defined constraints, and (4) optimize the constraints by analysing the effect of inconsistent VPOs on the synchrony models derived from the observations. This workflow was tested using VPOs collected in the Netherlands during the period 2003–2015. We found that the average percentage of inconsistent observations was low to moderate (ranging from 1% for wood anemone and pedunculate oak to 15% for cow parsley species). This indicates that volunteers provide reliable phenological information. We also found a significant correlation between the standard deviation of DOY of the observed events and the accumulation of daily temperature (with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.78 for lesser celandine, and 0.60 for pedunculate oak). This confirmed that colder days in late winter and early spring lead to synchronous flowering and leafing onsets. Our results highlighted the potential of synchrony information and geographical context for checking the consistency of phenological VGI. Other domains using VGI can adapt this geocomputational workflow to check the consistency of their data, and hence the robustness of their analyses. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Geospatial Monitoring of Land Surface Temperature Effects on Vegetation Dynamics in the Southeastern Region of Bangladesh from 2001 to 2016
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(12), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7120486
Received: 8 November 2018 / Revised: 14 December 2018 / Accepted: 15 December 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
Land surface temperature (LST) can significantly alter seasonal vegetation phenology which in turn affects the global and regional energy balance. These are the most important parameters of surface–atmosphere interactions and climate change. Methods for retrieving LSTs from satellite remote-sensing data are beneficial for [...] Read more.
Land surface temperature (LST) can significantly alter seasonal vegetation phenology which in turn affects the global and regional energy balance. These are the most important parameters of surface–atmosphere interactions and climate change. Methods for retrieving LSTs from satellite remote-sensing data are beneficial for modeling hydrological, ecological, agricultural and meteorological processes on the Earth’s surface. This paper assesses the geospatial patterns of LST using correlations of the seasonally integrated normalized difference vegetation index (SINDVI) in the southeastern region of Bangladesh from 2001 to 2016. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) time series datasets for LST and SINDVI were used for estimations in the study. From 2001 to 2016, the MODIS-based land surface temperature in the southeastern region of Bangladesh was found to have gently increased by 0.2 °C (R2 = 0.030), while the seasonally integrated normalized difference vegetation index also increased by 0.43 (R2 = 0.268). The interannual average LSTs mostly increased across the study areas, except in some coastal plain and tidal floodplain areas of the study. However, the SINDVI increased in the floodplain and coastal plain regions, except for in hilly areas. Physiographically, the study area is a combination of low lying alluvial floodplains, river basin wetlands, tidal floodplains, tertiary hills, terraced lands and coastal plains in nature. The hilly areas are mostly covered by dense forests, with the exception of agricultural areas. The impacts of increased LSTs were inversely correlated for the hilly areas and areas with forest coverage; LSTs were conversely correlated for the floodplain region, and tree cover outside of the forest and agricultural crops. This study will be very helpful for the protection and restoration of the natural environment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Developing a Dynamic Web-GIS Based Landslide Early Warning System for the Chittagong Metropolitan Area, Bangladesh
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(12), 485; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7120485
Received: 22 August 2018 / Revised: 26 October 2018 / Accepted: 15 December 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
This article aims to develop a Web-GIS based landslide early warning system (EWS) for the Chittagong Metropolitan Area (CMA), Bangladesh, where, in recent years, rainfall-induced landslides have caused great losses of lives and property. A method for combining static landslide susceptibility maps and [...] Read more.
This article aims to develop a Web-GIS based landslide early warning system (EWS) for the Chittagong Metropolitan Area (CMA), Bangladesh, where, in recent years, rainfall-induced landslides have caused great losses of lives and property. A method for combining static landslide susceptibility maps and rainfall thresholds is proposed by introducing a purposely-build hazard matrix. To begin with, eleven factor maps: soil permeability; surface geology; landcover; altitude; slope; aspect; distance to stream; fault line; hill cut; road cut; and drainage network along with a detailed landslide inventory map were produced. These maps were used, and four methods were applied: artificial neural network (ANN); multiple regressions; principal component analysis; and support vector machine to produce landslide susceptibility maps. After model validation, the ANN map was found best fitting and was classified into never warning, low, medium, and high susceptibility zones. Rainfall threshold analysis (1960–2017) revealed consecutive 5-day periods of rainfall of 71–282 mm could initiate landslides in CMA. Later, the threshold was classified into three rainfall rates: low rainfall (70–160 mm), medium rainfall (161–250 mm), and high rainfall (>250 mm). Each landslide was associated with a hazard class (no warning vs. warning state) based on the assumption that the higher the susceptibility, the lower the rainfall. Finally, the EWS was developed using various libraries and frameworks that is connected with a reliable online-based weather application programming interface. The system is publicly available, dynamic, and replicable to similar contexts and is able to disseminate alerts five days in advance via email notifications. The proposed EWS is novel and the first of its kind in Bangladesh, and can be applied to mitigate landslide disaster risks. Full article
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Open AccessTechnical Note Creating a Story Map Using Geographic Information Systems to Explore Geomorphology and History of Methana Peninsula
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(12), 484; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7120484
Received: 25 October 2018 / Revised: 7 December 2018 / Accepted: 16 December 2018 / Published: 18 December 2018
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Abstract
Story maps are used as an interactive tool for communication and information dissemination. A web-based application using story mapping technology is presented to explore the Methana peninsula. This volcanic area is characterized by specific volcanic geoforms, unique flora and rich history. The story [...] Read more.
