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Biomolecules, Volume 11, Issue 6 (June 2021) – 149 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The ability to cope with deuterium, a stable isotope of hydrogen, decreases with the complexity of the organism. In vivo reaction to high deuterium concentration is complex and includes disruption of the cell cycle. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a microalga dividing by multiple fission, is a powerful model to study deuterium effects on cell cycle progression. In the current study, we present how deuterium affects growth and cell cycle progression in C. reinhardtii. We infer concentration-dependent decrease in growth rates accompanied by accumulation of energy reserves. Furthermore, deuterium prolongs the duration of the cell cycle in Chlamydomonas, changes the pattern of kinase activity prior to cell division, and delays commitment point attainment as proven by the novel approach deployed in this study. View this paper
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Communication
Tin Mesoporphyrin Selectively Reduces Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cell Line A549 Proliferation by Interfering with Heme Oxygenase and Glutathione Systems
Biomolecules 2021, 11(6), 917; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11060917 - 21 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1168
Abstract
In order to maintain redox homeostasis, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) increases the activation of many antioxidant systems, including the heme-oxygenase (HO) system. The overexpression of HO-1 has been often associated with chemoresistance and tumor aggressiveness. Our results clearly showed an overexpression of the [...] Read more.
In order to maintain redox homeostasis, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) increases the activation of many antioxidant systems, including the heme-oxygenase (HO) system. The overexpression of HO-1 has been often associated with chemoresistance and tumor aggressiveness. Our results clearly showed an overexpression of the HO-1 protein in A549 NSCLC cell lines compared to that in non-cancerous cells. Thus, we hypothesized that “off-label” use of tin mesoporphyrin, a well-known HO activity inhibitor clinically used for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, has potential use as an anti-cancer agent. The pharmacological inhibition of HO activity caused a reduction in cell proliferation and migration of A549. SnMP treatment caused an increase in oxidative stress, as demonstrated by the upregulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the depletion of glutathione (GSH) content. To support these data, Western blot analysis was performed to analyze glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), TP53-induced glycolysis and the apoptosis regulator (TIGAR), and the glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic (GCLC) subunit, as they represent the main regulators of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and glutathione synthesis, respectively. NCI-H292, a subtype of the NSCLC cell line, did not respond to SnMP treatment, possibly due to low basal levels of HO-1, suggesting a cellular-dependent antitumorigenic effect. Altogether, our results suggest HO activity inhibition may represent a potential target for selective chemotherapy in lung cancer subtypes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Therapeutic Significance of Heme Oxygenase Induction or Inhibition)
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Review
Lab-on-a-Chip Platforms as Tools for Drug Screening in Neuropathologies Associated with Blood–Brain Barrier Alterations
Biomolecules 2021, 11(6), 916; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11060916 - 21 Jun 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2337
Abstract
Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) and organ-on-a-chip (OOC) devices are highly versatile platforms that enable miniaturization and advanced controlled laboratory functions (i.e., microfluidics, advanced optical or electrical recordings, high-throughput screening). The manufacturing advancements of LOCs/OOCs for biomedical applications and their current limitations are briefly discussed. Multiple [...] Read more.
Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) and organ-on-a-chip (OOC) devices are highly versatile platforms that enable miniaturization and advanced controlled laboratory functions (i.e., microfluidics, advanced optical or electrical recordings, high-throughput screening). The manufacturing advancements of LOCs/OOCs for biomedical applications and their current limitations are briefly discussed. Multiple studies have exploited the advantages of mimicking organs or tissues on a chip. Among these, we focused our attention on the brain-on-a-chip, blood–brain barrier (BBB)-on-a-chip, and neurovascular unit (NVU)-on-a-chip applications. Mainly, we review the latest developments of brain-on-a-chip, BBB-on-a-chip, and NVU-on-a-chip devices and their use as testing platforms for high-throughput pharmacological screening. In particular, we analyze the most important contributions of these studies in the field of neurodegenerative diseases and their relevance in translational personalized medicine. Full article
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Article
Solvent Exposure and Ionic Condensation Drive Fuzzy Dimerization of Disordered Heterochromatin Protein Sequence
Biomolecules 2021, 11(6), 915; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11060915 - 20 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1297
Abstract
Proteins with low complexity, disordered sequences are receiving increasing attention due to their central roles in the biogenesis and regulation of membraneless organelles. In eukaryotic organisms, a substantial fraction of disordered proteins reside in the nucleus, thereby facilitating the formation of nuclear bodies, [...] Read more.
Proteins with low complexity, disordered sequences are receiving increasing attention due to their central roles in the biogenesis and regulation of membraneless organelles. In eukaryotic organisms, a substantial fraction of disordered proteins reside in the nucleus, thereby facilitating the formation of nuclear bodies, nucleolus, and chromatin compartmentalization. The heterochromatin family of proteins (HP1) is an important player in driving the formation of gene silenced mesoscopic heterochromatin B compartments and pericentric regions. Recent experiments have shown that the HP1a sequence of Drosophila melanogaster can undergo liquid-liquid phase separation under both in vitro and in vivo conditions, induced by changes of the monovalent salt concentration. While the phase separation of HP1a is thought to be the mechanism underlying chromatin compartmentalization, the molecular level mechanistic picture of salt-driven phase separation of HP1a has remained poorly understood. The disordered hinge region of HP1a is seen as the driver of salt-induced condensation because of its charge enriched sequence and post-translational modifications. Here, we set out to decipher the mechanisms of salt-induced condensation of HP1a through a systematic study of salt-dependent conformations of single chains and fuzzy dimers of disordered HP1a hinge sequences. Using multiple independent all-atom simulations with and without enhanced sampling, we carry out detailed characterization of conformational ensembles of disordered HP1a chains under different ionic conditions using various polymeric and structural measures. We show that the mobile ion release, enhancement of local transient secondary structural elements, and side-chain exposure to solvent are robust trends that accompany fuzzy dimer formation. Furthermore, we find that salt-induced changes in the ensemble of conformations of HP1a disordered hinge sequence fine-tune the inter-chain vs. self-chain interactions in ways that favor fuzzy dimer formation under low salt conditions in the agreement with condensation trends seen in experiments. Full article
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Review
Paradoxical Roles of Desmosomal Components in Head and Neck Cancer
Biomolecules 2021, 11(6), 914; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11060914 - 20 Jun 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1322
Abstract
Desmosomes are intercellular adhesion complexes involved in various aspects of epithelial pathophysiology, including tissue homeostasis, morphogenesis, and disease development. Recent studies have reported that the abnormal expression of various desmosomal components correlates with tumor progression and poor survival. In addition, desmosomes have been [...] Read more.
