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Atoms, Volume 7, Issue 1 (March 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The anomalous magnetic moment of the electron, ae, occupies a unique position among high-precision [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Radiative Transition Parameters in Atomic Lanthanum from Pseudo-Relativistic Hartree–Fock and Fully Relativistic Dirac–Hartree–Fock Calculations
Received: 23 January 2019 / Revised: 14 March 2019 / Accepted: 16 March 2019 / Published: 20 March 2019
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Abstract
Calculated radiative transition probabilities and oscillator strengths are reported for 392 lines of neutral lanthanum (La I) atom in the spectral range from the near ultraviolet to the mid infrared. They were obtained using two different theoretical methods based on the pseudo-relativistic Hartree–Fock [...] Read more.
Calculated radiative transition probabilities and oscillator strengths are reported for 392 lines of neutral lanthanum (La I) atom in the spectral range from the near ultraviolet to the mid infrared. They were obtained using two different theoretical methods based on the pseudo-relativistic Hartree–Fock (HFR) and the fully relativistic multiconfiguration Dirac–Hartree–Fock (MCDHF) approaches, both including the most important intravalence and core-valence electron correlations. The quality of these radiative parameters was assessed through detailed comparisons between the results obtained using different physical models and between our theoretical results and the experimental data, where available. Of the total number of La I lines listed in the present work, about 60% have gf- and gA-values determined for the first time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atomic Data for Ions of Rare Earth Elements)
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Open AccessReview
High-Precision Atomic Mass Measurements for Fundamental Constants
Received: 4 January 2019 / Revised: 12 February 2019 / Accepted: 28 February 2019 / Published: 18 March 2019
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Abstract
Atomic mass measurements are essential for obtaining several of the fundamental constants. The most precise atomic mass measurements, at the 10−10 level of precision or better, employ measurements of cyclotron frequencies of single ions in Penning traps. We discuss the relation of [...] Read more.
Atomic mass measurements are essential for obtaining several of the fundamental constants. The most precise atomic mass measurements, at the 10−10 level of precision or better, employ measurements of cyclotron frequencies of single ions in Penning traps. We discuss the relation of atomic masses to fundamental constants in the context of the revised SI. We then review experimental methods, and the current status of measurements of the masses of the electron, proton, neutron, deuteron, tritium, helium-3, helium-4, oxygen-16, silicon-28, rubidium-87, and cesium-133. We conclude with directions for future work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Precision Measurements of Fundamental Constants)
Open AccessArticle
Universal Scattering of Ultracold Atoms and Molecules in Optical Potentials
Received: 29 January 2019 / Revised: 25 February 2019 / Accepted: 12 March 2019 / Published: 15 March 2019
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Abstract
Universal collisions describe the reaction of molecules and atoms as dominated by long-range interparticle interactions. Here, we calculate the universal inelastic rate coefficients for a large group of ultracold polar molecules in their lower ro-vibrational states colliding with one of their constituent atoms. [...] Read more.
Universal collisions describe the reaction of molecules and atoms as dominated by long-range interparticle interactions. Here, we calculate the universal inelastic rate coefficients for a large group of ultracold polar molecules in their lower ro-vibrational states colliding with one of their constituent atoms. The rate coefficients are solely determined by values of the dispersion coefficient and reduced mass of the collisional system. We use the ab initio coupled-cluster linear response method to compute dynamic molecular polarizabilities and obtain the dispersion coefficients for some of the collisional partners and use values from the literature for others. Our polarizability calculations agree well with available experimental measurements. Comparison of our inelastic rate coefficients with results of numerically exact quantum-mechanical calculations leads us to conjecture that collisions with heavier atoms can be expected to be more universal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Few-body Physics in Ultracold Quantum Gases)
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Open AccessReview
Interrelationship between Lab, Space, Astrophysical, Magnetic Fusion, and Inertial Fusion Plasma Experiments
Received: 1 December 2018 / Revised: 31 January 2019 / Accepted: 3 February 2019 / Published: 11 March 2019
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Abstract
The objectives of this review are to articulate geospace, heliospheric, and astrophysical plasma physics issues that are addressable by laboratory experiments, to convey the wide range of laboratory experiments involved in this interdisciplinary alliance, and to illustrate how lab experiments on the centimeter [...] Read more.
