Next Issue
Volume 7, December
Previous Issue
Volume 7, June

Table of Contents

Atoms, Volume 7, Issue 3 (September 2019) – 34 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) Quantum interference between the direct and looping reaction pathways determines the outcome of the [...] Read more.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
Poloidal Rotation and Edge Ion Temperature Measurements Using Spectroscopy Diagnostic on Aditya-U Tokamak
Atoms 2019, 7(3), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7030093 - 19 Sep 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 663
Abstract
The impurity ion poloidal rotation and ion temperature from the Aditya-U tokamak plasma have been measured using a high-resolution spectroscopic diagnostic. It comprises of a high resolution, 1 m, f/8.7, Czerny-Turner configuration spectrometer along with charge coupled device (CCD) detector. The system [...] Read more.
The impurity ion poloidal rotation and ion temperature from the Aditya-U tokamak plasma have been measured using a high-resolution spectroscopic diagnostic. It comprises of a high resolution, 1 m, f/8.7, Czerny-Turner configuration spectrometer along with charge coupled device (CCD) detector. The system monitors the spectral line emission of C2+ impurity ions at 464.74 nm from the top port of the Aditya-U vacuum vessel with the lines of sight covering the plasma minor radius from r = 11.55 cm to 21.55 cm. The impurity ion poloidal rotation velocity and temperature have been estimated using the Doppler shift and Doppler broadening of the spectral lines respectively. The maximum poloidal rotation at a radial location of 21.55 cm in the edge of the plasma during the plasma current flat top was observed to be ~4 km/s for the analyzed discharges and the ion temperatures measured in the edge were in the range of 32–40 eV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Spectroscopy in the Presence of Magnetic Fields)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Mixed Basis Sets for Atomic Calculations
Atoms 2019, 7(3), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7030092 - 19 Sep 2019
Viewed by 729
Abstract
Many numerical methods of atomic calculations use one-electron basis sets. These basis sets must meet rather contradictory requirements. On the one hand, they must include physically justified orbitals, such as Dirac–Fock ones, for the one-electron states with high occupation numbers. On the other [...] Read more.
Many numerical methods of atomic calculations use one-electron basis sets. These basis sets must meet rather contradictory requirements. On the one hand, they must include physically justified orbitals, such as Dirac–Fock ones, for the one-electron states with high occupation numbers. On the other hand, they must ensure rapid convergence of the calculations in respect to the size of the basis set. It is difficult to meet these requirements using a single set of orbitals, while merging different subsets may lead to linear dependence and other problems. We suggest a simple unitary operator that allows such merging without aforementioned complications. We demonstrated robustness of the method on the examples of Fr and Au. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Improvement of the NIFS Atom and Molecular Database
Atoms 2019, 7(3), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7030091 - 11 Sep 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 703
Abstract
The NIFS (National Institute for Fusion Science) Atom and Molecular Database, which has been available online since 1997, is a numerical atomic and molecular database of collision processes that is important for fusion research. This database provides the following: (1) the cross-sections and [...] Read more.
The NIFS (National Institute for Fusion Science) Atom and Molecular Database, which has been available online since 1997, is a numerical atomic and molecular database of collision processes that is important for fusion research. This database provides the following: (1) the cross-sections and rate coefficients for ionization, excitation, and recombination caused by electron impact; (2) the charge transfer caused by heavy particle collision and collision processes of molecules; and (3) the sputtering yields of solids and backscattering coefficients from solids. It also offers a bibliographic database. We recently reconstructed the database system. The main purpose of the reconstruction was to migrate the database into an open-source architecture to make the system more flexible and extensible. The previous system used proprietary software and was difficult to customize. The new system consists of open-source software, including PostgreSQL database and Ruby on Rails. New features were also added to the system. The most important improvement is the interface with the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Center (VAMDC) portal. Using this interface, researchers can search for data in the NIFS database as well as in various other online databases simultaneously. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of an Oxygen Transport Coefficient in the Aditya Tokamak Using the Radial Profile of O4+ Emissivity and the Importance of Atomic Data Used Therein
Atoms 2019, 7(3), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7030090 - 09 Sep 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 724
Abstract
Oxygen impurity transport in the typical discharges of the Aditya tokamak was investigated using emissivity radial profile of emissivity of the spectral line (2p3p 3D3–2p3d 3F4) at 650.024 nm from the Be-like oxygen ion. This O4+ [...] Read more.