Desmosomes are intercellular adhesion complexes involved in various aspects of epithelial pathophysiology, including tissue homeostasis, morphogenesis, and disease development. Recent studies have reported that the abnormal expression of various desmosomal components correlates with tumor progression and poor survival. In addition, desmosomes have been shown to act as a signaling platform to regulate the proliferation, invasion, migration, morphogenesis, and apoptosis of cancer cells. The occurrence and progression of head and neck cancer (HNC) is accompanied by abnormal expression of desmosomal components and loss of desmosome structure. However, the role of desmosomal components in the progression of HNC remains controversial. This review aims to provide an overview of recent developments showing the paradoxical roles of desmosomal components in tumor suppression and promotion. It offers valuable insights for HNC diagnosis and therapeutics development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics and Molecular Biology of Head and Neck Cancer)
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Review
Leptin, Both Bad and Good Actor in Cancer
Biomolecules 2021, 11(6), 913; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11060913 - 20 Jun 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1427
Abstract
Leptin is an important regulator of basal metabolism and food intake, with a pivotal role in obesity. Leptin exerts many different actions on various tissues and systems, including cancer, and is considered as a linkage between metabolism and the immune system. During the [...] Read more.
Leptin is an important regulator of basal metabolism and food intake, with a pivotal role in obesity. Leptin exerts many different actions on various tissues and systems, including cancer, and is considered as a linkage between metabolism and the immune system. During the last decades, obesity and leptin have been associated with the initiation, proliferation and progression of many types of cancer. Obesity is also linked with complications and mortality, irrespective of the therapy used, affecting clinical outcomes. However, some evidence has suggested its beneficial role, called the “obesity paradox”, and the possible antitumoral role of leptin. Recent data regarding the immunotherapy of cancer have revealed that overweight leads to a more effective response and leptin may probably be involved in this beneficial process. Since leptin is a positive modulator of both the innate and the adaptive immune system, it may contribute to the increased immune response stimulated by immunotherapy in cancer patients and may be proposed as a good actor in cancer. Our purpose is to review this dual role of leptin in cancer, as well as trying to clarify the future perspectives of this adipokine, which further highlights its importance as a cornerstone of the immunometabolism in oncology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Leptin and Beyond: Actors in Cancer)
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Article
Genome-Wide Analysis of Codon Usage Patterns of SARS-CoV-2 Virus Reveals Global Heterogeneity of COVID-19
Biomolecules 2021, 11(6), 912; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11060912 - 18 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1474
Abstract
The ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease COVID-19 is significantly implicated by global heterogeneity in the genome organization of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The causative agents of global heterogeneity in the whole genome of SARS-CoV-2 are not well characterized due to [...] Read more.
The ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease COVID-19 is significantly implicated by global heterogeneity in the genome organization of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The causative agents of global heterogeneity in the whole genome of SARS-CoV-2 are not well characterized due to the lack of comparative study of a large enough sample size from around the globe to reduce the standard deviation to the acceptable margin of error. To better understand the SARS-CoV-2 genome architecture, we have performed a comprehensive analysis of codon usage bias of sixty (60) strains to get a snapshot of its global heterogeneity. Our study shows a relatively low codon usage bias in the SARS-CoV-2 viral genome globally, with nearly all the over-preferred codons’ A.U. ended. We concluded that the SARS-CoV-2 genome is primarily shaped by mutation pressure; however, marginal selection pressure cannot be overlooked. Within the A/U rich virus genomes of SARS-CoV-2, the standard deviation in G.C. (42.91% ± 5.84%) and the GC3 value (30.14% ± 6.93%) points towards global heterogeneity of the virus. Several SARS-CoV-2 viral strains were originated from different viral lineages at the exact geographic location also supports this fact. Taking all together, these findings suggest that the general root ancestry of the global genomes are different with different genome’s level adaptation to host. This research may provide new insights into the codon patterns, host adaptation, and global heterogeneity of SARS-CoV-2. Full article
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Article
Total Keratin-18 (M65) as a Potential, Early, Non-Invasive Biomarker of Hepatocyte Injury in Alcohol Intoxicated Adolescents—A Preliminary Study
Biomolecules 2021, 11(6), 911; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11060911 - 18 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 863
Abstract
Background: Underage drinking is associated with health risk behaviors. Serum keratin-18 (CK18) levels are increased in liver diseases and may be biomarkers of outcome. The purpose of this study was to determine if the total CK18 (M65) or caspase-cleaved CK18 (M30) levels were [...] Read more.
Background: Underage drinking is associated with health risk behaviors. Serum keratin-18 (CK18) levels are increased in liver diseases and may be biomarkers of outcome. The purpose of this study was to determine if the total CK18 (M65) or caspase-cleaved CK18 (M30) levels were different in adolescents admitted to hospital because of alcohol intoxication and controls with excluded liver diseases. Methods: A prospective study included 57 adolescents after alcohol use and 23 control subjects. The concentrations of M30 and M65 in the serum samples were evaluated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The median age was 15 (14–17) years and 49% were male. There were significant differences in M65 levels between the study and control groups (p = 0.03). The concentrations of M30 and M65 were insignificant in adolescents divided into subgroups according to blood alcohol concentrations (BAC). Significant positive correlations were found between BAC and M65 levels (p = 0.038; r = 0.3). In receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis M65 (cut-off = 125.966 IU/l, Se = 70.2%, Sp = 43.5%) allowed to differentiate between patients with and without alcohol intoxication (AUC = 0.66, p = 0.03). Conclusion: M65 appears to be a promising non-invasive biomarker of hepatocyte injury during alcohol intoxication in adolescents. Moreover, a higher concentration of M65 may indicate early organ injury before the increase in the activity of liver enzymes, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Multi-Organ Alcohol-Related Damage: Mechanisms and Treatment)
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Article
White Matter Survival within and around the Hematoma: Quantification by MRI in Patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage
Biomolecules 2021, 11(6), 910; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11060910 - 18 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 982
Abstract
White matter (WM) injury and survival after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has received insufficient attention. WM disruption surrounding the hematoma has been documented in animal models with histology, but rarely in human ICH with noninvasive means, like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A few human [...] Read more.