The objectives of this review are to articulate geospace, heliospheric, and astrophysical plasma physics issues that are addressable by laboratory experiments, to convey the wide range of laboratory experiments involved in this interdisciplinary alliance, and to illustrate how lab experiments on the centimeter or meter scale can develop, through the intermediary of a computer simulation, physically credible scaling of physical processes taking place in a distant part of the universe over enormous length scales. The space physics motivation of laboratory investigations and the scaling of laboratory plasma parameters to space plasma conditions, having expanded to magnetic fusion and inertial fusion experiments, are discussed. Examples demonstrating how laboratory experiments develop physical insight, validate or invalidate theoretical models, discover unexpected behavior, and establish observational signatures for the space community are presented. The various device configurations found in space-related laboratory investigations are outlined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SPIG2018) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Electron Scattering Processes in Non-Monochromatic and Relativistically Intense Laser Fields
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 25 February 2019 / Accepted: 1 March 2019 / Published: 6 March 2019
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Abstract
The theoretical analysis of four fundamental laser-assisted non-linear scattering processes are summarized in this review. Our attention is focused on Thomson, Compton, Møller and Mott scattering in the presence of intense electromagnetic radiation. Depending on the phenomena under considerations, we model the laser [...] Read more.
The theoretical analysis of four fundamental laser-assisted non-linear scattering processes are summarized in this review. Our attention is focused on Thomson, Compton, Møller and Mott scattering in the presence of intense electromagnetic radiation. Depending on the phenomena under considerations, we model the laser field as a single laser pulse of ultrashort duration (for Thomson and Compton scattering) or non-monochromatic trains of pulses (for Møller and Mott scattering). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electron Scattering in Intense Laser Fields)
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Open AccessArticle
Electron-Induced Chemistry in the Condensed Phase
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 28 February 2019 / Accepted: 1 March 2019 / Published: 4 March 2019
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Abstract
Electron–molecule interactions have been studied for a long time. Most of these studies have in the past been limited to the gas phase. In the condensed-phase processes that have recently attracted attention from academia as well as industry, a theoretical understanding is mostly [...] Read more.
Electron–molecule interactions have been studied for a long time. Most of these studies have in the past been limited to the gas phase. In the condensed-phase processes that have recently attracted attention from academia as well as industry, a theoretical understanding is mostly based on electron–molecule interaction data from these gas phase experiments. When transferring this knowledge to condensed-phase problems, where number densities are much higher and multi-body interactions are common, care must be taken to critically interpret data, in the light of this chemical environment. The paper presented here highlights three typical challenges, namely the shift of ionization energies, the difference in absolute cross-sections and branching ratios, and the occurrence of multi-body processes that can stabilize otherwise unstable intermediates. Examples from recent research in astrochemistry, where radiation driven chemistry is imminently important are used to illustrate these challenges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SPIG2018) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Cavity-Enhanced Photodetachment of H as a Means to Produce Energetic Neutral Beams for Plasma Heating
Received: 8 February 2019 / Revised: 22 February 2019 / Accepted: 23 February 2019 / Published: 1 March 2019
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Abstract
Neutral beam injection, for plasma heating, will supposedly be achieved, in ITER, by collisional detachment of a pre-accelerated D beam. Collisional detachment, however, makes use of a D2-filled neutralisation chamber, which has severe drawbacks, including the necessity to set the [...] Read more.
Neutral beam injection, for plasma heating, will supposedly be achieved, in ITER, by collisional detachment of a pre-accelerated D beam. Collisional detachment, however, makes use of a D 2 -filled neutralisation chamber, which has severe drawbacks, including the necessity to set the D -ion source at −1 MV. Photodetachment, in contradistinction, would have several advantages as a neutralisation method, including the absence of gas injection, and the possibility to set the ion source close to the earth potential. Photodetachment, however, requires a very high laser flux. The presented work has consisted in implementing an optical cavity, with a finesse greater than 3000, to make such a high illumination possible with a state-of-the-art CW (continuous-wave) laser. A 1.2 keV 1 H -beam (only 20 times slower than the 1 MeV 2 D ion beams to be prepared for ITER) was photodetached with more-than-50% efficiency, with only 24 W of CW laser input. This experimental demonstration paves the way for developing real-size photoneutralizers, based on the implementation of refolded optical cavities around the ion beams of neutral beam injectors. Depending on whether the specifications of the laser power or the cavity finesse will be more difficult to achieve in real scale, different architectures can be considered, with greater or smaller numbers of optical refoldings or (inclusively) optical cavities in succession, on the beam to be neutralised. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SPIG2018) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Distortion of the Ionization Cross Section of He by the Coherence Properties of a C6+ Beam
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 20 February 2019 / Accepted: 26 February 2019 / Published: 1 March 2019
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Abstract
We analyze the influence of the coherence of the projectile’s beam in scattering phenomena. We focus our study in the ionization of He by C6+ projectiles at 100 MeV/amu. We assess the influence of this effect by performing a Born initial [...] Read more.