Oxygen impurity transport in the typical discharges of the Aditya tokamak was investigated using emissivity radial profile of emissivity of the spectral line (2p3p 3D3–2p3d 3F4) at 650.024 nm from the Be-like oxygen ion. This O4+ spectral line was recorded using a 1.0 m multi-track spectrometer capable of simultaneous measurements from eight lines of sight passing through the plasma. The oxygen transport coefficients were determined by reproducing the experimentally measured emissivity profiles of O4+, using a one-dimensional impurity transport code, STRAHL, and photon emissivity coefficient (PEC) belonging to that transition. The PEC values were obtained from both ADAS and NIFS atomic databases. Using both the databases, much higher values of diffusion coefficients compared to the neo-classical values were observed in both high and low magnetic field edge regions of typical Aditya tokamak Ohmic plasma. Although, almost similar profiles of diffusion coefficients were obtained using PEC values from both databases, the magnitude differs considerably. The maximum values of diffusion coefficients in the plasma edge at low field side of tokamak were ~45 and ~25 m2·s−1 when modeling was done using the ADAS and NIFS databases, respectively. Further analysis on the atomic data used in the calculation indicates that the difference in diffusion coefficients is mainly related to the variation in the values of atomic data of the two databases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Spectroscopy in the Presence of Magnetic Fields)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Resonant Charge-Transfer in Grazing Collisions of H with Vicinal Nanosurfaces on Cu(111), Au(100) and Pd(111) Substrates: A Comparative Study
Atoms 2019, 7(3), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7030089 - 09 Sep 2019
Viewed by 710
Abstract
We compare the electron dynamics at monocrystalline Cu(111), Au(100) and Pd(111) precursor substrates with vicinal nanosteps. The unoccupied bands of a surface superlattice are populated via the resonant charge transfer (RCT) between the surface and a H ion that flies by at [...] Read more.
We compare the electron dynamics at monocrystalline Cu(111), Au(100) and Pd(111) precursor substrates with vicinal nanosteps. The unoccupied bands of a surface superlattice are populated via the resonant charge transfer (RCT) between the surface and a H ion that flies by at grazing angles. A quantum mechanical wave packet propagation approach is used to simulate the motion of the active electron, and time-evolved wave packet densities are used to visualize the dynamics through the superlattice. The survived ion fraction in the reflected beam generally exhibits modulations as a function of the vicinal terrace size and shows peaks at those energies that access the image state subband dispersions. Differences in magnitudes of the ion-survival as a function of the particular substrate selection and the ion-surface interaction time, based on the choice of two ion-trajectories, are examined. A square well model, producing standing waves between the steps on the surface, explains the energies of the maxima in the ion survival probability for all the metals considered. This indicates that the primary process of confinement induced subband formation is robust. The work may motivate measurements and applications of shallow-angle ion-scattering spectroscopy to access electronic substructures in periodically nanostructured surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Spectroscopy and Collisions)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Channeling of Protons through Radial Deformed Double Wall Carbon Nanotubes
Atoms 2019, 7(3), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7030088 - 07 Sep 2019
Viewed by 806
Abstract
In this study we presented a theoretical investigation of the channeling of high energy protons with the radial deformed (10, 0)@(5, 0) double-wall carbon nanotubes (DWNTs). Proton energy is varied from 0.1 to 10 GeV. The channeling potential within the deformed DWNTs is [...] Read more.
In this study we presented a theoretical investigation of the channeling of high energy protons with the radial deformed (10, 0)@(5, 0) double-wall carbon nanotubes (DWNTs). Proton energy is varied from 0.1 to 10 GeV. The channeling potential within the deformed DWNTs is presented. A Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is used to obtain spatial and angular distributions of channeled protons with radially deformed DWNTs. We treated problem relativistically. This is the first time that we presented spatial and angular distributions of channeled protons with radially deformed DWNTs. Our results show that the spatial and angular distributions depend strongly of nanotube lengths, proton energy, and especially of level of radial deformation of nanotube. Multi-wall nanotubes (MWNTs) can be technically realised with better channeling performance then single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) and that is why we believe that these results may be useful for production and guiding of nanosized ion beams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atomic and Ionic Collisions with Formation of Quasimolecules)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Spatial Profile of Neutral Temperature Measurement in Aditya-U Tokamak Plasmas
Atoms 2019, 7(3), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7030087 - 05 Sep 2019
Viewed by 766
Abstract
The spatial profile of neutral hydrogen temperatures in Aditya-U tokamak plasma has been estimated from the spatial profile of the Hα spectral emissions measured using a high-resolution multi-track spectrometer, having a spectral resolution of 0.023 nm at a 50 μm entrance slit [...] Read more.