White matter (WM) injury and survival after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has received insufficient attention. WM disruption surrounding the hematoma has been documented in animal models with histology, but rarely in human ICH with noninvasive means, like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A few human MRI studies have investigated changes in long WM tracts after ICH remote from the hematoma, like the corticospinal tract, but have not attempted to obtain an unbiased quantification of WM changes within and around the hematoma over time. This study attempts such quantification from 3 to 30 days post ictus. Thirteen patients with mild to moderate ICH underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) MRI at 3, 14, and 30 days. Fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were used to calculate the volume of tissue with FA > 0.5, both within the hematoma (lesion) and in the perilesional tissue. At day 3, the percentages of both lesional and perilesional tissue with an FA > 0.5 were significantly less than contralateral, unaffected, anatomically identical tissue. This perilesional contralateral difference persisted at day 14, but there was no significant difference at day 30. The loss of perilesional tissue with FA > 0.5 increased with increasing hematoma size at day 3 and day 14. All patients had some tissue within the lesion with FA > 0.5 at all time points. This did not decrease with duration after ictus, suggesting the persistence of white matter within the hematoma/lesion. These results outline an approach to quantify WM injury, both within and surrounding the hematoma, after mild to moderate ICH using DTI MRI. This may be important for monitoring treatment strategies, such as hematoma evacuation, and assessing efficacy noninvasively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Advances in Preclinical Studies)
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Article
Pharmacokinetics and Molecular Modeling Indicate nAChRα4-Derived Peptide HAEE Goes through the Blood–Brain Barrier
Biomolecules 2021, 11(6), 909; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11060909 - 18 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1078
Abstract
One of the treatment strategies for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is based on the use of pharmacological agents capable of binding to beta-amyloid (Aβ) and blocking its aggregation in the brain. Previously, we found that intravenous administration of the synthetic tetrapeptide Acetyl-His-Ala-Glu-Glu-Amide (HAEE), which [...] Read more.
One of the treatment strategies for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is based on the use of pharmacological agents capable of binding to beta-amyloid (Aβ) and blocking its aggregation in the brain. Previously, we found that intravenous administration of the synthetic tetrapeptide Acetyl-His-Ala-Glu-Glu-Amide (HAEE), which is an analogue of the 35–38 region of the α4 subunit of α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and specifically binds to the 11–14 site of Aβ, reduced the development of cerebral amyloidogenesis in a mouse model of AD. In the current study on three types of laboratory animals, we determined the biodistribution and tissue localization patterns of HAEE peptide after single intravenous bolus administration. The pharmacokinetic parameters of HAEE were established using uniformly tritium-labeled HAEE. Pharmacokinetic data provided evidence that HAEE goes through the blood–brain barrier. Based on molecular modeling, a role of LRP1 in receptor-mediated transcytosis of HAEE was proposed. Altogether, the results obtained indicate that the anti-amyloid effect of HAEE, previously found in a mouse model of AD, most likely occurs due to its interaction with Aβ species directly in the brain. Full article
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Article
The m6A RNA Modification Quantity and mRNA Expression Level of RNA Methylation-Related Genes in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Lines and Patients
Biomolecules 2021, 11(6), 908; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11060908 - 18 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1254
Abstract
RNA methylation at the nitrogen sixth of adenosine (m6A, N6-methyladenosine) is the most abundant RNA modification which plays a crucial role in all RNA metabolic aspects. Recently, m6A modification has been assigned to mediate the biological processes [...] Read more.
RNA methylation at the nitrogen sixth of adenosine (m6A, N6-methyladenosine) is the most abundant RNA modification which plays a crucial role in all RNA metabolic aspects. Recently, m6A modification has been assigned to mediate the biological processes of cancer cells, but their significance in HNSCC development is still poorly described. Thus, the main aim of this study was to globally quantify m6A modification by the mass spectrometry approach and determine the mRNA expression level of selected m6A RNA methyltransferase (METTL3), demethylase (FTO), and m6A readers (YTHDF2, YTHDC2) in 45 HNSCC patients and 4 cell lines (FaDu, Detroit 562, A-253 and SCC-15) using qPCR. In the results, we have not observed differences in the global amount of m6A modification and the mRNA level of the selected genes between the cancerous and paired-matched histopathologically unchanged tissues from 45 HNSCC patients. However, we have found a positive correlation between selected RNA methylation machinery genes expression and m6A abundance on total RNA and characterized the transcript level of those genes in the HNSCC cell lines. Moreover, the lack of global m6A differences between cancerous and histopathologically unchanged tissues suggests that m6A alterations in specific RNA sites may specifically influence HNSCC tumorigenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics and Molecular Biology of Head and Neck Cancer)
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Article
Omics Technologies to Decipher Regulatory Networks in Granulocytic Cell Differentiation
Biomolecules 2021, 11(6), 907; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11060907 - 18 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1173
Abstract
Induced granulocytic differentiation of human leukemic cells under all-trans-retinoid acid (ATRA) treatment underlies differentiation therapy of acute myeloid leukemia. Knowing the regulation of this process it is possible to identify potential targets for antileukemic drugs and develop novel approaches to differentiation [...] Read more.