We analyze the influence of the coherence of the projectile’s beam in scattering phenomena. We focus our study in the ionization of He by C 6 + projectiles at 100 MeV/amu. We assess the influence of this effect by performing a Born initial state and continuum distorted wave final state (CDW-B1) calculation together with a rigorous procedure to account for the initial coherence properties of the projectile’s beam. These calculations, which had been previously performed for only the scattering and perpendicular collision planes and within the First Born approximation (FBA), were repeated for an ampler set of collision planes. Additionally, a more refined method to describe the applicability of the aforementioned procedure, is used. We achieve a better qualitative agreement with the experimental results. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Simulation of Spectra Code (SOS) for ITER Active Beam Spectroscopy
Received: 24 January 2019 / Revised: 13 February 2019 / Accepted: 15 February 2019 / Published: 1 March 2019
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Abstract
The concept and structure of the Simulation of Spectra (SOS) code is described starting with an introduction to the physics background of the project and the development of a simulation tool enabling the modeling of charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) and associated passive background [...] Read more.
The concept and structure of the Simulation of Spectra (SOS) code is described starting with an introduction to the physics background of the project and the development of a simulation tool enabling the modeling of charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) and associated passive background spectra observed in hot fusion plasmas. The generic structure of the code implies its general applicability to any fusion device, the development is indeed based on over two decades of spectroscopic observations and validation of derived plasma data. Four main types of active spectra are addressed in SOS. The first type represents thermal low-Z impurity ions and the associated spectral background. The second type of spectra represent slowing-down high energy ions created from either thermo-nuclear fusion reactions or ions from injected high energy neutral beams. Two other modules are dedicated to CXRS spectra representing bulk plasma ions (H+, D+, or T+) and beam emission spectroscopy (BES) or Motional Stark Effect (MSE) spectrum appearing in the same spectral range. The main part of the paper describes the physics background for the underlying emission processes: active and passive CXRS emission, continuum radiation, edge line emission, halo and plume effect, or finally the charge exchange (CX) cross-section effects on line shapes. The description is summarized by modeling the fast ions emissions, e.g., either of the α particles of the fusion reaction or of the beam ions itself. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Spectroscopy in the Presence of Magnetic Fields)
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Open AccessReview
Stochastic Electrodynamics: The Closest Classical Approximation to Quantum Theory
Received: 27 January 2019 / Revised: 18 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 1 March 2019
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Abstract
Stochastic electrodynamics is the classical electrodynamic theory of interacting point charges which includes random classical radiation with a Lorentz-invariant spectrum whose scale is set by Planck’s constant. Here, we give a cursory overview of the basic ideas of stochastic electrodynamics, of the successes [...] Read more.
Stochastic electrodynamics is the classical electrodynamic theory of interacting point charges which includes random classical radiation with a Lorentz-invariant spectrum whose scale is set by Planck’s constant. Here, we give a cursory overview of the basic ideas of stochastic electrodynamics, of the successes of the theory, and of its connections to quantum theory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stochastic Electrodynamics)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Theory of the Anomalous Magnetic Moment of the Electron
Received: 27 November 2018 / Revised: 3 February 2019 / Accepted: 12 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
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Abstract
The anomalous magnetic moment of the electron ae measured in a Penning trap occupies a unique position among high precision measurements of physical constants in the sense that it can be compared directly with the theoretical calculation based on the renormalized quantum [...] Read more.
The anomalous magnetic moment of the electron a e measured in a Penning trap occupies a unique position among high precision measurements of physical constants in the sense that it can be compared directly with the theoretical calculation based on the renormalized quantum electrodynamics (QED) to high orders of perturbation expansion in the fine structure constant α , with an effective parameter α / π . Both numerical and analytic evaluations of a e up to ( α / π ) 4 are firmly established. The coefficient of ( α / π ) 5 has been obtained recently by an extensive numerical integration. The contributions of hadronic and weak interactions have also been estimated. The sum of all these terms leads to a e ( theory ) = 1 159 652 181.606 ( 11 ) ( 12 ) ( 229 ) × 10 12 , where the first two uncertainties are from the tenth-order QED term and the hadronic term, respectively. The third and largest uncertainty comes from the current best value of the fine-structure constant derived from the cesium recoil measurement: α 1 ( Cs ) = 137.035 999 046 ( 27 ) . The discrepancy between a e ( theory ) and a e ( ( experiment ) ) is 2.4 σ . Assuming that the standard model is valid so that a e (theory) = a e (experiment) holds, we obtain α 1 ( a e ) = 137.035 999 1496 ( 13 ) ( 14 ) ( 330 ) , which is nearly as accurate as α 1 ( Cs ) . The uncertainties are from the tenth-order QED term, hadronic term, and the best measurement of a e , in this order. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Precision Measurements of Fundamental Constants)
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Open AccessArticle
Entanglement, Complementarity, and Vacuum Fields in Spontaneous Parametric Down-Conversion
Received: 16 January 2019 / Revised: 9 February 2019 / Accepted: 12 February 2019 / Published: 19 February 2019
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Abstract
Using two crystals for spontaneous parametric down-conversion in a parallel setup, we observe two-photon interference with high visibility. The high visibility is consistent with complementarity and the absence of which-path information. The observations are explained as the effects of entanglement or equivalently in [...] Read more.