The spatial profile of neutral hydrogen temperatures in Aditya-U tokamak plasma has been estimated from the spatial profile of the Hα spectral emissions measured using a high-resolution multi-track spectrometer, having a spectral resolution of 0.023 nm at a 50 μm entrance slit width. The neutral temperature estimation from the Doppler broadened spectral line was carried out after considering the Zeeman effect due to the magnetic field present in the tokamak. To accurately obtain the temperature of the neutral hydrogen, two temperature components (warm and hot) were required to be considered. A code was developed to obtain the neutral temperature and is used to analyze two typical plasma discharges. The temperature of warm components varies between 3 and 5 eV, while hot atoms have temperatures in the range of 15–30 eV. It was observed that the chord-integrated neutral temperature increases slightly towards the plasma core region compared to the plasma edge of Aditya-U tokamak. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Spectroscopy in the Presence of Magnetic Fields)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Spatial Molecular AlO Temperature Distributions in Laser-Induced Plasma
Atoms 2019, 7(3), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7030086 - 04 Sep 2019
Viewed by 761
Abstract
Spatially resolved, line-of-sight measurements of aluminum monoxide emission spectra in laser ablation plasma are used with Abel inversion techniques to extract radial plasma temperatures. Contour mapping of the radially deconvolved signal intensity shows a ring of AlO formation near the plasma boundary with [...] Read more.
Spatially resolved, line-of-sight measurements of aluminum monoxide emission spectra in laser ablation plasma are used with Abel inversion techniques to extract radial plasma temperatures. Contour mapping of the radially deconvolved signal intensity shows a ring of AlO formation near the plasma boundary with the ambient atmosphere. Simulations of the molecular spectra were coupled with the line profile fitting routines. Temperature results are presented with simultaneous inferences from lateral, asymmetric radial, and symmetric radial AlO spectral intensity profiles. This analysis indicates that shockwave phenomena in the radial profiles, including a temperature drop behind the blast wave created during plasma initiation were measured. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Plasma Spectroscopy Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Femtosecond Laser-Assisted Electron Scattering for Ultrafast Dynamics of Atoms and Molecules
Atoms 2019, 7(3), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7030085 - 02 Sep 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 804
Abstract
The recent progress in experimental studies of laser-assisted electron scattering (LAES) induced by ultrashort intense laser fields is reviewed. After a brief survey of the theoretical backgrounds of the LAES process and earlier LAES experiments started in the 1970s, new concepts of optical [...] Read more.
The recent progress in experimental studies of laser-assisted electron scattering (LAES) induced by ultrashort intense laser fields is reviewed. After a brief survey of the theoretical backgrounds of the LAES process and earlier LAES experiments started in the 1970s, new concepts of optical gating and optical streaking for the LAES processes, which can be realized by LAES experiments using ultrashort intense laser pulses, are discussed. A new experimental setup designed for measurements of LAES induced by ultrashort intense laser fields is described. The experimental results of the energy spectra, angular distributions, and laser polarization dependence of the LAES signals are presented with the results of the numerical simulations. A light-dressing effect that appeared in the recorded LAES signals is also shown with the results of the numerical calculations. In addition, as applications of the LAES process, laser-assisted electron diffraction and THz-wave-assisted electron diffraction, both of which have been developed for the determination of instantaneous geometrical structure of molecules, are introduced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electron Scattering in Intense Laser Fields)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Quantitative Analysis of Cerium-Gallium Alloys Using a Hand-Held Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Device
Atoms 2019, 7(3), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7030084 - 22 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 856
Abstract
A hand-held laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy device was used to acquire spectral emission data from laser-induced plasmas created on the surface of cerium-gallium alloy samples with Ga concentrations ranging from 0–3 weight percent. Ionic and neutral emission lines of the two constituent elements were [...] Read more.
