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ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf., Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2015) , Pages 1-417

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Open AccessArticle
Manifestation of an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) Model on Fire Potential Zonation Mapping in Kathmandu Metropolitan City, Nepal
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(1), 400-417; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4010400 - 19 Mar 2015
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3204
Abstract
Even though fewer people die as a result of fire than other natural disasters, such as earthquake, flood, landslide, etc., the average loss of property due to fire is high. Kathmandu Metropolitan City is becoming more vulnerable to fire due to haphazard [...] Read more.
Even though fewer people die as a result of fire than other natural disasters, such as earthquake, flood, landslide, etc., the average loss of property due to fire is high. Kathmandu Metropolitan City is becoming more vulnerable to fire due to haphazard urbanization and increase in population. To control problems due to fire, systematic studies are necessary, including fire potential mapping and risk assessment. This study applies an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method in Kathmandu Metropolitan City, Nepal for generation of fire potential zonation map. The fire potential zonation map is prepared on the basis of available data of land use, fuel stations, and population density. This map shows that 58.04% of the study area falls under low fire potential zone, 32.92% falls under moderate fire potential zone and 9.04% falls under high fire potential zone. The map is also validated through major past fire incidents. The results show that the predicted fire potential zones are found to be in good agreement with past fire incidents, and, hence, the map can be used for future land-use planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geoinformation for Disaster Risk Management)
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Open AccessArticle
A Sensor Web-Enabled Infrastructure for Precision Farming
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(1), 385-399; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4010385 - 18 Mar 2015
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2867
Abstract
The use of sensor technologies is standard practice in the domain of precision farming. The variety of vendor-specific sensor systems, control units and processing software has led to increasing efforts in establishing interoperable sensor networks and standardized sensor data infrastructures. This study utilizes [...] Read more.
The use of sensor technologies is standard practice in the domain of precision farming. The variety of vendor-specific sensor systems, control units and processing software has led to increasing efforts in establishing interoperable sensor networks and standardized sensor data infrastructures. This study utilizes open source software and adapts the standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium to introduce a method for the realization of a sensor data infrastructure for precision farming applications. The infrastructure covers the control of sensor systems, the access to sensor data, the transmission of sensor data to web services and the standardized storage of sensor data in a sensor web-enabled server. It permits end users and computer systems to access the sensor data in a well-defined way and to build applications on top of the sensor web services. The infrastructure is scalable to large scenarios, where a multitude of sensor systems and sensor web services are involved. A real-world field trial was set-up to prove the applicability of the infrastructure. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Examination of Three Spatial Event Cluster Detection Methods
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(1), 367-384; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4010367 - 06 Mar 2015
Viewed by 2089
Abstract
In spatial disease surveillance, geographic areas with large numbers of disease cases are to be identified, so that targeted investigations can be pursued. Geographic areas with high disease rates are called disease clusters and statistical cluster detection tests are used to identify geographic [...] Read more.
In spatial disease surveillance, geographic areas with large numbers of disease cases are to be identified, so that targeted investigations can be pursued. Geographic areas with high disease rates are called disease clusters and statistical cluster detection tests are used to identify geographic areas with higher disease rates than expected by chance alone. In some situations, disease-related events rather than individuals are of interest for geographical surveillance, and methods to detect clusters of disease-related events are called event cluster detection methods. In this paper, we examine three distributional assumptions for the events in cluster detection: compound Poisson, approximate normal and multiple hypergeometric (exact). The methods differ on the choice of distributional assumption for the potentially multiple correlated events per individual. The methods are illustrated on emergency department (ED) presentations by children and youth (age < 18 years) because of substance use in the province of Alberta, Canada, during 1 April 2007, to 31 March 2008. Simulation studies are conducted to investigate Type I error and the power of the clustering methods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Geovisual Analytics Approach to Exploring Public Political Discourse on Twitter
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(1), 337-366; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4010337 - 05 Mar 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3644
Abstract
We introduce spatial patterns of Tweets visualization (SPoTvis), a web-based geovisual analytics tool for exploring messages on Twitter (or “tweets”) collected about political discourse, and illustrate the potential of the approach with a case study focused on a set of linked political events [...] Read more.