Induced granulocytic differentiation of human leukemic cells under all-trans-retinoid acid (ATRA) treatment underlies differentiation therapy of acute myeloid leukemia. Knowing the regulation of this process it is possible to identify potential targets for antileukemic drugs and develop novel approaches to differentiation therapy. In this study, we have performed transcriptomic and proteomic profiling to reveal up- and down-regulated transcripts and proteins during time-course experiments. Using data on differentially expressed transcripts and proteins we have applied upstream regulator search and obtained transcriptome- and proteome-based regulatory networks of induced granulocytic differentiation that cover both up-regulated (HIC1, NFKBIA, and CASP9) and down-regulated (PARP1, VDR, and RXRA) elements. To verify the designed network we measured HIC1 and PARP1 protein abundance during granulocytic differentiation by selected reaction monitoring (SRM) using stable isotopically labeled peptide standards. We also revealed that transcription factor CEBPB and LYN kinase were involved in differentiation onset, and evaluated their protein levels by SRM technique. Obtained results indicate that the omics data reflect involvement of the DNA repair system and the MAPK kinase cascade as well as show the balance between the processes of the cell survival and apoptosis in a p53-independent manner. The differentially expressed transcripts and proteins, predicted transcriptional factors, and key molecules such as HIC1, CEBPB, LYN, and PARP1 may be considered as potential targets for differentiation therapy of acute myeloid leukemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrative Multi-Omics in Biomedical Research)
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Article
Treadmill Running Changes Endothelial Lipase Expression: Insights from Gene and Protein Analysis in Various Striated Muscle Tissues and Serum
Biomolecules 2021, 11(6), 906; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11060906 - 17 Jun 2021
Viewed by 770
Abstract
Endothelial lipase (EL) is an enzyme capable of HDL phospholipids hydrolysis. Its action leads to a reduction in the serum high-density lipoprotein concentration, and thus, it exerts a pro-atherogenic effect. This study examines the impact of a single bout exercise on the gene [...] Read more.
Endothelial lipase (EL) is an enzyme capable of HDL phospholipids hydrolysis. Its action leads to a reduction in the serum high-density lipoprotein concentration, and thus, it exerts a pro-atherogenic effect. This study examines the impact of a single bout exercise on the gene and protein expression of the EL in skeletal muscles composed of different fiber types (the soleus—mainly type I, the red gastrocnemius—mostly IIA, and the white gastrocnemius—predominantly IIX fibers), as well as the diaphragm, and the heart. Wistar rats were subjected to a treadmill run: (1) t = 30 [min], V = 18 [m/min]; (2) t = 30 [min], V = 28 [m/min]; (3) t = 120 [min], V = 18 [m/min] (designated: M30, F30, and M120, respectively). We established EL expression in the total muscle homogenates in sedentary animals. Resting values could be ordered with the decreasing EL protein expression as follows: endothelium of left ventricle > diaphragm > red gastrocnemius > right ventricle > soleus > white gastrocnemius. Furthermore, we observed that even a single bout of exercise was capable of inducing changes in the mRNA and protein level of EL, with a clearer pattern observed for the former. After 30 min of running at either exercise intensity, the expression of EL transcript in all the cardiovascular components of muscles tested, except the soleus, was reduced in comparison to the respective sedentary control. The protein content of EL varied with the intensity and/or duration of the run in the studied whole tissue homogenates. The observed differences between EL expression in vascular beds of muscles may indicate the muscle-specific role of the lipase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Biology)
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Article
Modular Assembly of Phosphite Dehydrogenase and Phenylacetone Monooxygenase for Tuning Cofactor Regeneration
Biomolecules 2021, 11(6), 905; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11060905 - 17 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1257
Abstract
The use of multienzyme complexes can facilitate biocatalytic cascade reactions by employing fusion enzymes or protein tags. In this study, we explored the use of recently developed peptide tags that promote complex formation of the targeted proteins: the dimerization-docking and anchoring domain (RIDD–RIAD) [...] Read more.
The use of multienzyme complexes can facilitate biocatalytic cascade reactions by employing fusion enzymes or protein tags. In this study, we explored the use of recently developed peptide tags that promote complex formation of the targeted proteins: the dimerization-docking and anchoring domain (RIDD–RIAD) system. These peptides allow self-assembly based on specific protein–protein interactions between both peptides and allow tuning of the ratio of the targeted enzymes as the RIAD peptide binds to two RIDD peptides. Each of these tags were added to the C-terminus of a NADPH-dependent Baeyer–Villiger monooxygenase (phenylacetone monooxygenase, PAMO) and a NADPH-regenerating enzyme (phosphite dehydrogenase, PTDH). Several RIDD/RIAD-tagged PAMO and PTDH variants were successfully overproduced in E. coli and subsequently purified. Complementary tagged enzymes were mixed and analyzed for their oligomeric state, stability, and activity. Complexes were formed in the case of some specific combinations (PAMORIAD–PTDHRIDD and PAMORIAD/RIAD–PTDHRIDD). These enzyme complexes displayed similar catalytic activity when compared with the PTDH–PAMO fusion enzyme. The thermostability of PAMO in these complexes was retained while PTDH displayed somewhat lower thermostability. Evaluation of the biocatalytic performance by conducting conversions revealed that with a self-assembled PAMO–PTDH complex less PTDH was required for the same performance when compared with the PTDH–PAMO fusion enzyme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxygenases: Exploiting Their Catalytic Power)
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Article
Immobilized Soybean Peroxidase Hybrid Biocatalysts for Efficient Degradation of Various Emerging Pollutants
Biomolecules 2021, 11(6), 904; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11060904 - 17 Jun 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1082
Abstract
In the present study, soybean peroxidase (SBP) was covalently immobilized onto two functionalized photocatalytic supports (TiO2 and ZnO) to create novel hybrid biocatalysts (TiO2-SBP and ZnO-SBP). Immobilization caused a slight shift in the pH optima of SBP activity (pH 5.0 [...] Read more.