A hand-held laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy device was used to acquire spectral emission data from laser-induced plasmas created on the surface of cerium-gallium alloy samples with Ga concentrations ranging from 0–3 weight percent. Ionic and neutral emission lines of the two constituent elements were then extracted and used to generate calibration curves relating the emission line intensity ratios to the gallium concentration of the alloy. The Ga I 287.4-nm emission line was determined to be superior for the purposes of Ga detection and concentration determination. A limit of detection below 0.25% was achieved using a multivariate regression model of the Ga I 287.4-nm line ratio versus two separate Ce II emission lines. This LOD is considered a conservative estimation of the technique’s capability given the type of the calibration samples available and the low power (5 mJ per 1-ns pulse) and resolving power ( λ / Δ λ = 4000) of this hand-held device. Nonetheless, the utility of the technique is demonstrated via a detailed mapping analysis of the surface Ga distribution of a Ce-Ga sample, which reveals significant heterogeneity resulting from the sample production process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Plasma Spectroscopy Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Mini-Review: Hydrogen Atoms in a High-Frequency Laser Field
Atoms 2019, 7(3), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7030083 - 19 Aug 2019
Viewed by 727
Abstract
Because of the continuing advances in developing lasers in the far-ultraviolet and x-ray ranges, studies of the behavior of atoms under a high-frequency laser field are of theoretical and practical interest. In the present paper, we review various analytical results obtained by the [...] Read more.
Because of the continuing advances in developing lasers in the far-ultraviolet and x-ray ranges, studies of the behavior of atoms under a high-frequency laser field are of theoretical and practical interest. In the present paper, we review various analytical results obtained by the method of separating rapid and slow subsystems for various polarizations of the laser field. Specifically, we review the corresponding analytical results both in terms of the quantum description of the phenomena involved and in terms of the classical description of the phenomena involved. We point out that, for the classical description of hydrogen atoms in a high-frequency laser field, there are interesting celestial analogies. We discuss hidden symmetries of these physical systems, the advantages of this analytical method, and the connection between these results and the transition to chaos. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Plasma Spectroscopy Applications)
Open AccessArticle
Dissociative Recombination of CH+ Molecular Ion Induced by Very Low Energy Electrons
Atoms 2019, 7(3), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7030082 - 19 Aug 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 896
Abstract
We used the multichannel quantum defect theory to compute cross sections and rate coefficients for the dissociative recombination of CH + initially in its lowest vibrational level v i + = 0 with electrons of incident energy below 0.2 eV. We have focused [...] Read more.
We used the multichannel quantum defect theory to compute cross sections and rate coefficients for the dissociative recombination of CH + initially in its lowest vibrational level v i + = 0 with electrons of incident energy below 0.2 eV. We have focused on the contribution of the 2 2 Π state which is the main dissociative recombination route at low collision energies. The final cross section is obtained by averaging the relevant initial rotational states ( N i + = 0 , , 10 ) with a 300 K Boltzmann distribution. The Maxwell isotropic rate coefficients for dissociative recombination are also calculated for different initial rotational states and for electronic temperatures up to a few hundred Kelvins. Our results are compared to storage-ring measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atomic Processes in Plasmas: APiP-2019)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Emission of Fast Hydrogen Atoms in a Low Density Gas Discharge—The Most “Natural” Mirror Laboratory
Atoms 2019, 7(3), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7030081 - 19 Aug 2019
Viewed by 1718
Abstract
In this work, we present a new application for the line shapes of emission induced by reflected hydrogen atoms. Optical properties of the solids in contact with the plasma could be effectively measured at the wavelength of Balmer lines: time-resolved measurements of reflectance [...] Read more.
In this work, we present a new application for the line shapes of emission induced by reflected hydrogen atoms. Optical properties of the solids in contact with the plasma could be effectively measured at the wavelength of Balmer lines: time-resolved measurements of reflectance and polarization properties of mirrors are performed using the wavelength separation of the direct and reflected signals. One uses the Doppler effect of emission of atoms excited by collisions with noble gases, primarily with Ar or with Kr. In spite of a new application of line shapes, the question of the source of the strong signal in the case of Ar exists: the emission observed in the case of the excitation of H or D atoms by Ar exceeds the signal induced by collisions with Kr atoms by a factor of five, and the only available experimental data for the ground state excitation show practically equal cross-sections for both gases in the energy range of 80–200 eV. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Stark Broadening of Neutral Boron Lines
Atoms 2019, 7(3), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7030080 - 19 Aug 2019
Viewed by 747
Abstract
Stark broadening parameters, width and shift, of lines within B I 2s22p–2s2ns spectral series have been calculated. Semi-classical theory in impact approximation has been applied. Temperature dependence of Stark parameters has been studied. The presented results could be applied for plasma diagnostics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atomic and Ionic Collisions with Formation of Quasimolecules)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Assisted by Machine Learning for Plastics/Polymers Identification
Atoms 2019, 7(3), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7030079 - 19 Aug 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1235
Abstract
In the present work, Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is used for the discrimination/identification of different plastic/polymeric samples having the same polymeric matrix but containing different additives (as e.g., fillers, flame retardants, etc.). For the classification of the different plastic samples, some machine learning [...] Read more.