Story maps are used as an interactive tool for communication and information dissemination. A web-based application using story mapping technology is presented to explore the Methana peninsula. This volcanic area is characterized by specific volcanic geoforms, unique flora and rich history. The story map combines maps, narrative texts and multimedia content. The spatial data produce thematic maps created by a Geographic Information System on geological data, historical monuments, biodiversity and hiking paths. The purpose is to highlight the distinguishing characteristics of the Methana peninsula, to enable users to interact with maps, texts and images and to inform professional and non-professional users about the particular aspects of volcanic areas. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Multi-Scale and Multi-Sensor 3D Documentation of Heritage Complexes in Urban Areas
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(12), 483; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7120483
Received: 7 December 2018 / Revised: 7 December 2018 / Accepted: 14 December 2018 / Published: 17 December 2018
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Abstract
The 3D documentation of heritage complexes or quarters often requires more than one scale due to its extended area. While the documentation of individual buildings requires a technique with finer resolution, that of the complex itself may not need the same degree of [...] Read more.
The 3D documentation of heritage complexes or quarters often requires more than one scale due to its extended area. While the documentation of individual buildings requires a technique with finer resolution, that of the complex itself may not need the same degree of detail. This has led to the use of a multi-scale approach in such situations, which in itself implies the integration of multi-sensor techniques. The challenges and constraints of the multi-sensor approach are further added when working in urban areas, as some sensors may be suitable only for certain conditions. This paper describes the integration of heterogeneous sensors as a logical solution in addressing this problem. The royal palace complex of Kasepuhan Cirebon, Indonesia, was taken as a case study. The site dates to the 13th Century and has survived to this day as a cultural heritage site, preserving within itself a prime example of vernacular Cirebonese architecture. This type of architecture is influenced by the tropical climate, with distinct features designed to adapt to the hot and humid year-long weather. In terms of 3D documentation, this presents specific challenges that need to be addressed both during the acquisition and processing stages. Terrestrial laser scanners, DSLR cameras, as well as UAVs were utilized to record the site. The implemented workflow, some geometrical analysis of the results, as well as some derivative products will be discussed in this paper. Results have shown that although the proposed multi-scale and multi-sensor workflow has been successfully employed, it needs to be adapted and the related challenges addressed in a particular manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Data Acquisition and Processing in Cultural Heritage)
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Open AccessCommunication Challenges of Mapping Sustainable Development Goals Indicators Data
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(12), 482; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7120482
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 3 December 2018 / Accepted: 3 December 2018 / Published: 17 December 2018
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Abstract
The global population is growing at an incomprehensible rate and with it come complex environmental consequences that often result in social injustices. The United Nations has established a set of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in an attempt to ameliorate inequality and promise safety [...] Read more.
The global population is growing at an incomprehensible rate and with it come complex environmental consequences that often result in social injustices. The United Nations has established a set of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in an attempt to ameliorate inequality and promise safety for the masses. To reach these goals, a set of indicators have been identified and their associated data for each country are publicly available to measure how close each country is to each goal. Multifaceted social and environmental processes that are difficult to understand are causing threats to these goals. Maps help reduce complexity. Now, arguably anyone with access to the Internet and time can make a map. However, not all maps are effective accurate communication vessels. Well-designed maps tell a story that truthfully represents the data available. Here we present a synthesis of the cartographic workflow pointing out specific considerations necessary when mapping SDG indicators. Along the way we illustrate the cartographic workflow as it relates to visualizing SDG indicators. Common mapping pitfalls are described and a range of suggestions to avoid them are also offered. Map makers have a unique opportunity to use these data to illuminate and communicate injustices that are documented therein to inspire creative localized solutions to eradicate inequality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geo-Information and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs))
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Open AccessArticle Towards Detecting Social Events by Mining Geographical Patterns with VGI Data
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(12), 481; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7120481
Received: 7 November 2018 / Revised: 12 December 2018 / Accepted: 13 December 2018 / Published: 17 December 2018
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Abstract
Detecting events using social media data is important for timely emergency response and urban monitoring. Current studies primarily use semantic-based methods, in which “bursts” of certain semantic signals are detected to identify emerging events. Nevertheless, our consideration is that a social event will [...] Read more.
Detecting events using social media data is important for timely emergency response and urban monitoring. Current studies primarily use semantic-based methods, in which “bursts” of certain semantic signals are detected to identify emerging events. Nevertheless, our consideration is that a social event will not only affect semantic signals but also cause irregular human mobility patterns. By introducing depictive features, such irregular patterns can be used for event detection. Consequently, in this paper, we develop a novel, comprehensive workflow for event detection by mining the geographical patterns of VGI. This workflow first uses data geographical topic modeling to detect the hashtag communities with VGI semantic data. Both global and local indicators are then constructed by introducing spatial autocorrelation measurements. We then adopt an outlier test and generate indicator maps to spatiotemporally identify the potential social events. This workflow was implemented using a real-world dataset (104,000 geo-tagged photos) and the evaluation was conducted both qualitatively and quantitatively. A set of experiments showed that the discovered semantic communities were internally consistent and externally differentiable, and the plausibility of the detected events was demonstrated by referring to the available ground truth. This study examined the feasibility of detecting events by investigating the geographical patterns of social media data and can be applied to urban knowledge retrieval. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Combining the Two-Layers PageRank Approach with the APA Centrality in Networks with Data
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(12), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7120480
Received: 1 October 2018 / Revised: 4 December 2018 / Accepted: 13 December 2018 / Published: 16 December 2018
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Abstract
Identifying the influential nodes in complex networks is a fundamental and practical topic at the moment. In this paper, a new centrality measure for complex networks is proposed based on two contrasting models that have their common origin in the well-known PageRank centrality. [...] Read more.