In the present study, soybean peroxidase (SBP) was covalently immobilized onto two functionalized photocatalytic supports (TiO2 and ZnO) to create novel hybrid biocatalysts (TiO2-SBP and ZnO-SBP). Immobilization caused a slight shift in the pH optima of SBP activity (pH 5.0 to 4.0), whereas the free and TiO2-immobilized SBP showed similar thermal stability profiles. The newly developed hybrid biocatalysts were used for the degradation of 21 emerging pollutants in the presence and absence of 1-hydroxy benzotriazole (HOBT) as a redox mediator. Notably, all the tested pollutants were not equally degraded by the SBP treatment and some of the tested pollutants were either partially degraded or appeared to be recalcitrant to enzymatic degradation. The presence of HOBT enhanced the degradation of the pollutants, while it also inhibited the degradation of some contaminants. Interestingly, TiO2 and ZnO-immobilized SBP displayed better degradation efficiency of a few emerging pollutants than the free enzyme. Furthermore, a combined enzyme-chemical oxidation remediation strategy was employed to degrade two recalcitrant pollutants, which suggest a novel application of these novel hybrid peroxidase-photocatalysts. Lastly, the reusability profile indicated that the TiO2-SBP hybrid biocatalyst retained up to 95% degradation efficiency of a model pollutant (2-mercaptobenzothiazole) after four consecutive degradation cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Biology)
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Review
Current Perspectives on the Role of Matrix Metalloproteinases in the Pathogenesis of Basal Cell Carcinoma
Biomolecules 2021, 11(6), 903; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11060903 - 17 Jun 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1554
Abstract
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin malignancy, which rarely metastasizes but has a great ability to infiltrate and invade the surrounding tissues. One of the molecular players involved in the metastatic process are matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). MMPs are enzymes that [...] Read more.
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin malignancy, which rarely metastasizes but has a great ability to infiltrate and invade the surrounding tissues. One of the molecular players involved in the metastatic process are matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). MMPs are enzymes that can degrade various components of the extracellular matrix. In the skin, the expression of MMPs is increased in response to various stimuli, including ultraviolet (UV) radiation, one of the main factors involved in the development of BCC. By modulating various processes that are linked to tumor growth, such as invasion and angiogenesis, MMPs have been associated with UV-related carcinogenesis. The sources of MMPs are multiple, as they can be released by both neoplastic and tumor microenvironment cells. Inhibiting the action of MMPs could be a useful therapeutic option in BCC management. In this review that reunites the latest advances in this domain, we discuss the role of MMPs in the pathogenesis and evolution of BCC, as molecules involved in tumor aggressiveness and risk of recurrence, in order to offer a fresh and updated perspective on this field. Full article
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Article
Cold Atmospheric Plasma Promotes the Immunoreactivity of Granulocytes In Vitro
Biomolecules 2021, 11(6), 902; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11060902 - 17 Jun 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1167
Abstract
Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) reduces bacteria and interacts with tissues and cells, thus improving wound healing. The CAP-related induction of neutrophils was recently described in stained sections of wound tissue in mice. Consequently, this study aimed to examine the functionality of human polymorphonuclear [...] Read more.
Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) reduces bacteria and interacts with tissues and cells, thus improving wound healing. The CAP-related induction of neutrophils was recently described in stained sections of wound tissue in mice. Consequently, this study aimed to examine the functionality of human polymorphonuclear cells (PMN)/granulocytes through either a plasma-treated solution (PTS) or the direct CAP treatment with different plasma modes and treatment durations. PTS analysis yielded mode-dependent differences in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) after CAP treatment. Live-cell imaging did not show any chemo-attractive or NETosis-inducing effect on PMNs treated with PTS. The time to maximum ROS production (TmaxROS) in PMNs was reduced by PTS and direct CAP treatment. PMNs directly treated with CAP showed an altered cell migration dependent on the treatment duration as well as decreased TmaxROS without inducing apoptosis. Additionally, flow cytometry showed enhanced integrin and selectin expression, as a marker of activation, on PMN surfaces. In conclusion, the modification of PMN immunoreactivity may be a main supporting mechanism for CAP-induced improvement in wound healing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Wound Healing)
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Review
Immune Cell Modulation of the Extracellular Matrix Contributes to the Pathogenesis of Pancreatic Cancer
Biomolecules 2021, 11(6), 901; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11060901 - 17 Jun 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1872
Abstract
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly lethal malignancy with a five-year survival rate of only 9%. PDAC is characterized by a dense, fibrotic stroma composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. This desmoplastic stroma is a hallmark of PDAC, representing a significant physical [...] Read more.
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly lethal malignancy with a five-year survival rate of only 9%. PDAC is characterized by a dense, fibrotic stroma composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. This desmoplastic stroma is a hallmark of PDAC, representing a significant physical barrier that is immunosuppressive and obstructs penetration of cytotoxic chemotherapy agents into the tumor microenvironment (TME). Additionally, dense ECM promotes hypoxia, making tumor cells refractive to radiation therapy and alters their metabolism, thereby supporting proliferation and survival. In this review, we outline the significant contribution of fibrosis to the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer, with a focus on the cross talk between immune cells and pancreatic stellate cells that contribute to ECM deposition. We emphasize the cellular mechanisms by which neutrophils and macrophages, specifically, modulate the ECM in favor of PDAC-progression. Furthermore, we investigate how activated stellate cells and ECM influence immune cells and promote immunosuppression in PDAC. Finally, we summarize therapeutic strategies that target the stroma and hinder immune cell promotion of fibrogenesis, which have unfortunately led to mixed results. An enhanced understanding of the complex interactions between the pancreatic tumor ECM and immune cells may uncover novel treatment strategies that are desperately needed for this devastating disease. Full article
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Review
The Conspicuous Link between Ear, Brain and Heart–Could Neurotrophin-Treatment of Age-Related Hearing Loss Help Prevent Alzheimer’s Disease and Associated Amyloid Cardiomyopathy?
