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Open AccessArticle

Machilin D, a Lignin Derived from Saururus chinensis, Suppresses Breast Cancer Stem Cells and Inhibits NF-κB Signaling

by Xing Zhen 1,†, Hack Sun Choi 2,†, Ji-Hyang Kim 1, Su-Lim Kim 1, Ren Liu 1, Bong-Sik Yun 3 and Dong-Sun Lee 1,2,4,5,*
1
Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Advanced Convergence Technology and Science, Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, Korea
2
Subtropical/Tropical Organism Gene Bank, Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, Korea
3
Division of Biotechnology, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Jeonbuk National University, Gobong-ro 79, Iksan 54596, Korea
4
Practical Translational Research Center, Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, Korea
5
Faculty of Biotechnology, College of Applied Life Sciences, Jeju National University, SARI, Jeju 63243, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Biomolecules 2020, 10(2), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10020245
Received: 8 January 2020 / Revised: 31 January 2020 / Accepted: 3 February 2020 / Published: 5 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomolecules and Cancer Prevention)
Cancer stem cells are responsible for breast cancer initiation, metastasis, and relapse. Targeting breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) using phytochemicals is a good strategy for the treatment of cancer. A silica gel, a reversed-phase C18 column (ODS), a Sephadex LH-20 gel, thin layer chromatography, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used for compound isolation from Saururus chinensis extracts. The isolated compound was identified as machilin D by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Machilin D inhibited the growth and mammosphere formation of breast cancer cells and inhibited tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model. Machilin D reduced the proportions of CD44+/CD24- and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1)-positive cells. Furthermore, this compound reduced the nuclear localization of the NF-κB protein and decreased the IL-6 and IL-8 secretion in mammospheres. These results suggest that machilin D blocks IL-6 and IL-8 signaling and induces CSC death and thus may be a potential agent targeting BCSCs.
Keywords: breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs); mammospheres; machilin D; NF-κB breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs); mammospheres; machilin D; NF-κB
MDPI and ACS Style

Zhen, X.; Choi, H.S.; Kim, J.-H.; Kim, S.-L.; Liu, R.; Yun, B.-S.; Lee, D.-S. Machilin D, a Lignin Derived from Saururus chinensis, Suppresses Breast Cancer Stem Cells and Inhibits NF-κB Signaling. Biomolecules 2020, 10, 245.

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