Identifying the influential nodes in complex networks is a fundamental and practical topic at the moment. In this paper, a new centrality measure for complex networks is proposed based on two contrasting models that have their common origin in the well-known PageRank centrality. On the one hand, the essence of the model proposed is taken from the Adapted PageRank Algorithm (APA) centrality, whose main characteristic is that constitutes a measure to establish a ranking of nodes considering the importance of some dataset associated to the network. On the other hand, a technique known as two-layers PageRank approach is applied to this model. This technique focuses on the idea that the PageRank centrality can be understood as a two-layer network, the topological and teleportation layers, respectively. The main point of the proposed centrality is that it combines the APA centrality with the idea of two-layers; however, the difference now is that the teleportation layer is replaced by a layer that collects the data present in the network. This combination gives rise to a new algorithm for ranking the nodes according to their importance. Subsequently, the coherence of the new measure is demonstrated by calculating the correlation and the quantitative differences of both centralities (APA and the new centrality). A detailed study of the differences of both centralities, taking different types of networks, is performed. A real urban network with data randomly generated is evaluated as well as the well-known Zachary’s karate club network. Some numerical results are carried out by varying the values of the α parameter—known as dumping factor in PageRank model—that varies the importance given to the two layers (topology and data) within the computation of the new centrality. The proposed algorithm takes the best characteristics of the models on which it is based: on the one hand, it is a measure of centrality, in complex networks with data, whose calculation is stable numerically and, on the other hand, it is able to separate the topological properties of the network and the influence of the data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human-Centric Data Science for Urban Studies)
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Open AccessArticle CATCHA: Real-Time Camera Tracking Method for Augmented Reality Applications in Cultural Heritage Interiors
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(12), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7120479
Received: 6 November 2018 / Revised: 30 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 December 2018 / Published: 15 December 2018
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Camera pose tracking is a fundamental task in Augmented Reality (AR) applications. In this paper, we present CATCHA, a method to achieve camera pose tracking in cultural heritage interiors with rigorous conservatory policies. Our solution is real-time model-based camera tracking according to textured [...] Read more.
Camera pose tracking is a fundamental task in Augmented Reality (AR) applications. In this paper, we present CATCHA, a method to achieve camera pose tracking in cultural heritage interiors with rigorous conservatory policies. Our solution is real-time model-based camera tracking according to textured point cloud, regardless of its registration technique. We achieve this solution using orthographic model rendering that allows us to achieve real-time performance, regardless of point cloud density. Our developed algorithm is used to create a novel tool to help both cultural heritage restorers and individual visitors visually compare the actual state of a culture heritage location with its previously scanned state from the same point of view in real time. The provided application can directly achieve a frame rate of over 15 Hz on VGA frames on a mobile device and over 40 Hz using remote processing. The performance of our approach is evaluated using a model of the King’s Chinese Cabinet (Museum of King Jan III’s Palace at Wilanów, Warsaw, Poland) that was scanned in 2009 using the structured light technique and renovated and scanned again in 2015. Additional tests are performed on a model of the Al Fresco Cabinet in the same museum, scanned using a time-of-flight laser scanner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Data Acquisition and Processing in Cultural Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle New Trends in Using Augmented Reality Apps for Smart City Contexts
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(12), 478; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7120478
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 27 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 December 2018 / Published: 14 December 2018
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The idea of virtuality is not new, as research on visualization and simulation dates back to the early use of ink and paper sketches for alternative design comparisons. As technology has advanced so the way of visualizing simulations as well, but the progress [...] Read more.
The idea of virtuality is not new, as research on visualization and simulation dates back to the early use of ink and paper sketches for alternative design comparisons. As technology has advanced so the way of visualizing simulations as well, but the progress is slow due to difficulties in creating workable simulations models and effectively providing them to the users. Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality, the evolving technologies that have been haunting the tech industry, receiving excessive attention from the media and colossal growing are redefining the way we interact, communicate and work together. From consumer application to manufacturers these technologies are used in different sectors providing huge benefits through several applications. In this work, we demonstrate the potentials of Augmented Reality techniques in a Smart City (Smart Campus) context. A multiplatform mobile app featuring Augmented Reality capabilities connected to GIS services are developed to evaluate different features such as performance, usability, effectiveness and satisfaction of the Augmented Reality technology in the context of a Smart Campus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS for Safety & Security Management)
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Open AccessArticle Cartographic Line Generalization Based on Radius of Curvature Analysis
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(12), 477; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7120477
Received: 21 August 2018 / Revised: 28 November 2018 / Accepted: 6 December 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
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Cartographic generalization is one of the important processes of transforming the content of both analogue and digital maps. The process of reducing details on the map has to be conducted in a planned way in each case when the map scale is to [...] Read more.