Biomolecules 2021, 11(6), 900; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11060900 - 17 Jun 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1556
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with neurovascular dysfunction and cognitive decline. While the deposition of amyloid β peptide (Aβ) and the formation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) are the pathological hallmarks of [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with neurovascular dysfunction and cognitive decline. While the deposition of amyloid β peptide (Aβ) and the formation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) are the pathological hallmarks of AD-affected brains, the majority of cases exhibits a combination of comorbidities that ultimately lead to multi-organ failure. Of particular interest, it can be demonstrated that Aβ pathology is present in the hearts of patients with AD, while the formation of NFT in the auditory system can be detected much earlier than the onset of symptoms. Progressive hearing impairment may beget social isolation and accelerate cognitive decline and increase the risk of developing dementia. The current review discusses the concept of a brain–ear–heart axis by which Aβ and NFT inhibition could be achieved through targeted supplementation of neurotrophic factors to the cochlea and the brain. Such amyloid inhibition might also indirectly affect amyloid accumulation in the heart, thus reducing the risk of developing AD-associated amyloid cardiomyopathy and cardiovascular disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolic and Neurotrophic Pathways Driving the Brain-Heart-Axis)
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Review
Effect of Polyploidy Induction on Natural Metabolite Production in Medicinal Plants
Biomolecules 2021, 11(6), 899; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11060899 - 17 Jun 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1891
Abstract
Polyploidy plays an important role in plant diversification and speciation. The ploidy level of plants is associated with morphological and biochemical characteristics, and its modification has been used as a strategy to alter the quantitative and qualitative patterns of secondary metabolite production in [...] Read more.
Polyploidy plays an important role in plant diversification and speciation. The ploidy level of plants is associated with morphological and biochemical characteristics, and its modification has been used as a strategy to alter the quantitative and qualitative patterns of secondary metabolite production in different medicinal plants. Polyploidization can be induced by many anti-mitotic agents, among which colchicine, oryzalin, and trifluralin are the most common. Other variables involved in the induction process include the culture media, explant types, and exposure times. Due to the effects of polyploidization on plant growth and development, chromosome doubling has been applied in plant breeding to increase the levels of target compounds and improve morphological characteristics. Prompted by the importance of herbal medicines and the increasing demand for drugs based on plant secondary metabolites, this review presents an overview of how polyploidy can be used to enhance metabolite production in medicinal plants. Full article
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Article
A Sesquiterpene Synthase from the Endophytic Fungus Serendipita indica Catalyzes Formation of Viridiflorol
Biomolecules 2021, 11(6), 898; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11060898 - 16 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1510
Abstract
Interactions between plant-associated fungi and their hosts are characterized by a continuous crosstalk of chemical molecules. Specialized metabolites are often produced during these associations and play important roles in the symbiosis between the plant and the fungus, as well as in the establishment [...] Read more.
Interactions between plant-associated fungi and their hosts are characterized by a continuous crosstalk of chemical molecules. Specialized metabolites are often produced during these associations and play important roles in the symbiosis between the plant and the fungus, as well as in the establishment of additional interactions between the symbionts and other organisms present in the niche. Serendipita indica, a root endophytic fungus from the phylum Basidiomycota, is able to colonize a wide range of plant species, conferring many benefits to its hosts. The genome of S. indica possesses only few genes predicted to be involved in specialized metabolite biosynthesis, including a putative terpenoid synthase gene (SiTPS). In our experimental setup, SiTPS expression was upregulated when the fungus colonized tomato roots compared to its expression in fungal biomass growing on synthetic medium. Heterologous expression of SiTPS in Escherichia coli showed that the produced protein catalyzes the synthesis of a few sesquiterpenoids, with the alcohol viridiflorol being the main product. To investigate the role of SiTPS in the plant-endophyte interaction, an SiTPS-over-expressing mutant line was created and assessed for its ability to colonize tomato roots. Although overexpression of SiTPS did not lead to improved fungal colonization ability, an in vitro growth-inhibition assay showed that viridiflorol has antifungal properties. Addition of viridiflorol to the culture medium inhibited the germination of spores from a phytopathogenic fungus, indicating that SiTPS and its products could provide S. indica with a competitive advantage over other plant-associated fungi during root colonization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Biology)
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Review
Current Approaches and Tools Used in Drug Development against Parkinson’s Disease
Biomolecules 2021, 11(6), 897; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11060897 - 16 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1336
Abstract
Parkinson’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the death of nerve cells in the substantia nigra of the brain. The treatment options for this disease are very limited as currently the treatment is mainly symptomatic, and the available drugs are not [...] Read more.
Parkinson’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the death of nerve cells in the substantia nigra of the brain. The treatment options for this disease are very limited as currently the treatment is mainly symptomatic, and the available drugs are not able to completely stop the progression of the disease but only to slow it down. There is still a need to search for new compounds with the most optimal pharmacological profile that would stop the rapidly progressing disease. An increasing understanding of Parkinson’s pathogenesis and the discovery of new molecular targets pave the way to develop new therapeutic agents. The use and selection of appropriate cell and animal models that better reflect pathogenic changes in the brain is a key aspect of the research. In addition, computer-assisted drug design methods are a promising approach to developing effective compounds with potential therapeutic effects. In light of the above, in this review, we present current approaches for developing new drugs for Parkinson’s disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Approaches for the Treatment of Civilization Diseases)
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Review
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) and Polysulfide (H2Sn) Signaling: The First 25 Years
Biomolecules 2021, 11(6), 896; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11060896 - 16 Jun 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 1428
Abstract
Since the first description of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as a toxic gas in 1713 by Bernardino Ramazzini, most studies on H2S have concentrated on its toxicity. In 1989, Warenycia et al. demonstrated the existence of endogenous H2S [...] Read more.