We introduce spatial patterns of Tweets visualization (SPoTvis), a web-based geovisual analytics tool for exploring messages on Twitter (or “tweets”) collected about political discourse, and illustrate the potential of the approach with a case study focused on a set of linked political events in the United States. In October 2013, the U.S. Congressional debate over the allocation of funds to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (commonly known as the ACA or “Obamacare”) culminated in a 16-day government shutdown. Meanwhile the online health insurance marketplace related to the ACA was making a public debut hampered by performance and functionality problems. Messages on Twitter during this time period included sharply divided opinions about these events, with many people angry about the shutdown and others supporting the delay of the ACA implementation. SPoTvis supports the analysis of these events using an interactive map connected dynamically to a term polarity plot; through the SPoTvis interface, users can compare the dominant subthemes of Tweets in any two states or congressional districts. Demographic attributes and political information on the display, coupled with functionality to show (dis)similar features, enrich users’ understandings of the units being compared. Relationships among places, politics and discourse on Twitter are quantified using statistical analyses and explored visually using SPoTvis. A two-part user study evaluates SPoTvis’ ability to enable insight discovery, as well as the tool’s design, functionality and applicability to other contexts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Developments in Cartography and Display Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
Categorization and Conversions for Indexing Methods of Discrete Global Grid Systems
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(1), 320-336; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4010320 - 25 Feb 2015
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3716
Abstract
Digital Earth frameworks provide a tool to receive, send and interact with large location-based datasets, organized usually according to Discrete Global Grid Systems (DGGS). In DGGS, an indexing method is used to assign a unique index to each cell of a global grid, [...] Read more.
Digital Earth frameworks provide a tool to receive, send and interact with large location-based datasets, organized usually according to Discrete Global Grid Systems (DGGS). In DGGS, an indexing method is used to assign a unique index to each cell of a global grid, and the datasets corresponding to these cells are retrieved or allocated using this unique index. There exist many methods to index cells of DGGS. Toward facility, interoperability and also defining a “standard” for DGGS, a conversion is needed to translate a dataset from one DGGS to another. In this paper, we first propose a categorization of indexing methods of DGGS and then define a general conversion method from one indexing to another. Several examples are presented to describe the method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 20 Years of OGC: Open Geo-Data, Software, and Standards)
Open AccessArticle
Optimising Mobile Mapping System Laser Scanner Orientation
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(1), 302-319; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4010302 - 23 Feb 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2868
Abstract
Multiple laser scanner hardware configurations can be applied to Mobile Mapping Systems. As best practice, laser scanners are rotated horizontally or inclined vertically to increase the probability of contact between the laser scan plane and any surfaces that are perpendicular to the direction [...] Read more.
Multiple laser scanner hardware configurations can be applied to Mobile Mapping Systems. As best practice, laser scanners are rotated horizontally or inclined vertically to increase the probability of contact between the laser scan plane and any surfaces that are perpendicular to the direction of travel. Vertical inclinations also maximise the number of scan profiles striking narrow vertical features, something that can be of use when trying to recognise features. Adding a second scanner allows an MMS to capture more data and improve laser coverage of an area by filling in laser shadows. However, in any MMS the orientation of each scanner on the platform must be decided upon. Changes in the horizontal or vertical orientations of the scanner can increase the range to vertical targets and the road surface, with excessive scanner angles lowering point density significantly. Limited information is available to assist the manufacturers or operators in identifying the optimal scanner orientation for roadside surveys. The method proposed in this paper applies 3D surface normals and geometric formulae to assess the influence of scanner orientation on point distribution. It was demonstrated that by changing the orientation of the scanner the number of pulses striking a target could be greatly increased, and the number of profiles intersecting with the target could also be increased—something that is particularly important for narrow vertical features. The importance of identifying the correct trade-off between the number of profiles intersecting with the target and the point spacing was also raised. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
User-Centered Design for Interactive Maps: A Case Study in Crime Analysis
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(1), 262-301; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4010262 - 16 Feb 2015
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 5638
Abstract
In this paper, we address the topic of user-centered design (UCD) for cartography, GIScience, and visual analytics. Interactive maps are ubiquitous in modern society, yet they often fail to “work” as they could or should. UCD describes the process of ensuring interface success—map-based [...] Read more.