Cartographic generalization is one of the important processes of transforming the content of both analogue and digital maps. The process of reducing details on the map has to be conducted in a planned way in each case when the map scale is to be reduced. As far as digital maps are concerned, numerous algorithms are used for the generalization of vector line elements. They are used if the scale of the map (on screen or printed) is changed, or in the process of smoothing vector lines (e.g., contours). The most popular method of reducing the number of vertices of a vector line is the Douglas-Peucker algorithm. An important feature of most algorithms is the fact that they do not take into account the cartographic properties of the transformed map element. Having analysed the existing methods of generalization, the authors developed a proprietary algorithm that is based on the analysis of the curvature of the vector line and fulfils the condition of objective generalization for elements of digital maps that may be used to transform open and closed vector lines. The paper discusses the operation of this algorithm, along with the graphic presentation of the generalization results for vector lines and the analysis of their accuracy. Treating the set of verification radii of a vector line as a statistical series, the authors propose applying statistical indices of position of these series, connected with the shape of the vector line, as the threshold parameters of generalization. The developed algorithm allows for linking the generalization parameters directly to the scale of the topographic map that was obtained after generalization. The results of the operation of the algorithm were compared to the results of the reduction of vertices with use of the Douglas-Peucker algorithm. The results demonstrated that the proposed algorithm not only reduced the number of vertices, but that it also smoothed the shape of physiographic lines, if applied to them. The authors demonstrated that the errors of smoothing and position of vertices did not exceed the acceptable values for the relevant scales of topographic maps. The developed algorithm allows for adjusting the surface of the generalized areas to their initial value more precisely. The advantage of the developed algorithm consists in the possibility to apply statistical indices that take the shape of lines into account to define the generalization parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Cartography for Big Data Solutions)
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Open AccessArticle On the Statistical Distribution of the Nonzero Spatial Autocorrelation Parameter in a Simultaneous Autoregressive Model
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(12), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7120476
Received: 27 October 2018 / Revised: 29 November 2018 / Accepted: 6 December 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
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This paper focuses on the spatial autocorrelation parameter ρ of the simultaneous autoregressive model, and furnishes its sampling distribution for nonzero values, for two regular square (rook and queen) tessellations as well as a hexagonal case with rook connectivity, using Monte Carlo simulation [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on the spatial autocorrelation parameter ρ of the simultaneous autoregressive model, and furnishes its sampling distribution for nonzero values, for two regular square (rook and queen) tessellations as well as a hexagonal case with rook connectivity, using Monte Carlo simulation experiments with a large sample size. The regular square lattice directly relates to increasingly used, remotely sensed images, whereas the regular hexagonal configuration is frequently used in sampling and aggregation situations. Results suggest an asymptotic normal distribution for estimated ρ. More specifically, this paper posits functions between ρ and its variance for three adjacency structures, which makes hypothesis testing implementable and furnishes an easily-computed version of the asymptotic variance for ρ at zero for each configuration. In addition, it also presents three examples, where the first employed a simulated dataset for a zero spatial autocorrelation case, and the other two used two empirical datasets—of these, one is a census block dataset for Wuhan (with a Moran coefficient of 0.53, allowing a null hypothesis of, e.g., ρ=0.7) to illustrate a moderate spatial autocorrelation case, and the other is a remotely sensed image of the Yellow Mountain region, China (with a Moran coefficient of 0.91, allowing a null hypothesis of, e.g., ρ=0.95) to illustrate a high spatial autocorrelation case. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Framework for Visual Analytics of Spatio-Temporal Sensor Observations from Data Streams
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(12), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7120475
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 28 November 2018 / Accepted: 6 December 2018 / Published: 11 December 2018
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Sensor networks generate substantial amounts of frequently updated, highly dynamic data that are transmitted as packets in a data stream. The high frequency and continuous unbound nature of data streams leads to challenges when deriving knowledge from the underlying observations. This paper presents [...] Read more.
Sensor networks generate substantial amounts of frequently updated, highly dynamic data that are transmitted as packets in a data stream. The high frequency and continuous unbound nature of data streams leads to challenges when deriving knowledge from the underlying observations. This paper presents (1) a state of the art review into visual analytics of geospatial, spatio-temporal streaming data, and (2) proposes a framework based on the identified gaps from the review. The framework consists of (1) the data model that characterizes the sensor observation data, (2) the user model, which addresses the user queries and manages domain knowledge, (3) the design model, which handles the patterns that can be uncovered from the data and corresponding visualizations, and (4) the visualization model, which handles the rendering of the data. The conclusion from the visualization model is that streaming sensor observations require tools that can handle multivariate, multiscale, and time series displays. The design model reveals that the most useful patterns are those that show relationships, anomalies, and aggregations of the data. The user model highlights the need for handling missing data, dealing with high frequency changes, as well as the ability to review retrospective changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spatial Stream Processing )
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Open AccessEditorial Geoinformatics in Citizen Science
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(12), 474; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7120474
Received: 29 November 2018 / Accepted: 6 December 2018 / Published: 11 December 2018
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Abstract
This editorial introduces the special issue entitled “Geoinformatics in Citizen Science” of the ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information. The issue includes papers dealing with three main topics. (1) Key tasks of citizen science (CS) in leveraging geoinformatics. This comprises descriptions of citizen [...] Read more.
This editorial introduces the special issue entitled “Geoinformatics in Citizen Science” of the ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information. The issue includes papers dealing with three main topics. (1) Key tasks of citizen science (CS) in leveraging geoinformatics. This comprises descriptions of citizen science initiatives where geoinformation management and processing is the key means for discovering new knowledge, and it includes: (i) “hackAIR: Towards Raising Awareness about Air Quality in Europe by Developing a Collective Online Platform” by Kosmidis et al., (ii) “Coupling Traditional Monitoring and Citizen Science to Disentangle the Invasion of Halyomorpha halys” by Malek et al., and (iii) “Increasing the Accuracy of Crowdsourced Information on Land Cover via a Voting Procedure Weighted by Information Inferred from the Contributed Data” by Foody et al. (2) Evaluations of approaches to handle geoinformation in CS. This examines citizen science initiatives which critically analyze approaches to acquire and handle geoinformation, and it includes: (iv) “CS Projects Involving Geoinformatics: A Survey of Implementation Approaches” by Criscuolo et al., (v) “Obstacles and Opportunities of Using a Mobile App for Marine Mammal Research” by Hann et al., (vi) “OSM Data Import as an Outreach Tool to Trigger Community Growth? A Case Study in Miami” by Juhász and Hochmair, and (vii) “Experiences with Citizen-Sourced VGI in Challenging Circumstances“ by Hameed et al. (3) Novel geoinformatics research issues: (viii) “A New Method for the Assessment of Spatial Accuracy and Completeness of OpenStreetMap Building Footprints” by Brovelli and Zamboni, (ix) “A Citizen Science Approach for Collecting Toponyms” by Perdana and Ostermann, and (x) “An Automatic User Grouping Model for a Group Recommender System in Location-Based Social Networks” by Khazaei and Alimohammadi. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geoinformatics in Citizen Science)
Open AccessArticle Assessment of Displacements of Linestrings Based on Homologous Vertexes
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(12), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7120473
Received: 6 November 2018 / Revised: 29 November 2018 / Accepted: 6 December 2018 / Published: 9 December 2018
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Abstract
This study describes a new method that was developed in order to assess the displacements between two linestrings that represent the same element in two datasets based on their shape. Until now, all existing line-based methods have been focused on the calculation of [...] Read more.