Using two crystals for spontaneous parametric down-conversion in a parallel setup, we observe two-photon interference with high visibility. The high visibility is consistent with complementarity and the absence of which-path information. The observations are explained as the effects of entanglement or equivalently in terms of interfering probability amplitudes and also by the calculation of a second-order field correlation function in the Heisenberg picture. The latter approach brings out explicitly the role of the vacuum fields in the down-conversion at the crystals and in the photon coincidence counting. For comparison, we show that the Hong–Ou–Mandel dip can be explained by the same approach in which the role of the vacuum signal and idler fields, as opposed to entanglement involving vacuum states, is emphasized. We discuss the fundamental limitations of a theory in which these vacuum fields are treated as classical, stochastic fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stochastic Electrodynamics)
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Open AccessArticle
On the Time Scales of Optical Variability of AGN and the Shape of Their Optical Emission Line Profiles
Received: 8 December 2018 / Revised: 5 February 2019 / Accepted: 6 February 2019 / Published: 14 February 2019
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Abstract
The mechanism of the optical variability of active galactic nuclei (AGN) is still very puzzling. It is now widely accepted that the optical variability of AGN is stochastic, producing red noise-like light curves. In case they were to be periodic or quasi-periodic, one [...] Read more.
The mechanism of the optical variability of active galactic nuclei (AGN) is still very puzzling. It is now widely accepted that the optical variability of AGN is stochastic, producing red noise-like light curves. In case they were to be periodic or quasi-periodic, one should expect that the time scales of optical AGN variability should relate to orbiting time scales of regions inside the accretion disks with temperatures mainly emitting the light in this wavelength range. Knowing the reverberation scales and masses of AGN, expected orbiting time scales are in the order of decades. Unfortunately, most of monitored AGN light curves are not long enough to investigate such time scales of periodicity. Here we investigate the AGN optical variability time scales and their possible connections with the broad emission line shapes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SPIG2018) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Diagnostic of Langmuir Solitons in Plasmas Using Hydrogenic Spectral Lines
Received: 15 January 2019 / Revised: 3 February 2019 / Accepted: 5 February 2019 / Published: 13 February 2019
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Abstract
The development of various spectroscopic diagnostics of relatively weak Langmuir waves in plasmas and their successful implementation have a history of over 50 years. As for spectroscopic diagnostics of Langmuir solitons (i.e., relatively strong Langmuir waves) in plasmas, there have only been very [...] Read more.
The development of various spectroscopic diagnostics of relatively weak Langmuir waves in plasmas and their successful implementation have a history of over 50 years. As for spectroscopic diagnostics of Langmuir solitons (i.e., relatively strong Langmuir waves) in plasmas, there have only been very few theoretical papers. The most promising result so far was based on using satellites of the dipole-forbidden spectral lines of He, Li, or He-like and Li-like ions. It was shown that, in the case of Langmuir solitons, the peak intensity of the satellites of the dipole-forbidden lines can be significantly enhanced—by orders of magnitude—compared to the case of non-solitonic Langmuir waves. This distinctive feature of satellites under Langmuir solitons allows them to be distinguished from non-solitonic Langmuir waves. In the present paper, we perform a general study of the effects of Langmuir solitons on arbitrary spectral lines of hydrogen or hydrogen-like ions. Then, using the Ly-beta line as an example, we compare the main features of the profiles for the case of the Langmuir solitons with the case of the non-solitonic Langmuir waves of the same amplitude. We also show how the line profiles depend on the amplitude of the Langmuir solitons and on their separation from each other within the sequence of the solitons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Spectroscopy and Collisions)
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Open AccessArticle
Developing the Techniques for Solving the Inverse Problem in Photoacoustics
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 4 February 2019 / Accepted: 6 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
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Abstract
In this work, theoretically/mathematically simulated models are derived for the photoacoustic (PA) frequency response of both volume and surface optically-absorbing samples in a minimum volume PA cell. In the derivation process, the thermal memory influence of both the sample and the air of [...] Read more.