In this paper, we address the topic of user-centered design (UCD) for cartography, GIScience, and visual analytics. Interactive maps are ubiquitous in modern society, yet they often fail to “work” as they could or should. UCD describes the process of ensuring interface success—map-based or otherwise—by gathering input and feedback from target users throughout the design and development of the interface. We contribute to the expanding literature on UCD for interactive maps in two ways. First, we synthesize core concepts on UCD from cartography and related fields, as well as offer new ideas, in order to organize existing frameworks and recommendations regarding the UCD of interactive maps. Second, we report on a case study UCD process for GeoVISTA CrimeViz, an interactive and web-based mapping application supporting visual analytics of criminal activity in space and time. The GeoVISTA CrimeViz concept and interface were improved iteratively by working through a series of user→utility→usability loops in which target users provided input and feedback on needs and designs (user), prompting revisions to the conceptualization and functional requirements of the interface (utility), and ultimately leading to new mockups and prototypes of the interface (usability) for additional evaluation by target users (user… and so on). Together, the background review and case study offer guidance for applying UCD to interactive mapping projects, and demonstrate the benefit of including target users throughout design and development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Developments in Cartography and Display Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigating Within-Field Variability of Rice from High Resolution Satellite Imagery in Qixing Farm County, Northeast China
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(1), 236-261; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4010236 - 03 Feb 2015
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3263
Abstract
Rice is a primary staple food for the world population and there is a strong need to map its cultivation area and monitor its crop status on regional scales. This study was conducted in the Qixing Farm County of the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast [...] Read more.
Rice is a primary staple food for the world population and there is a strong need to map its cultivation area and monitor its crop status on regional scales. This study was conducted in the Qixing Farm County of the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China. First, the rice cultivation areas were identified by integrating the remote sensing (RS) classification maps from three dates and the Geographic Information System (GIS) data obtained from a local agency. Specifically, three FORMOSAT-2 (FS-2) images captured during the growing season in 2009 and a GIS topographic map were combined using a knowledge-based classification method. A highly accurate classification map (overall accuracy = 91.6%) was generated based on this Multi-Data-Approach (MDA). Secondly, measured agronomic variables that include biomass, leaf area index (LAI), plant nitrogen (N) concentration and plant N uptake were correlated with the date-specific FS-2 image spectra using stepwise multiple linear regression models. The best model validation results with a relative error (RE) of 8.9% were found in the biomass regression model at the phenological stage of heading. The best index of agreement (IA) value of 0.85 with an RE of 13.6% was found in the LAI model, also at the heading stage. For plant N uptake estimation, the most accurate model was again achieved at the heading stage with an RE of 11% and an IA value of 0.77; however, for plant N concentration estimation, the model performance was best at the booting stage. Finally, the regression models were applied to the identified rice areas to map the within-field variability of the four agronomic variables at different growth stages for the Qixing Farm County. The results provide detailed spatial information on the within-field variability on a regional scale, which is critical for effective field management in precision agriculture. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Spatial Interpolation Methods to Map the Bathymetry of an Amazonian Hydroelectric Reservoir to Aid in Decision Making for Water Management
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(1), 220-235; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4010220 - 02 Feb 2015
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2927
Abstract
The generation of reliable information for improving the understanding of hydroelectric reservoir dynamics is fundamental for guiding decision-makers to implement best management practices. In this way, we assessed the performance of different interpolation algorithms to map the bathymetry of the Tucuruí hydroelectric reservoir, [...] Read more.