This study describes a new method that was developed in order to assess the displacements between two linestrings that represent the same element in two datasets based on their shape. Until now, all existing line-based methods have been focused on the calculation of distances or buffer inclusions between the two linestrings. However, these approaches assess a spatial difference between two linestrings, but they can hide the displacements that were suffered because of the geometry of the linestrings themselves. In our approach, the shapes of the linestrings are taken into account in order to identify homologous vertexes and estimate real displacements. Between two lines a pair of homologous vertices are defined as those that represent in reality the same characteristic feature of the line. Homologous vertexes can be detected by means of any appropriate algorithm. In order to test this method, we developed a design of experiment that was based on its application to a large dataset of lines classified into five sinuosity classes. These datasets were obtained from an external source that contains perturbed linestrings with several known random and systematic disturbances. 496 linestrings and 59 configurations were used in this experiment. The results have demonstrated the viability of the proposed method in estimating the real displacement of the lines, and consequently assessing their positional accuracy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Parallel-Computing Approach for Vector Road-Network Matching Using GPU Architecture
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(12), 472; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7120472
Received: 2 October 2018 / Revised: 3 December 2018 / Accepted: 5 December 2018 / Published: 7 December 2018
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Abstract
The road-network matching method is an effective tool for map integration, fusion, and update. Due to the complexity of road networks in the real world, matching methods often contain a series of complicated processes to identify homonymous roads and deal with their intricate [...] Read more.
The road-network matching method is an effective tool for map integration, fusion, and update. Due to the complexity of road networks in the real world, matching methods often contain a series of complicated processes to identify homonymous roads and deal with their intricate relationship. However, traditional road-network matching algorithms, which are mainly central processing unit (CPU)-based approaches, may have performance bottleneck problems when facing big data. We developed a particle-swarm optimization (PSO)-based parallel road-network matching method on graphics-processing unit (GPU). Based on the characteristics of the two main stages (similarity computation and matching-relationship identification), data-partition and task-partition strategies were utilized, respectively, to fully use GPU threads. Experiments were conducted on datasets with 14 different scales. Results indicate that the parallel PSO-based matching algorithm (PSOM) could correctly identify most matching relationships with an average accuracy of 84.44%, which was at the same level as the accuracy of a benchmark—the probability-relaxation-matching (PRM) method. The PSOM approach significantly reduced the road-network matching time in dealing with large amounts of data in comparison with the PRM method. This paper provides a common parallel algorithm framework for road-network matching algorithms and contributes to integration and update of large-scale road-networks. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Identification of Experimental and Control Areas for CCTV Effectiveness Assessment—The Issue of Spatially Aggregated Data
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(12), 471; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7120471
Received: 21 October 2018 / Revised: 1 December 2018 / Accepted: 5 December 2018 / Published: 7 December 2018
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Abstract
Progress in surveillance technology has led to the development of Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) systems in cities around the world. Cameras are considered instrumental in crime reduction, yet existing research does not unambiguously answer the question whether installing them affects the number of crimes [...] Read more.
Progress in surveillance technology has led to the development of Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) systems in cities around the world. Cameras are considered instrumental in crime reduction, yet existing research does not unambiguously answer the question whether installing them affects the number of crimes committed. The quasi-experimental method usually applied to evaluate CCTV systems’ effectiveness faces difficulties with data quantity and quality. Data quantity has a bearing on the number of crimes that can be conclusively inferred using the experimental procedure. Data quality affects the level of crime data aggregation. The lack of the exact location of a crime incident in the form of a street address or geographic coordinates hinders the selection procedure of experimental and control areas. In this paper we propose an innovative method of dealing with data limitations in a quasi-experimental study on the effectiveness of CCTV systems in Poland. As police data on crime incidents are geocoded onto a neighborhood or a street, we designed a method to overcome this drawback by applying similarity measures to time series and landscape metrics. The method makes it possible to determine experimental (test) and control areas which are necessary to conduct the study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS for Safety & Security Management)
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Open AccessEditorial Geospatial Methods and Tools for Natural Risk Management and Communications
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(12), 470; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7120470
Received: 28 November 2018 / Accepted: 29 November 2018 / Published: 2 December 2018
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Abstract
In the last decade, real-time access to data and the use of high-resolution spatial information have provided scientists and engineers with valuable information to help them understand risk. At the same time, there has been a rapid growth of novel and cutting-edge information [...] Read more.
In the last decade, real-time access to data and the use of high-resolution spatial information have provided scientists and engineers with valuable information to help them understand risk. At the same time, there has been a rapid growth of novel and cutting-edge information and communication technologies for the collection, analysis and dissemination of data, re-inventing the way in which risk management is carried out throughout its cycle (risk identification and reduction, preparedness, disaster relief and recovery). The applications of those geospatial technologies are expected to enable better mitigation of, and adaptation to, the disastrous impact of natural hazards. The description of risks may particularly benefit from the integrated use of new algorithms and monitoring techniques. The ability of new tools to carry out intensive analyses over huge datasets makes it possible to perform future risk assessments, keeping abreast of temporal and spatial changes in hazard, exposure, and vulnerability. The present special issue aims to describe the state-of-the-art of natural risk assessment, management, and communication using new geospatial models and Earth Observation (EO)architecture. More specifically, we have collected a number of contributions dealing with: (1) applications of EO data and machine learning techniques for hazard, vulnerability and risk mapping; (2) natural hazards monitoring and forecasting geospatial systems; (3) modeling of spatiotemporal resource optimization for emergency management in the post-disaster phase; and (4) development of tools and platforms for risk projection assessment and communication of inherent uncertainties. Full article
Open AccessArticle Reduction of Map Information Regulates Visual Attention without Affecting Route Recognition Performance
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(12), 469; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7120469
Received: 27 September 2018 / Revised: 24 November 2018 / Accepted: 28 November 2018 / Published: 30 November 2018
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Abstract
Map-based navigation is a diverse task that stands in contradiction to the goal of completeness of web mapping services. As each navigation task is different, it also requires and can dispense with different map information to support effective and efficient wayfinding. Task-oriented reduction [...] Read more.