In this work, theoretically/mathematically simulated models are derived for the photoacoustic (PA) frequency response of both volume and surface optically-absorbing samples in a minimum volume PA cell. In the derivation process, the thermal memory influence of both the sample and the air of the gas column are accounted for, as well as the influence of the measurement chain. Within the analysis of the TMS model, the influence of optical, thermal, and elastic properties of the sample was investigated. This analysis revealed that some of the processes, characterized by certain sample properties, exert their dominance only in limited modulation frequency ranges, which are shown to be dependent upon the choice of the sample material and its thickness. Based on the described analysis, two methods are developed for TMS model parameter determination, i.e., sample properties which dominantly influence the PA response in the measurement range: a self-consistent procedure for solving the exponential problems of mathematical physics, and a well-trained three-layer perceptron with back propagation, based upon theory of neural networks. The results of the application of both inverse problem solving methods are compared and discussed. The first method is shown to have the advantage in the number of properties which are determined, while the second one is advantageous in gaining high accuracy in the determination of thermal diffusivity, explicitly. Finally, the execution of inverse PA problem is implemented on experimental measurements performed on macromolecule samples, the results are discussed, and the most important conclusions are derived and presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SPIG2018) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Spectral Modeling of Hydrogen Radiation Emission in Magnetic Fusion Plasmas
Received: 11 December 2018 / Revised: 30 January 2019 / Accepted: 1 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
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Abstract
Modeling of the spectral line and continuum radiation emitted by hydrogen isotopes in peripheral regions of magnetic fusion is presented through profiles of the Zeeman-Doppler broadened Hα/Dα line and those of the Stark broadened high-n Balmer lines extending beyond the series limit for [...] Read more.
Modeling of the spectral line and continuum radiation emitted by hydrogen isotopes in peripheral regions of magnetic fusion is presented through profiles of the Zeeman-Doppler broadened Hα/Dα line and those of the Stark broadened high-n Balmer lines extending beyond the series limit for recombining plasmas. The Hα/Dα line profiles should be modelled while accounting for several populations of neutrals to mimic real situations and analyze experimental data for isotopic ratio determination. On the other side, high-n Balmer lines of hydrogen are used for plasma electron density and temperature diagnostics. Moreover, modelling whole spectra including the continuum radiation contributes to the development of synthetic diagnostics for future magnetic fusion devices for which they can give predictive results through coupling to numerical simulation tools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SPIG2018) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Dynamic Instability of Rydberg Atomic Complexes
Received: 23 November 2018 / Revised: 25 January 2019 / Accepted: 31 January 2019 / Published: 8 February 2019
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Abstract
Atoms and molecules in highly excited (Rydberg) states have a number of unique characteristics due to the strong dependence of their properties on the values of principal quantum numbers. The paper discusses the results of an investigation of collisional Rydberg complexes specific features, [...] Read more.
Atoms and molecules in highly excited (Rydberg) states have a number of unique characteristics due to the strong dependence of their properties on the values of principal quantum numbers. The paper discusses the results of an investigation of collisional Rydberg complexes specific features, resulting in the development of dynamic chaos and the accompanying diffusion autoionization processes. It is shown (experiment and theory) that, in subthermal low energies, the global chaotic regime that evolved in quasimolecular systems leads to significant changes in the Rydberg gases radiation/ionization kinetics. The effect of Förster resonance on the width of the fluorescence spectra and stochastic ionization processes in Rydberg systems is also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SPIG2018) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Eccentricity-Based Topological Invariants of Some Chemical Graphs
Received: 25 November 2018 / Revised: 30 December 2018 / Accepted: 24 January 2019 / Published: 6 February 2019
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Abstract
Topological index is an invariant of molecular graphs which correlates the structure with different physical and chemical invariants of the compound like boiling point, chemical reactivity, stability, Kovat’s constant etc. Eccentricity-based topological indices, like eccentric connectivity index, connective eccentric index, first Zagreb eccentricity [...] Read more.