The generation of reliable information for improving the understanding of hydroelectric reservoir dynamics is fundamental for guiding decision-makers to implement best management practices. In this way, we assessed the performance of different interpolation algorithms to map the bathymetry of the Tucuruí hydroelectric reservoir, located in the Brazilian Amazon, as an aid to manage and operate Amazonian reservoirs. We evaluated three different deterministic and one geostatistical algorithms. The performance of the algorithms was assessed through cross-validation and Monte Carlo Simulation. Finally, operational information was derived from the bathymetric grid with the best performance. The results showed that all interpolation methods were able to map important bathymetric features. The best performance was obtained with the geostatistical method (RMSE = 0.92 m). The information derived from the bathymetric map (e.g., the level-area and level-volume diagram and the three-dimensional grid) will allow for optimization of operational monitoring of the Tucuruí hydroelectric reservoir as well as the development of three-dimensional modeling studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spatial Analysis for Environmental Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Mapping Local Climate Zones for a Worldwide Database of the Form and Function of Cities
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(1), 199-219; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4010199 - 02 Feb 2015
Cited by 139 | Viewed by 9565
Abstract
Progress in urban climate science is severely restricted by the lack of useful information that describes aspects of the form and function of cities at a detailed spatial resolution. To overcome this shortcoming we are initiating an international effort to develop the World [...] Read more.
Progress in urban climate science is severely restricted by the lack of useful information that describes aspects of the form and function of cities at a detailed spatial resolution. To overcome this shortcoming we are initiating an international effort to develop the World Urban Database and Access Portal Tools (WUDAPT) to gather and disseminate this information in a consistent manner for urban areas worldwide. The first step in developing WUDAPT is a description of cities based on the Local Climate Zone (LCZ) scheme, which classifies natural and urban landscapes into categories based on climate-relevant surface properties. This methodology provides a culturally-neutral framework for collecting information about the internal physical structure of cities. Moreover, studies have shown that remote sensing data can be used for supervised LCZ mapping. Mapping of LCZs is complicated because similar LCZs in different regions have dissimilar spectral properties due to differences in vegetation, building materials and other variations in cultural and physical environmental factors. The WUDAPT protocol developed here provides an easy to understand workflow; uses freely available data and software; and can be applied by someone without specialist knowledge in spatial analysis or urban climate science. The paper also provides an example use of the WUDAPT project results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Conceptual Issues Regarding the Development of Underground Railway Laser Scanning Systems
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(1), 185-198; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4010185 - 27 Jan 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2364
Abstract
Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS) systems are widely applied for spatial data collection and support applications in many aspects. In recent years, MLS technology had been introduced to railway applications and greatly enhanced the spatial detail and efficiency when compared to traditional approaches. However, [...] Read more.
Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS) systems are widely applied for spatial data collection and support applications in many aspects. In recent years, MLS technology had been introduced to railway applications and greatly enhanced the spatial detail and efficiency when compared to traditional approaches. However, the advance of MLS technology is not completely applied to railway environment. Typical MLS systems rely on integrated navigation through the use of Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) and Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) for geo-referencing, while operation under long-term GNSS outages or even GNSS-free environments, such as underground railway or long tunnels, remains a challenging issue due to the degraded operation of standalone inertial navigation. Commercial MLS systems usually employ high performance inertial measurement units (IMU) and various strategies to manage GNSS outages, but GNSS components are still necessary prior to and after experiencing the loss of GNSS signals. To tackle the problem of permanent GNSS outages, alternative methods are introduced to replace the GNSS and so allow the use of MLS systems in GNSS-free underground railway environments. Such approaches encourage the MLS systems to be developed into the Underground Railway Laser Scanning (URLS) systems, which may provide several alternative operational functions for the management of underground railway operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS for Sustainable Urban Transport)
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Open AccessArticle
Remote Sensing Image Fusion at the Segment Level Using a Spatially-Weighted Approach: Applications for Land Cover Spectral Analysis and Mapping
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(1), 172-184; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4010172 - 26 Jan 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2482
Abstract
Segment-level image fusion involves segmenting a higher spatial resolution (HSR) image to derive boundaries of land cover objects, and then extracting additional descriptors of image segments (polygons) from a lower spatial resolution (LSR) image. In past research, an unweighted segment-level fusion (USF) approach, [...] Read more.