Since the first description of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as a toxic gas in 1713 by Bernardino Ramazzini, most studies on H2S have concentrated on its toxicity. In 1989, Warenycia et al. demonstrated the existence of endogenous H2S in the brain, suggesting that H2S may have physiological roles. In 1996, we demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a potential signaling molecule, which can be produced by cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) to modify neurotransmission in the brain. Subsequently, we showed that H2S relaxes vascular smooth muscle in synergy with nitric oxide (NO) and that cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) is another producing enzyme. This study also opened up a new research area of a crosstalk between H2S and NO. The cytoprotective effect, anti-inflammatory activity, energy formation, and oxygen sensing by H2S have been subsequently demonstrated. Two additional pathways for the production of H2S with 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST) from l- and d-cysteine have been identified. We also discovered that hydrogen polysulfides (H2Sn, n ≥ 2) are potential signaling molecules produced by 3MST. H2Sn regulate the activity of ion channels and enzymes, as well as even the growth of tumors. S-Sulfuration (S-sulfhydration) proposed by Snyder is the main mechanism for H2S/H2Sn underlying regulation of the activity of target proteins. This mini review focuses on the key findings on H2S/H2Sn signaling during the first 25 years. Full article
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Commentary
Spotlight on Accessory Proteins: RTK-RAS-MAPK Modulators as New Therapeutic Targets
Biomolecules 2021, 11(6), 895; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11060895 - 16 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1003
Abstract
The RTK-RAS-MAPK axis is one of the most extensively studied signaling cascades and is related to the development of both cancers and RASopathies. In the last 30 years, many ideas and approaches have emerged for directly targeting constituent members of this cascade, predominantly [...] Read more.
The RTK-RAS-MAPK axis is one of the most extensively studied signaling cascades and is related to the development of both cancers and RASopathies. In the last 30 years, many ideas and approaches have emerged for directly targeting constituent members of this cascade, predominantly in the context of cancer treatment. These approaches are still insufficient due to undesirable drug toxicity, resistance, and low efficacy. Significant advances have been made in understanding the spatiotemporal features of the constituent members of the RTK-RAS-MAPK axis, which are linked and modulated by many accessory proteins. Given that the majority of such modulators are now emerging as attractive therapeutic targets, a very small number of accessory inhibitors have yet to be discovered. Full article
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Review
Chalcone Derivatives: Role in Anticancer Therapy
Biomolecules 2021, 11(6), 894; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11060894 - 16 Jun 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1949
Abstract
Chalcones (1,3-diaryl-2-propen-1-ones) are precursors for flavonoids and isoflavonoids, which are common simple chemical scaffolds found in many naturally occurring compounds. Many chalcone derivatives were also prepared due to their convenient synthesis. Chalcones as weandhetic analogues have attracted much interest due to their broad [...] Read more.
Chalcones (1,3-diaryl-2-propen-1-ones) are precursors for flavonoids and isoflavonoids, which are common simple chemical scaffolds found in many naturally occurring compounds. Many chalcone derivatives were also prepared due to their convenient synthesis. Chalcones as weandhetic analogues have attracted much interest due to their broad biological activities with clinical potentials against various diseases, particularly for antitumor activity. The chalcone family has demonstrated potential in vitro and in vivo activity against cancers via multiple mechanisms, including cell cycle disruption, autophagy regulation, apoptosis induction, and immunomodulatory and inflammatory mediators. It represents a promising strategy to develop chalcones as novel anticancer agents. In addition, the combination of chalcones and other therapies is expected to be an effective way to improve anticancer therapeutic efficacy. However, despite the encouraging results for their response to cancers observed in clinical studies, a full description of toxicity is required for their clinical use as safe drugs for the treatment of cancer. In this review, we will summarize the recent advances of the chalcone family as potential anticancer agents and the mechanisms of action. Besides, future applications and scope of the chalcone family toward the treatment and prevention of cancer are brought out. Full article
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Review
Overview of Evidence-Based Chemotherapy for Oral Cancer: Focus on Drug Resistance Related to the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition
Biomolecules 2021, 11(6), 893; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11060893 - 16 Jun 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1273
Abstract
The increasing incidence of resistance to chemotherapeutic agents has become a major issue in the treatment of oral cancer (OC). Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years with regard to its relation to the mechanism of chemotherapy [...] Read more.
The increasing incidence of resistance to chemotherapeutic agents has become a major issue in the treatment of oral cancer (OC). Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years with regard to its relation to the mechanism of chemotherapy drug resistance. EMT-activating transcription factors (EMT-ATFs), such as Snail, TWIST, and ZEB, can activate several different molecular pathways, e.g., PI3K/AKT, NF-κB, and TGF-β. In contrast, the activated oncological signal pathways provide reciprocal feedback that affects the expression of EMT-ATFs, resulting in a peritumoral extracellular environment conducive to cancer cell survival and evasion of the immune system, leading to resistance to multiple chemotherapeutic agents. We present an overview of evidence-based chemotherapy for OC treatment based on the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Chemotherapy Order Templates. We focus on the molecular pathways involved in drug resistance related to the EMT and highlight the signal pathways and transcription factors that may be important for EMT-regulated drug resistance. Rapid progress in antitumor regimens, together with the application of powerful techniques such as high-throughput screening and microRNA technology, will facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies to augment chemotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue EMT and Cancer)
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Review
Secretory System Components as Potential Prophylactic Targets for Bacterial Pathogens
Biomolecules 2021, 11(6), 892; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11060892 - 15 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1693
Abstract
Bacterial secretory systems are essential for virulence in human pathogens. The systems have become a target of alternative antibacterial strategies based on small molecules and antibodies. Strategies to use components of the systems to design prophylactics have been less publicized despite vaccines being [...] Read more.
Bacterial secretory systems are essential for virulence in human pathogens. The systems have become a target of alternative antibacterial strategies based on small molecules and antibodies. Strategies to use components of the systems to design prophylactics have been less publicized despite vaccines being the preferred solution to dealing with bacterial infections. In the current review, strategies to design vaccines against selected pathogens are presented and connected to the biology of the system. The examples are given for Y. pestis, S. enterica, B. anthracis, S. flexneri, and other human pathogens, and discussed in terms of effectiveness and long-term protection. Full article
Article
Characterization of Growth and Cell Cycle Events Affected by Light Intensity in the Green Alga Parachlorella kessleri: A New Model for Cell Cycle Research
Biomolecules 2021, 11(6), 891; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11060891 - 15 Jun 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1287
Abstract
Multiple fission is a cell cycle variation leading to the production of more than two daughter cells. Here, we used synchronized cultures of the chlorococcal green alga Parachlorella kessleri to study its growth and pattern of cell division under varying light intensities. The [...] Read more.