Topological index is an invariant of molecular graphs which correlates the structure with different physical and chemical invariants of the compound like boiling point, chemical reactivity, stability, Kovat’s constant etc. Eccentricity-based topological indices, like eccentric connectivity index, connective eccentric index, first Zagreb eccentricity index, and second Zagreb eccentricity index were analyzed and computed for families of Dutch windmill graphs and circulant graphs. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Spectral Line Shapes in Plasmas II
Received: 28 January 2019 / Revised: 30 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 6 February 2019
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Abstract
The Spectral Line Shapes in Plasmas (SLSP) code comparison workshop series [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spectral Line Shapes in Plasmas II)
Open AccessReview
Two-Body and Three-Body Contacts for Three Bosons in the Unitary Regime: Analytic Expressions and Limiting Forms
Received: 19 December 2018 / Revised: 30 January 2019 / Accepted: 2 February 2019 / Published: 5 February 2019
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Abstract
The two- and three-body contacts are central to a set of univeral relations between microscopic few-body physics within an ultracold Bose gas and its thermodynamical properties. They may also be defined in trapped few-particle systems, which is the subject of this work. In [...] Read more.
The two- and three-body contacts are central to a set of univeral relations between microscopic few-body physics within an ultracold Bose gas and its thermodynamical properties. They may also be defined in trapped few-particle systems, which is the subject of this work. In this work, we focus on the unitary three-body problem in a trap, where interactions are as strong as allowed by quantum mechanics. We derive analytic results for the two- and three-body contacts in this regime and compare them with existing limiting expressions and previous numerical studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Few-body Physics in Ultracold Quantum Gases)
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Open AccessArticle
Quasars: From the Physics of Line Formation to Cosmology
Received: 26 November 2018 / Revised: 28 January 2019 / Accepted: 28 January 2019 / Published: 4 February 2019
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Abstract
Quasars accreting matter at very high rates (known as extreme Population A (xA) or super-Eddington accreting massive black holes) provide a new class of distance indicators covering cosmic epochs from the present-day Universe up to less than 1 Gyr from the Big Bang. [...] Read more.
Quasars accreting matter at very high rates (known as extreme Population A (xA) or super-Eddington accreting massive black holes) provide a new class of distance indicators covering cosmic epochs from the present-day Universe up to less than 1 Gyr from the Big Bang. The very high accretion rate makes it possible that massive black holes hosted in xA quasars can radiate at a stable, extreme luminosity-to-mass ratio. This in turn translates into stable physical and dynamical conditions of the mildly ionized gas in the quasar low-ionization line emitting region. In this contribution, we analyze the main optical and UV spectral properties of extreme Population A quasars that make them easily identifiable in large spectroscopic surveys at low- ( z 1 ) and intermediate-z (2 z 2.6), and the physical conditions that are derived for the formation of their emission lines. Ultimately, the analysis supports the possibility of identifying a virial broadening estimator from low-ionization line widths, and the conceptual validity of the redshift-independent luminosity estimates based on virial broadening for a known luminosity-to-mass ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SPIG2018) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Charge-Exchange Emission from Hydrogen-Like Carbon Ions Colliding with Water Molecules
Received: 14 January 2019 / Revised: 27 January 2019 / Accepted: 29 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
Absolute Extreme Ultraviolet emission cross-sections have been measured for collisions between C5+ and H2O in the range of 0.113 to 3.75 keV/amu (170–979 km/s). These results are used to derive velocity-dependent triplet-to-singlet ratios and emission cross-sections of the C [...] Read more.
Absolute Extreme Ultraviolet emission cross-sections have been measured for collisions between C 5 + and H 2O in the range of 0.113 to 3.75 keV/amu (170–979 km/s). These results are used to derive velocity-dependent triplet-to-singlet ratios and emission cross-sections of the Cv K-series following single-electron capture. Comparison with existing measurements of integral charge-changing cross-sections indicates that auto-ionizing multi-electron capture is a significant reactions channel. This reaction may indirectly populate the n = 2 states and thus add strength to the K α emission of Cv ions thereby co-determining the hardness ratio of K-series emission of Cv. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Quantum Rainbows in Positron Transmission through Carbon Nanotubes
Received: 28 November 2018 / Revised: 23 January 2019 / Accepted: 23 January 2019 / Published: 28 January 2019
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Abstract
Here we report the results of the theoretical investigation of the transmission of channeled positrons through various short chiral single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT). The main question answered by this study is “What are the manifestations of the rainbow effect in the channeling [...] Read more.