Segment-level image fusion involves segmenting a higher spatial resolution (HSR) image to derive boundaries of land cover objects, and then extracting additional descriptors of image segments (polygons) from a lower spatial resolution (LSR) image. In past research, an unweighted segment-level fusion (USF) approach, which extracts information from a resampled LSR image, resulted in more accurate land cover classification than the use of HSR imagery alone. However, simply fusing the LSR image with segment polygons may lead to significant errors due to the high level of noise in pixels along the segment boundaries (i.e., pixels containing multiple land cover types). To mitigate this, a spatially-weighted segment-level fusion (SWSF) method was proposed for extracting descriptors (mean spectral values) of segments from LSR images. SWSF reduces the weights of LSR pixels located on or near segment boundaries to reduce errors in the fusion process. Compared to the USF approach, SWSF extracted more accurate spectral properties of land cover objects when the ratio of the LSR image resolution to the HSR image resolution was greater than 2:1, and SWSF was also shown to increase classification accuracy. SWSF can be used to fuse any type of imagery at the segment level since it is insensitive to spectral differences between the LSR and HSR images (e.g., different spectral ranges of the images or different image acquisition dates). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
CALPUFF and CAFOs: Air Pollution Modeling and Environmental Justice Analysis in the North Carolina Hog Industry
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(1), 150-171; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4010150 - 26 Jan 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3744
Abstract
Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) produce large amounts of animal waste, which potentially pollutes air, soil and water and affects human health if not appropriately managed. This study uses meteorological and CAFO data and applies an air pollution dispersion model (CALPUFF) to estimate [...] Read more.
Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) produce large amounts of animal waste, which potentially pollutes air, soil and water and affects human health if not appropriately managed. This study uses meteorological and CAFO data and applies an air pollution dispersion model (CALPUFF) to estimate ammonia concentrations at locations downwind of hog CAFOs and to evaluate the disproportionate exposure of children, elderly, whites and minorities to the pollutant. Ammonia is one of the gases emitted by swine CAFOs and could affect human health. Local indicator of spatial autocorrelation (LISA) analysis uses census block demographic data to identify hot spots where both ammonia concentrations and the number of exposed vulnerable population are high. We limit our analysis to one watershed in North Carolina and compare environmental justice issues between 2000 and 2010. Our results show that the average ammonia concentrations in hot spots for 2000 and 2010 were 2.5–3-times higher than the average concentration in the entire watershed. The number of people living in the areas where ammonia concentrations exceeded the minimal risk level was 3647 people in 2000 and 3360 people in 2010. We recommend using air pollution dispersion models in future environmental justice studies to assess the impacts of the CAFOs and to address concerns regarding the health and quality of life of vulnerable populations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Transport Accessibility Analysis Using GIS: Assessing Sustainable Transport in London
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(1), 124-149; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4010124 - 20 Jan 2015
Cited by 43 | Viewed by 6448
Abstract
Transport accessibility is an important driver of urban growth and key to the sustainable development of cities. This paper presents a simple GIS-based tool developed to allow the rapid analysis of accessibility by different transport modes. Designed to be flexible and use publicly-available [...] Read more.
Transport accessibility is an important driver of urban growth and key to the sustainable development of cities. This paper presents a simple GIS-based tool developed to allow the rapid analysis of accessibility by different transport modes. Designed to be flexible and use publicly-available data, this tool (built in ArcGIS) uses generalized cost to measure transport costs across networks including monetary and distance components. The utility of the tool is demonstrated on London, UK, showing the differing patterns of accessibility across the city by different modes. It is shown that these patterns can be examined spatially, by accessibility to particular destinations (e.g., employment locations), or as a global measure across a whole city system. A number of future infrastructure scenarios are tested, examining the potential for increasing the use of low-carbon forms of transport. It is shown that private car journeys are still the least cost mode choice in London, but that infrastructure investments can play a part in reducing the cost of more sustainable transport options. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS for Sustainable Urban Transport)
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Open AccessArticle
Analyzing the Correlation between Deer Habitat and the Component of the Risk for Lyme Disease in Eastern Ontario, Canada: A GIS-Based Approach
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(1), 105-123; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4010105 - 15 Jan 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3841
Abstract
Lyme borreliosis, caused by the bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, is an emerging vector-borne infectious disease in Canada. According to the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC), by the year 2020, 80% of Canadians will live in Lyme endemic areas. An understanding of the [...] Read more.