Multiple fission is a cell cycle variation leading to the production of more than two daughter cells. Here, we used synchronized cultures of the chlorococcal green alga Parachlorella kessleri to study its growth and pattern of cell division under varying light intensities. The time courses of DNA replication, nuclear and cellular division, cell size, total RNA, protein content, dry matter and accumulation of starch were observed at incident light intensities of 110, 250 and 500 µmol photons m−2s−1. Furthermore, we studied the effect of deuterated water on Parachlorella kessleri growth and division, to mimic the effect of stress. We describe a novel multiple fission cell cycle pattern characterized by multiple rounds of DNA replication leading to cell polyploidization. Once completed, multiple nuclear divisions were performed with each of them, immediately followed by protoplast fission, terminated by the formation of daughter cells. The multiple fission cell cycle was represented by several consecutive doublings of growth parameters, each leading to the start of a reproductive sequence. The number of growth doublings increased with increasing light intensity and led to division into more daughter cells. This study establishes the baseline for cell cycle research at the molecular level as well as for potential biotechnological applications, particularly directed synthesis of (deuterated) starch and/or neutral lipids as carbon and energy reserves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Cycle Regulation of Algae)
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Article
Searching for Noninvasive Predictors of the Diagnosis and Monitoring of Eosinophilic Esophagitis—The Importance of Biomarkers of the Inflammatory Reaction Involving Eosinophils
Biomolecules 2021, 11(6), 890; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11060890 - 15 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1245
Abstract
Background: Invasive and costly endoscopic diagnosis is obligatory for the diagnosis and monitoring of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). This study aims to evaluate the usefulness of serum biomarkers involved in eosinophil-mediated inflammation in the management of EoE. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted [...] Read more.
Background: Invasive and costly endoscopic diagnosis is obligatory for the diagnosis and monitoring of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). This study aims to evaluate the usefulness of serum biomarkers involved in eosinophil-mediated inflammation in the management of EoE. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted in 58 patients with dysphagia. Each participant completed a health questionnaire, underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy with esophageal biopsy for histopathological examination and assessment of total, inflammatory and fibrostenotic Eosinophilic Esophagitis Reference Score (EREFS). Serum levels of interleukin 5 (IL-5), interleukin 13 (IL-13), transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), major basic protein (MBP), and eotaxin 3 were determined by enzyme immunoassays. Total of 16 patients meeting the histological criteria for EoE were treated with proton pump inhibitors for 8 weeks, and then the same diagnostics was performed again. Results: Statistically significantly higher concentrations of MBP and TGF-β1 were demonstrated in the group of patients with EoE, while MBP and eotaxin 3 correlated with the peak eosinophil count (PEC). Baseline MBP levels and eotaxin 3 after treatment significantly positively correlated with EREFS. There was a negative correlation between IL-13 and fibrostenotic EREFS. Additionally, after treatment, a negative correlation TGF-β1 was noted with the inflammatory EREFS and a positive correlation with the fibrostenotic EREFS. Conclusions: The potential role of MBP in predicting the diagnosis of EoE, eotaxin 3 in predicting the advancement and correlation of IL-13 and TGF-β1 in differentiating the inflammatory and fibrotic course of the disease may facilitate the management and individualization of EoE therapy. Full article
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Article
Comprehensive Evaluation of PAXgene Fixation on Oral Cancer Tissues Using Routine Histology, Immunohistochemistry, and FTIR Microspectroscopy
Biomolecules 2021, 11(6), 889; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11060889 - 15 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1387
Abstract
The choice of tissue fixation is critical for preserving the morphology and biochemical information of tissues. Fragile oral tissues with lower tensile strength are challenging to process for histological applications as they are prone to processing damage, such as tissue tear, wrinkling, and [...] Read more.
The choice of tissue fixation is critical for preserving the morphology and biochemical information of tissues. Fragile oral tissues with lower tensile strength are challenging to process for histological applications as they are prone to processing damage, such as tissue tear, wrinkling, and tissue fall-off from slides. This leads to loss of morphological information and unnecessary delay in experimentation. In this study, we have characterized the new PAXgene tissue fixation system on oral buccal mucosal tissue of cancerous and normal pathology for routine histological and immunohistochemical applications. We aimed to minimize the processing damage of tissues and improve the quality of histological experiments. We also examined the preservation of biomolecules by PAXgene fixation using FTIR microspectroscopy. Our results demonstrate that the PAXgene-fixed tissues showed significantly less tissue fall-off from slides. Hematoxylin and Eosin staining showed comparable morphology between formalin-fixed and PAXgene-fixed tissues. Good quality and slightly superior immunostaining for cancer-associated proteins p53 and CK5/6 were observed in PAXgene-fixed tissues without antigen retrieval than formalin-fixed tissues. Further, FTIR measurements revealed superior preservation of glycogen, fatty acids, and amide III protein secondary structures in PAXgene-fixed tissues. Overall, we present the first comprehensive evaluation of the PAXgene tissue fixation system in oral tissues. This study concludes that the PAXgene tissue fixation system can be applied to oral tissues to perform diagnostic molecular pathology experiments without compromising the quality of the morphology or biochemistry of biomolecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers in Oral Diseases)
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Comment
Comment on Kobroob et al. Effectiveness of N-Acetylcysteine in the Treatment of Renal Deterioration Caused by Long-Term Exposure to Bisphenol A. Biomolecules 2021, 11, 655
Biomolecules 2021, 11(6), 888; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11060888 - 15 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1410
Abstract
Bisphenol A (BPA: 2,2-bis-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propane) is an industrial chemical that is widely used in the production of epoxy resins and polycarbonate for food containers and plastic bottles [...] Full article
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