Map-based navigation is a diverse task that stands in contradiction to the goal of completeness of web mapping services. As each navigation task is different, it also requires and can dispense with different map information to support effective and efficient wayfinding. Task-oriented reduction of the elements displayed in a map may therefore support navigation. In order to investigate effects of map reduction on route recognition and visual attention towards specific map elements, we created maps in which areas offside an inserted route were displayed as transparent. In a route memory experiment, where participants had to memorize routes and match them to routes displayed in following stimuli, these maps were compared to unmodified maps. Eye movement analyses revealed that in the reduced maps, areas offside the route were fixated less often. Route recognition performance was not affected by the map reduction. Our results indicate that task-oriented map reduction may direct visual attention towards relevant map elements at no cost for route recognition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Trends in Location Based Services and Science)
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Open AccessArticle Optimising Citizen-Driven Air Quality Monitoring Networks for Cities
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(12), 468; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7120468
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 23 November 2018 / Accepted: 27 November 2018 / Published: 30 November 2018
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Abstract
Air quality has had a significant impact on public health, the environment and eventually on the economy of countries for decades. Effectively mitigating air pollution in urban areas necessitates accurate air quality exposure information. Recent advancements in sensor technology and the increasing popularity [...] Read more.
Air quality has had a significant impact on public health, the environment and eventually on the economy of countries for decades. Effectively mitigating air pollution in urban areas necessitates accurate air quality exposure information. Recent advancements in sensor technology and the increasing popularity of volunteered geographic information (VGI) open up new possibilities for air quality exposure assessment in cities. However, citizens and their sensors are put in areas deemed to be subjectively of interest (e.g., where citizens live, school of their kids or working spaces), and this leads to missed opportunities when it comes to optimal air quality exposure assessment. In addition, while the current literature on VGI has extensively discussed data quality and citizen engagement issues, few works, if any, offer techniques to fine-tune VGI contributions for an optimal air quality exposure assessment. This article presents and tests an approach to minimise land use regression prediction errors on citizen-contributed data. The approach was evaluated using a dataset (N = 116 sensors) from the city of Stuttgart, Germany. The comparison between the existing network design and the combination of locations selected by the optimisation method has shown a drop in spatial mean prediction error by 52%. The ideas presented in this article are useful for the systematic deployment of VGI air quality sensors, and can aid in the creation of higher resolution, more realistic maps for air quality monitoring in cities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle HiBuffer: Buffer Analysis of 10-Million-Scale Spatial Data in Real Time
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(12), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7120467
Received: 30 October 2018 / Revised: 24 November 2018 / Accepted: 27 November 2018 / Published: 30 November 2018
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Abstract
Buffer analysis, a fundamental function in a geographic information system (GIS), identifies areas by the surrounding geographic features within a given distance. Real-time buffer analysis for large-scale spatial data remains a challenging problem since the computational scales of conventional data-oriented methods expand rapidly [...] Read more.
Buffer analysis, a fundamental function in a geographic information system (GIS), identifies areas by the surrounding geographic features within a given distance. Real-time buffer analysis for large-scale spatial data remains a challenging problem since the computational scales of conventional data-oriented methods expand rapidly with increasing data volume. In this paper, we introduce HiBuffer, a visualization-oriented model for real-time buffer analysis. An efficient buffer generation method is proposed which introduces spatial indexes and a corresponding query strategy. Buffer results are organized into a tile-pyramid structure to enable stepless zooming. Moreover, a fully optimized hybrid parallel processing architecture is proposed for the real-time buffer analysis of large-scale spatial data. Experiments using real-world datasets show that our approach can reduce computation time by up to several orders of magnitude while preserving superior visualization effects. Additional experiments were conducted to analyze the influence of spatial data density, buffer radius, and request rate on HiBuffer performance, and the results demonstrate the adaptability and stability of HiBuffer. The parallel scalability of HiBuffer was also tested, showing that HiBuffer achieves high performance of parallel acceleration. Experimental results verify that HiBuffer is capable of handling 10-million-scale data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Distributed and Parallel Architectures for Spatial Data)
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Open AccessArticle A Remote Sensing Algorithm of Column-Integrated Algal Biomass Covering Algal Bloom Conditions in a Shallow Eutrophic Lake
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(12), 466; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7120466
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 21 November 2018 / Accepted: 27 November 2018 / Published: 30 November 2018
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Abstract
Column integrated algal biomass provides a robust indicator for eutrophication evaluation because it considers the vertical variability of phytoplankton. However, most remote sensing-based inversion algorithms of column algal biomass assume a homogenous distribution of phytoplankton within the water column. This study proposes a [...] Read more.