In the present work, Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is used for the discrimination/identification of different plastic/polymeric samples having the same polymeric matrix but containing different additives (as e.g., fillers, flame retardants, etc.). For the classification of the different plastic samples, some machine learning algorithms were employed for the analysis of the LIBS spectroscopic data, such as the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and the Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). The combination of LIBS technique with these machine learning algorithmic approaches, in particular the latter, provided excellent classification results, achieving identification accuracies as high as 100%. It seems that machine learning paves the way towards the application of LIBS technique for identification/discrimination issues of plastics and polymers and eventually of other classes of organic materials. Machine learning assisted LIBS can be a simple to use, efficient and powerful tool for sorting and recycling purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Plasma Spectroscopy Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Electron Impact Excitation of S III: An Assessment
Atoms 2019, 7(3), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7030078 - 17 Aug 2019
Viewed by 747
Abstract
In a recent paper, Tayal et al. (Astrophys. J. Suppl. 2019, 242, 9) reported results for energy levels, radiative rates (A-values), and effective collision strengths ( Υ ) for transitions among the 198 levels of Si-like S III. For the [...] Read more.
In a recent paper, Tayal et al. (Astrophys. J. Suppl. 2019, 242, 9) reported results for energy levels, radiative rates (A-values), and effective collision strengths ( Υ ) for transitions among the 198 levels of Si-like S III. For the calculations, they adopted the multi-configuration Hartree–Fock (MCHF) code for the energy levels and A-values and the B-spline R-matrix (BSR) code for Υ . Their reported results appear to be accurate for energy levels and A-values, but not for Υ . Through our independent calculations by adopting the flexible atomic code (FAC), we demonstrate that their reported results for Υ are underestimated, by up to a factor of two, and at all temperatures, particularly for the allowed transitions, but some forbidden ones as well. Additionally, for transitions involving the higher levels, the behaviour of their Υ results is not correct. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Spectroscopy and Collisions)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effect of the Ions on the Electron Collision Operator through Electronic Trajectory Modification
Atoms 2019, 7(3), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7030077 - 16 Aug 2019
Viewed by 831
Abstract
We investigate the ion effect on the broadening of the spectral line profile by the free electrons collisions with the emitters in plasmas. We only considered the weak collisions’ contribution. This effect has a consequence on the trajectories of the free electrons through [...] Read more.
We investigate the ion effect on the broadening of the spectral line profile by the free electrons collisions with the emitters in plasmas. We only considered the weak collisions’ contribution. This effect has a consequence on the trajectories of the free electrons through the electric microfield created by the ions of the plasma. Thanks to the Meijer’s functions, the calculation of the electronic Stark broadening is precisely established. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Spectroscopy in the Presence of Magnetic Fields)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
From Stochastic Optics to the Wigner Formalism: The Role of the Vacuum Field in Optical Quantum Communication Experiments
Atoms 2019, 7(3), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7030076 - 07 Aug 2019
Viewed by 875
Abstract
The Wigner formalism in the Heisenberg picture constitutes a bridge that connects Quantum Optics to Stochastic Optics. The vacuum field appears explicitly in the formalism, and the wavelike aspects of light are emphasised. In addition, the zeropoint intensity as a threshold for detection [...] Read more.
The Wigner formalism in the Heisenberg picture constitutes a bridge that connects Quantum Optics to Stochastic Optics. The vacuum field appears explicitly in the formalism, and the wavelike aspects of light are emphasised. In addition, the zeropoint intensity as a threshold for detection is a common denominator in both theories. In this paper, after summarising the basic rules of the Wigner approach and its application to parametric down-conversion, some new results are presented that delve into the physical meaning of the zeropoint field in optical quantum communication. Specifically, the relationship between Bell-state distinguishability and the number of sets of zeropoint modes that take part in the experiment is analysed in terms of the coupling between the phases of the different fields involved and the subtraction of the zeropoint intensity at the detectors. Additionally, the connection between the compatibility theorem in quantum cryptography and zeropoint field is stressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stochastic Electrodynamics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Electron-Impact Dissociation of Vibrationally-Excited Molecular Hydrogen into Neutral Fragments
Atoms 2019, 7(3), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7030075 - 06 Aug 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 912
Abstract
We present convergent close-coupling (CCC) calculations of electron-impact dissociation of vibrationally-excited molecular hydrogen into neutral fragments. This work follows from our previous results for dissociation of molecular hydrogen in the ground vibrational level [Scarlett et al., Eur. Phys. J. D 72, 34 [...] Read more.