Lyme borreliosis, caused by the bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, is an emerging vector-borne infectious disease in Canada. According to the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC), by the year 2020, 80% of Canadians will live in Lyme endemic areas. An understanding of the association of Ixodes scapularis, the main vector of Lyme disease, with it hosts is a fundamental component in assessing changes in the spatial distribution of human risk for Lyme disease. Through the application of Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping methods and spatial analysis techniques, this study examines the population dynamics of the black-legged Lyme tick and its primary host, the white-tailed deer, in eastern Ontario, Canada. By developing a habitat suitability model through a GIS-based multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) analysis, the relationship of the deer habitat suitability map was generated and the results were compared with deer harvest data. Tick submission data collected from two public health units between 2006 and 2012 were used to explore the relationship between endemic ticks and deer habitat suitability in eastern Ontario. The positive correlation demonstrated between the deer habitat suitability model and deer harvest data allows us to further analyze the association between deer habitat and black-legged ticks in our study area. Our results revealed that the high tick submission number corresponds with the high suitability. These results are useful for developing management strategies that aim to prevent Lyme from becoming a threat to public health in Canada. Further studies are required to investigate how tick survival, behaviour and seasonal activity may change with projected climate change. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Visual Overlay on OpenStreetMap Data to Support Spatial Exploration of Urban Environments
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(1), 87-104; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4010087 - 13 Jan 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3146
Abstract
Increasing volumes of spatial data about urban areas are captured and made available via volunteered geographic information (VGI) sources, such as OpenStreetMap (OSM). Hence, new opportunities arise for regional exploration that can lead to improvements in the lives of citizens through spatial decision [...] Read more.
Increasing volumes of spatial data about urban areas are captured and made available via volunteered geographic information (VGI) sources, such as OpenStreetMap (OSM). Hence, new opportunities arise for regional exploration that can lead to improvements in the lives of citizens through spatial decision support. We believe that the VGI data of the urban environment could be used to present a constructive overview of the regional infrastructure with the advent of web technologies. Current location-based services provide general map-based information for the end users with conventional local search functionality, and hence, the presentation of the rich urban information is limited. In this work, we analyze the OSM data to classify the geo entities into consequential categories with facilities, landscape and land use distribution. We employ a visual overlay of heat map and interactive visualizations to present the regional characterization on OSM data classification. In the proposed interface, users are allowed to express a variety of spatial queries to exemplify their geographic interests. They can compare the characterization of urban areas with respect to multiple spatial dimensions of interest and can search for the most suitable region. The search experience is further enhanced via efficient optimization and interaction methods to support the decision making of end users. We report the end user acceptability and efficiency of the proposed system via usability studies and performance analysis comparison. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geoweb 2.0)
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Open AccessArticle
The Use of Exhaustive Micro-Data Firm Databases for Economic Geography: The Issues of Geocoding and Usability in the Case of the Amadeus Database
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(1), 62-86; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4010062 - 09 Jan 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2177
Abstract
Economic geography has begun to explore the options involved in micro-data. New databases have become available and new techniques and an increase in computer power allow their treatment. However, two major issues impede the use of these datasets: the lack of geocoded spatial [...] Read more.
Economic geography has begun to explore the options involved in micro-data. New databases have become available and new techniques and an increase in computer power allow their treatment. However, two major issues impede the use of these datasets: the lack of geocoded spatial location and lack of exhaustivity in coverage. In this article, I explore the possibilities of using large micro-scale firm databases for economic geography in Europe. I show that current evolution in European official spatial data dissemination alows for geocoding of such databases using means that are accessible for researchers with minimal programming knowledge. For the specific case of the Amadeus database of the Bureau Van Dijk, I show that its limitations in terms of coverage have to be taken into acount, but do not hinder its use for analysis. Resulting maps show how the data allows to go further than classic databases such as the Eurostat Structural Business Statistics. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of the ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information in 2014
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(1), 59-61; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4010059 - 07 Jan 2015
Viewed by 2914
Abstract
The editors of the ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2014:[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Geospatial Technology: A Tool to Aid in the Elimination of Malaria in Bangladesh
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(1), 47-58; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4010047 - 31 Dec 2014
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2864
Abstract
Bangladesh is a malaria endemic country. There are 13 districts in the country bordering India and Myanmar that are at risk of malaria. The majority of malaria morbidity and mortality cases are in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, the mountainous southeastern region of Bangladesh. [...] Read more.