Column integrated algal biomass provides a robust indicator for eutrophication evaluation because it considers the vertical variability of phytoplankton. However, most remote sensing-based inversion algorithms of column algal biomass assume a homogenous distribution of phytoplankton within the water column. This study proposes a new remote sensing-based algorithm to estimate column integrated algal biomass incorporating different possible vertical profiles. The field sampling was based on five surveys in Lake Chaohu, a large eutrophic shallow lake in China. Field measurements revealed a significant variation in phytoplankton profiles in the water column during algal bloom conditions. The column integrated algal biomass retrieval algorithm developed in the present study is shown to effectively describe the vertical variation of algal biomass in shallow eutrophic water. The Baseline Normalized Difference Bloom Index (BNDBI) was adopted to estimate algal biomass integrated from the water surface to 40 cm. Then the relationship between 40 cm integrated algal biomass and the whole column algal biomass at various depths was built taking into consideration the hydrological and bathymetry data of each site. The algorithm was able to accurately estimate integrated algal biomass with R2 = 0.89, RMSE = 45.94 and URMSE = 28.58%. High accuracy was observed in the temporal consistency of satellite images (with the maximum MAPE = 7.41%). Sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the estimated algal biomass integrated from the water surface to 40 cm has the greatest influence on the estimated column integrated algal biomass. This algorithm can be used to explore the long-term variation of algal biomass to improve long-term analysis and management of eutrophic lakes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Measuring Inequality of Opportunity in Access to Quality Basic Education: A Case Study in Florida, US
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(12), 465; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7120465
Received: 24 September 2018 / Revised: 21 November 2018 / Accepted: 26 November 2018 / Published: 29 November 2018
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Abstract
Providing all children equal access to essential services, such as primary education, has been set as a priority in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG)’ agenda during the last two decades. Yet the Global Education Monitoring report in 2016 reveals that wide disparities between [...] Read more.
Providing all children equal access to essential services, such as primary education, has been set as a priority in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG)’ agenda during the last two decades. Yet the Global Education Monitoring report in 2016 reveals that wide disparities between the rich and the poor persist in access to education of high quality. This study uses the Human Opportunity Index (HOI) to examine the equality of opportunity in access to basic education of high quality. By using enrollment and admission data from a case study in a large school district in the US in 2015/2016, this research evaluates the capacity of the HOI, in order to reveal disparities in access to school opportunities and examines how much of this inequality is explained by families’ pre-determined circumstances. The way of analyzing equality is by disaggregating applications’ data into circumstance groups, according to gender, geography, race/ethnicity, and other criteria. To capture the contribution of each circumstance to inequality of opportunity, the Shapley decomposition method is used. Findings show that the HOI is capable of systematically monitoring and examining existing admission policies and identifying inequality problems. Furthermore, the analysis of the contribution of each circumstance group can reveal admission criteria that have the potential to harm the educational opportunities for children. This assessment should provide valuable insights into the capability of the indicators to reveal where policy intervention is necessary and supply points of view on how policy can be improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geo-Information and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs))
Open AccessCommunication How to Contextualize SDG 11? Looking at Indicators for Sustainable Urban Development in Germany
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(12), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7120464
Received: 29 August 2018 / Revised: 22 November 2018 / Accepted: 26 November 2018 / Published: 29 November 2018
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Abstract
Agenda 2030 pursues a universal approach and identifies countries in the Global South and in the Global North that are in need of transformation toward sustainability. Therefore, countries of the Global North such as Germany have signed the commitment to implement the Sustainable [...] Read more.
Agenda 2030 pursues a universal approach and identifies countries in the Global South and in the Global North that are in need of transformation toward sustainability. Therefore, countries of the Global North such as Germany have signed the commitment to implement the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). However, the SDGs need to be “translated” to the specific national context. Existing sustainability indicators and monitoring and reporting systems need to be adjusted as well. Our paper evaluates how three different initiatives translated SDG 11 (“Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable”) to the German context, given the specific role of cities in contributing to sustainable development. These initiatives included the official ‘National Sustainable Development Strategy’ of the German Government, a scientific initiative led by the ‘German Institute for Urban Affairs’, and a project carried out by the ‘Open Knowledge Foundation’, a non-governmental organization (NGO). This article aims to analyze how global goals addressing urban developments are contextualized on a national level. Our findings demonstrate that only a few of the original targets and indicators for SDG 11 are used in the German context; thus, major adjustments have been made according to the main sustainability challenges identified for Germany. Furthermore, our results show that the current contextualization of SDG 11 and sustainable urban development in Germany are still ongoing, and more changes and commitments need to be made. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geo-Information and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs))
Open AccessArticle An Architecture for Mobile Outdoors Augmented Reality for Cultural Heritage
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(12), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7120463
Received: 10 October 2018 / Revised: 19 November 2018 / Accepted: 26 November 2018 / Published: 29 November 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, we present the software architecture of a complete mobile tourist guide for cultural heritage sites located in the old town of Chania, Crete, Greece. This includes gamified components that motivate the user to traverse the suggested interest points, as well [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present the software architecture of a complete mobile tourist guide for cultural heritage sites located in the old town of Chania, Crete, Greece. This includes gamified components that motivate the user to traverse the suggested interest points, as well as technically challenging outdoors augmented reality (AR) visualization features. The main focus of the AR feature is to superimpose 3D models of historical buildings in their past state onto the real world, while users walk around the Venetian part of Chania’s city, exploring historical information in the form of text and images. We examined and tested registration and tracking mechanisms based on commercial AR frameworks in the challenging outdoor, sunny environment of a Mediterranean town, addressing relevant technical challenges. Upon visiting one of three significant monuments, a 3D model displaying the monument in its past state is visualized onto the mobile phone’s screen at the exact location of the real-world monument, while the user is exploring the area. A location-based experience was designed and integrated into the application, enveloping the 3D model with real-world information at the same time. The users are urged to explore interest areas and unlock historical information, while earning points following a gamified experience. By combining AR technologies with location-aware and gamified elements, we aim to promote the technologically enhanced public appreciation of cultural heritage sites and showcase the cultural depth of the city of Chania. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Data Acquisition and Processing in Cultural Heritage)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Integrating GEOBIA, Machine Learning, and Volunteered Geographic Information to Map Vegetation over Rooftops
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(12), 462; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7120462
Received: 19 September 2018 / Revised: 13 November 2018 / Accepted: 26 November 2018 / Published: 29 November 2018
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Abstract
The objective of this study is to evaluate operational methods for creating a particular type of urban vegetation map—one focused on vegetation over rooftops (VOR), specifically trees that extend over urban residential buildings. A key constraint was the use of passive remote sensing [...] Read more.