We present convergent close-coupling (CCC) calculations of electron-impact dissociation of vibrationally-excited molecular hydrogen into neutral fragments. This work follows from our previous results for dissociation of molecular hydrogen in the ground vibrational level [Scarlett et al., Eur. Phys. J. D 72, 34 (2018)], which were obtained from calculations performed in a spherical coordinate system. The present calculations, performed utilizing a spheroidal formulation of the molecular CCC method, reproduce the previous dissociation cross sections for the ground vibrational level, while allowing the extension to scattering on excited levels. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Temporally and Spatially Resolved Emission Spectroscopy of Hydrogen, Cyanide and Carbon in Laser-Induced Plasma
Atoms 2019, 7(3), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7030074 - 02 Aug 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1061
Abstract
In this study, we examine the atomic and molecular signatures in laser-induced plasma. Abel inversions of measured line-of-sight data reveal insight into the radial plasma distribution. Laser-plasma is generated with 6 ns, Q-switched Nd:YAG radiation with energies in the range of 100 to [...] Read more.
In this study, we examine the atomic and molecular signatures in laser-induced plasma. Abel inversions of measured line-of-sight data reveal insight into the radial plasma distribution. Laser-plasma is generated with 6 ns, Q-switched Nd:YAG radiation with energies in the range of 100 to 800 mJ. Temporally- and spatially-resolved emission spectroscopy investigates expansion dynamics. Specific interests include atomic hydrogen (H) and cyanide (CN). Atomic hydrogen spectra indicate axisymmetric shell structures and isentropic expansion of the plasma kernel. The recombination radiation of CN emanates within the first 100 nanoseconds for laser-induced breakdown in a 1:1 mole ratio CO2:N2 gas mixture. CN excitation temperatures are determined from fitting recorded and computed spectra. Chemical equilibrium mole fractions of CN are computed for air and the CO2:N2 gas mixture. Measurements utilize a 0.64-m Czerny–Turner type spectrometer and an intensified charge-coupled device. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Plasma Spectroscopy Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Opacity Corrections for Resonance Silver Lines in Nano-Material Laser-Induced Plasma
Atoms 2019, 7(3), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7030073 - 31 Jul 2019
Viewed by 841
Abstract
Q-switched laser radiation at wavelengths of 355, 532, and 1064 nm from a Nd: YAG laser was used to generate plasma in laboratory air at the target surface made of nano-silver particles of size 95 ± 10 nm. The emitted resonance spectra from [...] Read more.
Q-switched laser radiation at wavelengths of 355, 532, and 1064 nm from a Nd: YAG laser was used to generate plasma in laboratory air at the target surface made of nano-silver particles of size 95 ± 10 nm. The emitted resonance spectra from the neutral silver at wavelengths of 327.9 nm and 338.2 nm indicate existence of self-reversal in addition to plasma self-absorption. Both lines were identified in emission spectra at different laser irradiation wavelengths with characteristic dips at the un-shifted central wavelengths. These dips are usually associated with self-reversal. Under similar conditions, plasmas at the corresponding bulk silver target were generated. The recorded emission spectra were compared to those obtained from the nano-material target. The comparisons confirm existence of self-reversal of resonance lines that emerge from plasmas produced at nano-material targets. This work suggests a method for recovery of the spectral line shapes and discusses practical examples. In addition, subsidiary calibration efforts that utilize the Balmer series Hα-line reveal that other Ag I lines at 827.35 nm and 768.7 nm are optically thin under variety of experimental conditions and are well-suited as reference lines for measurement of the laser plasma electron density. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Plasma Spectroscopy Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Plasma Spectroscopy of Various Types of Gypsum: An Ideal Terrestrial Analogue
Atoms 2019, 7(3), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7030072 - 21 Jul 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 865
Abstract
The first detection of gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) by the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity in the Gale Crater, Mars created a profound impact on planetary science and exploration. The unique capability of plasma spectroscopy, which involves in situ elemental [...] Read more.