Here we report the results of the theoretical investigation of the transmission of channeled positrons through various short chiral single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT). The main question answered by this study is “What are the manifestations of the rainbow effect in the channeling of quantum particles that happens during the channeling of classical particles?” To answer this question, the corresponding classical and quantum problems were solved in parallel, critically examined, and compared with each other. Positron energies were taken to be 1 MeV when the quantum approach was necessary. The continuum positron-nanotube potential was constructed from the thermally averaged Molière’s positron-carbon potential. In the classical approach, a positron beam is considered as an ensemble of noninteracting particles. In the quantum approach, it is considered as an ensemble of noninteracting wave packages. Distributions of transmitted positrons were constructed from the numerical solutions of Newton’s equation and the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. For the transmission of 1-MeV positrons through 200-nm long SWCNT (14; 4), in addition to the central maximum, the quantum angular distribution has a prominent peak pair (close to the classical rainbows) and two smaller peaks pairs. We have shown that even though the semiclassical approximation is not strictly applicable it is useful for explanation of the observed behavior. In vicinity of the most prominent peak, i.e., the primary rainbow peak, rays interfere constructively. On one of its sides, rays become complex, which explains the exponential decay of the probability density in that region. On the other side, the ray interference alternates between constructive and destructive, thus generating two observed supernumerary rainbow peaks. The developed model was then applied for the explanation of the angular distributions of 1-MeV positrons transmitting through 200 nm long (7, 3), (8, 5), (9, 7), (14, 4), (16, 5) and (17, 7) SWCNTs. It has been shown that this explains most but not all rainbow patterns. Therefore, a new method for the identification and classification of quantum rainbows was developed relying only on the morphological properties of the positron wave function amplitude and the phase function families. This led to a detailed explanation of the way the quantum rainbows are generated. All wave packets wrinkle due to their internal focusing in a mutually coordinated way and are concentrated near the position of the corresponding classical rainbow. This explanation is general and applicable to the investigations of quantum effects occurring in various other atomic collision processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SPIG2018) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Capture Cross Sections and Radiative Emission-Line Strengths for Slow Ne8+ Collisions with He and H2
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 17 January 2019 / Accepted: 19 January 2019 / Published: 23 January 2019
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Abstract
The Ne8+–He and –H2 collision systems are examined at impact speeds ranging between 0.17 and 0.4 a.u. Transition probabilities for electron capture are obtained using the two-center basis generator method performed within the independent-electron model. The aim of calculating capture [...] Read more.
The Ne8+–He and –H2 collision systems are examined at impact speeds ranging between 0.17 and 0.4 a.u. Transition probabilities for electron capture are obtained using the two-center basis generator method performed within the independent-electron model. The aim of calculating capture cross sections for these collision systems is to provide new theoretical verification of previously reported experimental data and to provide aid for astrophysical X-ray studies. This study also examines the applicability of the independent-electron model with effective potentials to describe two-electron capture for these two systems. Comparisons of capture cross sections and radiative-emission counts with the available experimental and theoretical data show an overall good agreement. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Equivalent Circuit Approach for the Electrical Diagnostics of Dielectric Barrier Discharges: The Classical Theory and Recent Developments
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 23 January 2019
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Abstract
Measurements of current and voltage are the basic diagnostics for electrical discharges. However, in the case of dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs), the measured current and voltage waveforms are influenced by the discharge reactor geometry, and thus, interpretation of measured quantities is required to [...] Read more.
Measurements of current and voltage are the basic diagnostics for electrical discharges. However, in the case of dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs), the measured current and voltage waveforms are influenced by the discharge reactor geometry, and thus, interpretation of measured quantities is required to determine the discharge properties. This contribution presents the main stages of the development of electrical diagnostics of DBDs, which are based on lumped electrical elements. The compilation and revision of the contributions to the equivalent circuit approach are targeted to indicate: (1) the interconnection between the stage of development, (2) its applicability, and (3) the current state-of-the-art of this approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SPIG2018) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Influence of Nitrogen Admixture on Plasma Characteristics in a dc Argon Glow Discharge and in Afterglow
Received: 27 November 2018 / Revised: 11 January 2019 / Accepted: 14 January 2019 / Published: 19 January 2019
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Abstract
The present paper is based on the materials of the Invited Lecture presented at 29th Summer School and International Symposium on the Physics of Ionized Gases (28 August 2018–1 September 2018, Belgrade, Serbia). In the paper, the effect of nitrogen admixture on various [...] Read more.
The present paper is based on the materials of the Invited Lecture presented at 29th Summer School and International Symposium on the Physics of Ionized Gases (28 August 2018–1 September 2018, Belgrade, Serbia). In the paper, the effect of nitrogen admixture on various characteristics of a dc glow discharge in argon (the volt-ampere characteristic, rate of plasma decay in the afterglow, discharge constriction condition, and formation of a partially constricted discharge) is considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SPIG2018) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Runaway Electron Current Estimation in COMPASS Tokamak
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 5 January 2019 / Accepted: 13 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
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Abstract
Runaway electrons present a potential threat to the safe operation of future nuclear fusion large facilities based on the tokamak principle (e.g., ITER). The article presents an implementation of runaway electron current estimations at COMPASS tokamak. The method uses a theoretical method developed [...] Read more.