Bangladesh is a malaria endemic country. There are 13 districts in the country bordering India and Myanmar that are at risk of malaria. The majority of malaria morbidity and mortality cases are in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, the mountainous southeastern region of Bangladesh. In recent years, malaria burden has declined in the country. In this study, we reviewed and summarized published data (through 2014) on the use of geospatial technologies on malaria epidemiology in Bangladesh and outlined potential contributions of geospatial technologies for eliminating malaria in the country. We completed a literature review using “malaria, Bangladesh” search terms and found 218 articles published in peer-reviewed journals listed in PubMed. After a detailed review, 201 articles were excluded because they did not meet our inclusion criteria, 17 articles were selected for final evaluation. Published studies indicated geospatial technologies tools (Geographic Information System, Global Positioning System, and Remote Sensing) were used to determine vector-breeding sites, land cover classification, accessibility to health facility, treatment seeking behaviors, and risk mapping at the household, regional, and national levels in Bangladesh. To achieve the goal of malaria elimination in Bangladesh, we concluded that further research using geospatial technologies should be integrated into the country’s ongoing surveillance system to identify and better assess progress towards malaria elimination. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Examining Personal Air Pollution Exposure, Intake, and Health Danger Zone Using Time Geography and 3D Geovisualization
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(1), 32-46; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4010032 - 30 Dec 2014
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3334
Abstract
Expanding traditional time geography, this study examines personal exposure to air pollution and personal pollutant intake, and defines personal health danger zones by accounting for individual level space-time behavior. A 3D personal air pollution and health risk map is constructed to visualize individual [...] Read more.
Expanding traditional time geography, this study examines personal exposure to air pollution and personal pollutant intake, and defines personal health danger zones by accounting for individual level space-time behavior. A 3D personal air pollution and health risk map is constructed to visualize individual space-time path, personal Air Quality Indexes (AQIs), and personal health danger zones. Personal air pollution exposure level and its variation through space and time is measured by a portable air pollutant sensor coupled with a portable GPS unit. Personal pollutant intake is estimated by accounting for air pollutant concentration in immediate surroundings, individual’s biophysical characteristics, and individual’s space-time activities. Personal air pollution danger zones are defined by comparing personal pollutant intake with air quality standard; these zones are particular space-time-activity segments along an individual’s space-time path. Being able to identify personal air pollution danger zones can help plan for proper actions aiming at controlling health impacts from air pollution. As a case study, this paper reports on an examination and visualization of an individual’s two-day ozone exposure, intake and danger zones in Houston, Texas. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Measure of Landmark Semantic Salience through Geosocial Data Streams
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(1), 1-31; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4010001 - 30 Dec 2014
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3785
Abstract
Research in the area of spatial cognition demonstrated that references to landmarks are essential in the communication and the interpretation of wayfinding instructions for human being. In order to detect landmarks, a model for the assessment of their salience has been previously developed [...] Read more.
Research in the area of spatial cognition demonstrated that references to landmarks are essential in the communication and the interpretation of wayfinding instructions for human being. In order to detect landmarks, a model for the assessment of their salience has been previously developed by Raubal and Winter. According to their model, landmark salience is divided into three categories: visual, structural, and semantic. Several solutions have been proposed to automatically detect landmarks on the basis of these categories. Due to a lack of relevant data, semantic salience has been frequently reduced to objects’ historical and cultural significance. Social dimension (i.e., the way an object is practiced and recognized by a person or a group of people) is systematically excluded from the measure of landmark semantic salience even though it represents an important component. Since the advent of mobile Internet and smartphones, the production of geolocated content from social web platforms—also described as geosocial data—became commonplace. Actually, these data allow us to have a better understanding of the local geographic knowledge. Therefore, we argue that geosocial data, especially Social Location Sharing datasets, represent a reliable source of information to precisely measure landmark semantic salience in urban area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geoweb 2.0)
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