The first detection of gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) by the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity in the Gale Crater, Mars created a profound impact on planetary science and exploration. The unique capability of plasma spectroscopy, which involves in situ elemental analysis in extraterrestrial environments, suggests the presence of water in the red planet based on phase characterization and provides a clue to Martian paleoclimate. The key to gypsum as an ideal paleoclimate proxy lies in its textural variants and terrestrial gypsum samples from varied locations and textural types have been analyzed with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in this study. Petrographic, sub-microscopic, and powder X-ray diffraction characterizations confirm the presence of gypsum (hydrated calcium sulphate; CaSO4·2H2O), bassanite (semi-hydrated calcium sulphate; CaSO4·½H2O), and anhydrite (anhydrous calcium sulphate; CaSO4), along with accessory phases (quartz and jarosite). The principal component analysis of LIBS spectra from texturally varied gypsums can be differentiated from one another due to the chemical variability in their elemental concentrations. The concentration of gypsum is determined from the partial least-square regressions model. The rapid characterization of gypsum samples with LIBS is expected to work well in extraterrestrial environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Plasma Spectroscopy Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Atomic and Molecular Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of Selected Pharmaceuticals
Atoms 2019, 7(3), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7030071 - 19 Jul 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 917
Abstract
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of pharmaceutical drugs that contain paracetamol was investigated in air and argon atmospheres. The characteristic neutral and ionic spectral lines of various elements and molecular signatures of CN violet and C2 Swan band systems were observed. The relative [...] Read more.
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of pharmaceutical drugs that contain paracetamol was investigated in air and argon atmospheres. The characteristic neutral and ionic spectral lines of various elements and molecular signatures of CN violet and C2 Swan band systems were observed. The relative hardness of all drug samples was measured as well. Principal component analysis, a multivariate method, was applied in the data analysis for demarcation purposes of the drug samples. The CN violet and C2 Swan spectral radiances were investigated for evaluation of a possible correlation of the chemical and molecular structures of the pharmaceuticals. Complementary Raman and Fourier-transform-infrared spectroscopies were used to record the molecular spectra of the drug samples. The application of the above techniques for drug screening are important for the identification and mitigation of drugs that contain additives that may cause adverse side-effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Plasma Spectroscopy Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Shannon, Rényi, Tsallis Entropies and Onicescu Information Energy for Low-Lying Singly Excited States of Helium
Atoms 2019, 7(3), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7030070 - 18 Jul 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 983
Abstract
Knowledge of the electronic structures of atomic and molecular systems deepens our understanding of the desired system. In particular, several information-theoretic quantities, such as Shannon entropy, have been applied to quantify the extent of electron delocalization for the ground state of various systems. [...] Read more.
Knowledge of the electronic structures of atomic and molecular systems deepens our understanding of the desired system. In particular, several information-theoretic quantities, such as Shannon entropy, have been applied to quantify the extent of electron delocalization for the ground state of various systems. To explore excited states, we calculated Shannon entropy and two of its one-parameter generalizations, Rényi entropy of order α and Tsallis entropy of order α , and Onicescu Information Energy of order α for four low-lying singly excited states (1s2s 1 S e , 1s2s 3 S e , 1s3s 1 S e , and 1s3s 3 S e states) of helium. This paper compares the behavior of these three quantities of order 0.5 to 9 for the ground and four excited states. We found that, generally, a higher excited state had a larger Rényi entropy, larger Tsallis entropy, and smaller Onicescu information energy. However, this trend was not definite and the singlet–triplet reversal occurred for Rényi entropy, Tsallis entropy and Onicescu information energy at a certain range of order α . Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Positron Impact Excitation of the 2S State of Atomic Hydrogen
Atoms 2019, 7(3), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7030069 - 10 Jul 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 837
Abstract
The excitation cross-sections of the 2S state of atomic hydrogen at low (near threshold energy) to high incident positron energies (10.30 to 300 eV) have been calculated using the variational polarized-orbital method. Nine partial waves have been used to obtain converged cross-sections [...] Read more.