Runaway electrons present a potential threat to the safe operation of future nuclear fusion large facilities based on the tokamak principle (e.g., ITER). The article presents an implementation of runaway electron current estimations at COMPASS tokamak. The method uses a theoretical method developed by Fujita et al., with the difference in using experimental measurements from EFIT and Thomson scattering. The procedure was explained on the COMPASS discharge number 7298, which has a significant runaway electron population. Here, it was found that at least 4 kA of the plasma current is driven by the runaway electrons. Next, the method aws used on the set of plasma discharges with the variable electron plasma density. The difference in the plasma current was explained by runaway electrons, and their current was estimated using the aforementioned method. The experimental results are compared with the theory and simulation. The comparison presented some disagreements, showing the possible direction for the code development. Additional application on runaway electron energy limit is also addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SPIG2018) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
BEAMDB and MOLD—Databases at the Serbian Virtual Observatory for Collisional and Radiative Processes
Received: 1 December 2018 / Revised: 7 January 2019 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 14 January 2019
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Abstract
In this contribution we present a progress report on two atomic and molecular databases, BEAMDB and MolD, which are web services at the Serbian virtual observatory (SerVO) and nodes within the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Center (VAMDC). The Belgrade Electron/Atom (Molecule) DataBase [...] Read more.
In this contribution we present a progress report on two atomic and molecular databases, BEAMDB and MolD, which are web services at the Serbian virtual observatory (SerVO) and nodes within the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Center (VAMDC). The Belgrade Electron/Atom (Molecule) DataBase (BEAMDB) provides collisional data for electron interactions with atoms and molecules. The Photodissociation (MolD) database contains photo-dissociation cross sections for individual rovibrational states of diatomic molecular ions and rate coefficients for the chemi-ionisation/recombination processes. We also present a progress report on the major upgrade of these databases and plans for the future. As an example of how the data from the BEAMDB may be used, a review of electron scattering from methane is described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SPIG2018) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Stark Widths of Yb III and Lu IV Spectral Lines
Received: 2 December 2018 / Revised: 3 January 2019 / Accepted: 4 January 2019 / Published: 10 January 2019
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Abstract
Rare Earth Elements are important for stellar atmosphere analysis but the corresponding Stark broadening data are scarce. For Yb III and Lu IV theoretical as well as experimental data on Stark broadening parameters of spectral lines are absent in the literature. Using the [...] Read more.
Rare Earth Elements are important for stellar atmosphere analysis but the corresponding Stark broadening data are scarce. For Yb III and Lu IV theoretical as well as experimental data on Stark broadening parameters of spectral lines are absent in the literature. Using the modified semiempirical method of Dimitrijević and Konjević, we determined Stark widths for four Yb III and four Lu IV transitions, belonging to the erbium isoelectronic sequence. The obtained results are also used to discuss similarities between homologous transitions in the erbium isoelectronic sequence. We note as well that calculated widths will be implemented in the STARK-B database which is also a part of the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Center. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atomic and Ionic Collisions with Formation of Quasimolecules)
Open AccessArticle
The Study of Ar I and Ne I Spectral Line Shapes in the Cathode Sheath Region of an Abnormal Glow Discharge
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 31 December 2018 / Accepted: 3 January 2019 / Published: 9 January 2019
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Abstract
The cathode sheath (CS) region is the most important part of abnormal glow discharge (GD), where various processes relevant for the operation and application occur. The most important parameter of the CS is the distribution of electric field strength E which is of [...] Read more.
The cathode sheath (CS) region is the most important part of abnormal glow discharge (GD), where various processes relevant for the operation and application occur. The most important parameter of the CS is the distribution of electric field strength E which is of crucial importance for charged particles acceleration, their trajectories, kinetic energies, and collisions with other particles and cathode sputtering. All these processes are relevant for the operation of GD as well as for numerous applications in the field of spectroscopic analysis, plasma etching, thin film deposition, and depth profiling of cathode material. Thus, the importance of non-perturbing technique for E distribution measurement in the CS region was recognized long time ago. Within this article, a simple technique based on standard optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and typical laboratory equipment has been used for E mapping in the CS region of an abnormal glow discharge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SPIG2018) Printed Edition available
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