The objective of this study is to evaluate operational methods for creating a particular type of urban vegetation map—one focused on vegetation over rooftops (VOR), specifically trees that extend over urban residential buildings. A key constraint was the use of passive remote sensing data only. To achieve this, we (1) conduct a review of the urban remote sensing vegetation classification literature, and we then (2) discuss methods to derive a detailed map of VOR for a study area in Calgary, Alberta, Canada from a late season, high-resolution airborne orthomosaic based on an integration of Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA), pre-classification filtering of image-objects using Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI), and a machine learning classifier. Pre-classification filtering lowered the computational burden of classification by reducing the number of input objects by 14%. Accuracy assessment results show that, despite the presence of senescing vegetation with low vegetation index values and deep shadows, classification using a small number of image-object spectral attributes as classification features (n = 9) had similar overall accuracy (88.5%) to a much more complex classification (91.8%) comprising a comprehensive set of spectral, texture, and spatial attributes as classification features (n = 86). This research provides an example of the very specific questions answerable about precise urban locations using a combination of high-resolution passive imagery and freely available VGI data. It highlights the benefits of pre-classification filtering and the judicious selection of features from image-object attributes to reduce processing load without sacrificing classification accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GEOBIA in a Changing World)
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Open AccessArticle Combining the Stock Unearthing Method and Structure-from-Motion Photogrammetry for a Gapless Estimation of Soil Mobilisation in Vineyards
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(12), 461; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7120461
Received: 13 September 2018 / Revised: 9 November 2018 / Accepted: 21 November 2018 / Published: 27 November 2018
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Abstract
In vineyards, especially on steep slopes like the Ruwer-Mosel Valley, Germany, soil erosion is a well-known environmental problem. Unfortunately, some enterprises and farmers are not aware of how much soil is being lost and the long-term negative impacts of soil erosion. The non-invasive [...] Read more.
In vineyards, especially on steep slopes like the Ruwer-Mosel Valley, Germany, soil erosion is a well-known environmental problem. Unfortunately, some enterprises and farmers are not aware of how much soil is being lost and the long-term negative impacts of soil erosion. The non-invasive technique of the stock unearthing method (SUM) can be used for a quick assessment of soil erosion in vineyards. SUM uses the graft union as a reference elevation for soil surface changes since the time of plantation commencement, which is modelled with the help of a geographic information system. A shortcoming of SUM is that the areas between the pair-vine cross sections are not surveyed, hence it is not accurate enough to identify erosion hot-spots. A structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetric technique is adopted to complement SUM to fill this data gap. Combining SUM (only measuring the graft unions) and SfM techniques could lead to an improved, easy and low-cost method with a higher accuracy for estimation of soil erosion based on interpolation by projection, and contact and gapless measuring. Thus, the main aim of this paper was to map the current soil surface level and to improve the accuracy of estimation of long-term soil mobilisation rates in vineyards. To achieve this goal, the TEPHOS (TErrestrial PHOtogrammetric Scanner), a static five camera array, was developed on a 20 m2 plot located in a steeply sloping vineyard of the Ruwer-Mosel Valley, Trier, Germany. A total soil mobilisation of 0.52 m3 (9.14 Mg ha yr−1) with soil surface level differences in excess of 30 cm in the 40 years since plantation commencement were recorded. Further research is, however, needed to reduce the number of photos used for the point cloud without loss of accuracy. This method can be useful for the observation of the impacts of other factors in vineyards, such as tillage erosion, runoff pathway detection or the trampling effect on soil erosion in vineyards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Leading Progress in Digital Terrain Analysis and Modeling)
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Open AccessArticle Real-Time Visualization of Geo-Sensor Data Based on the Protocol-Coupling Symbol Construction Method
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(12), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7120460
Received: 20 September 2018 / Revised: 16 November 2018 / Accepted: 26 November 2018 / Published: 27 November 2018
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Abstract
Obtaining and visualizing the internal state and position information of the remote device using sensors are important aspects of industrial manufacturing. For large-scale geo-sensors that have been recently used, map-based management and visualization of the geo-sensor devices have become ubiquitous. Users often build [...] Read more.
Obtaining and visualizing the internal state and position information of the remote device using sensors are important aspects of industrial manufacturing. For large-scale geo-sensors that have been recently used, map-based management and visualization of the geo-sensor devices have become ubiquitous. Users often build multiple map symbols to represent the multiple states of a device based on traditional map symbols. Visualizing multiple geo-sensor data in real time with one map symbol is difficult. In this paper, a protocol-coupling map symbol and a construction method for real-time data visualization is introduced where different sensor states of the geo-sensor are expressed with one symbol. The sensor data visualization method in supervisory control and data acquisition systems (SCADA) was introduced and applied to the construction and visualization process of map symbols. First, based on the traditional vector map symbols and the communication protocol parsing interface, the mapping relationship between the sensor data item and the graphic element is defined in the map symbol construction process. Second, by referring to the streaming services method in ArcGIS GeoEvent, geo-sensor data acquisition and a transfer broker in a GIS server is built, through which the real-time sensor data can be transferred from the remote side to the map client and used for map symbol rendering. Finally, the new map symbols are used for real-time geo-sensor data visualization in applications. In the application of the real-time monitoring of geo-sensor devices, remote device information was acquired by sensor and transmitted to the broker then cached on the server side. If the cached sensor data has changed compared to the previous, the changed data will be pushed to map client by broker. The communication module in the map client that communicates with the broker receives changed geo-sensor data and triggers a refresh of the map. Then the protocol-coupling map symbol is rendered according to the mapping profile and the status of the geo-sensor device will be displayed on the map in real time. All the methods and processes were verified in client-server and browser-server GIS architecture. Full article
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