The excitation cross-sections of the 2S state of atomic hydrogen at low (near threshold energy) to high incident positron energies (10.30 to 300 eV) have been calculated using the variational polarized-orbital method. Nine partial waves have been used to obtain converged cross-sections in the above energy range. The cross sections compared to the electron-impact excitation of the S state of atomic hydrogen are larger in the present case. The maximum cross section is 3.63(−1) π a 0 2 at 16.5 eV compared to 1.37(−1) π a 0 2 at 11.14 eV for the electron-impact excitation. The present results are compared with other calculations. Cross-sections have also been calculated in the Born approximation in which the polarization of the target has been included. Differential cross sections were calculated at k = 1.0 (13.6eV), 2.5 (85 eV), 3.483 (200 3V), and 4.696 (300 eV). Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessErratum
Erratum: Oks, E. Review of Recent Advances in the Analytical Theory of Stark Broadening of Hydrogenic Spectral Lines in Plasmas: Applications to Laboratory Discharges and Astrophysical Objects. Atoms 2018, 6, 50
Atoms 2019, 7(3), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7030068 - 05 Jul 2019
Viewed by 778
Abstract
The author wishes to make the following corrections to this paper [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stark Broadening of Spectral Lines in Plasmas) Printed Edition available
Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Cross Sections and Rate Coefficients for Rovibrational Excitation of HeH+ Isotopologues by Electron Impact
Atoms 2019, 7(3), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7030067 - 05 Jul 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 996
Abstract
Cross sections and thermal rate coefficients for rotational and vibration excitation of the four stable isotopologues of the 4 HeH + ion by electron impact are presented. The data are calculated using a previously developed theoretical approach. The obtained rate coefficients are fitted [...] Read more.
Cross sections and thermal rate coefficients for rotational and vibration excitation of the four stable isotopologues of the 4 HeH + ion by electron impact are presented. The data are calculated using a previously developed theoretical approach. The obtained rate coefficients are fitted to analytical formulas with the 10–10,000 K interval of applicability. These present results could be useful in tokamak plasma and astrophysical modeling and can help in the detection of these species in the interstellar medium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Spectroscopy and Collisions)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Soft X-Ray Spectroscopy of Rare-Earth Elements in LHD Plasmas
Atoms 2019, 7(3), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7030066 - 03 Jul 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 958
Abstract
Soft X-ray spectra from high Z rare-earth (lanthanide) elements have been systematically observed in optically thin, high-temperature plasmas produced in the Large Helical Device (LHD), a facility for magnetically confined fusion research. It has been demonstrated that the discrete and quasicontinuum (UTA) spectral [...] Read more.
Soft X-ray spectra from high Z rare-earth (lanthanide) elements have been systematically observed in optically thin, high-temperature plasmas produced in the Large Helical Device (LHD), a facility for magnetically confined fusion research. It has been demonstrated that the discrete and quasicontinuum (UTA) spectral features from highly charged lanthanide ions are observed depending on the plasma temperature. The analyses of the measured spectra are ongoing by comparisons with theoretical calculations and/or previous experimental data available. The discrete spectra recorded in high-temperature conditions are dominated by individual lines of Ge- to Ni-like ions, while prominent peaks in the narrowed UTA spectra observed in low-temperature conditions are well explained by the transitions of Ag- to Rh-like ions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atomic Processes in Plasmas: APiP-2019)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Geometric Phase Effects in Ultracold Chemical Reactions
Atoms 2019, 7(3), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7030065 - 03 Jul 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1135
Abstract
The role of the geometric phase effect in chemical reaction dynamics has long been a topic of active experimental and theoretical investigations. The topic has received renewed interest in recent years in cold and ultracold chemistry where it was shown to play a [...] Read more.
The role of the geometric phase effect in chemical reaction dynamics has long been a topic of active experimental and theoretical investigations. The topic has received renewed interest in recent years in cold and ultracold chemistry where it was shown to play a decisive role in state-to-state chemical dynamics. We provide a brief review of these developments focusing on recent studies of O + OH and hydrogen exchange in the H + H 2 and D + HD reactions at cold and ultracold temperatures. Non-adiabatic effects in ultracold chemical dynamics arising from the conical intersection between two electronic potential energy surfaces are also briefly discussed. By taking the hydrogen exchange reaction as an illustrative example it is shown that the inclusion of the geometric phase effect captures the essential features of non-adiabatic dynamics at collision energies below the conical intersection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Few-body Physics in Ultracold Quantum Gases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Cowan Code: 50 Years of Growing Impact on Atomic Physics
Atoms 2019, 7(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7030064 - 02 Jul 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1159
Abstract
The famous Cowan’s book, “The Theory of Atomic Structure and Spectra”, published in 1981, and his suite of computer codes based on it, continue to be highly influential in atomic physics and many other research areas. As of September 2018, there have been [...] Read more.
The famous Cowan’s book, “The Theory of Atomic Structure and Spectra”, published in 1981, and his suite of computer codes based on it, continue to be highly influential in atomic physics and many other research areas. As of September 2018, there have been more than 5000 citations to Cowan’s book and codes, and each year adds about 150 citations to this list. The present work briefly describes what these codes do and why they are responsible for most of the current progress in the analyses of atomic spectra. Various modifications of these codes, including my own, will also be described. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop