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Atoms, Volume 11, Issue 3 (March 2023) – 21 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In the beta decay of 6He to form 6Li+, anomalies in the electron–antineutrino angular correlation may signal the existence of new physics beyond the Standard Model. Additional atomic electrons may also boil off and thus upset the angular correlation. To correct for this, we calculate the charge state fractions of 6Li++ and 6Li3+. We use projection operators to isolate the fractions of 6Li++ and 6Li3+ in the positive energy region E > 0 where both charge states contribute simultaneously. The results show that 6Li2+ (single ionisation) strongly dominates over 6Li3+ (double ionisation), thereby reducing disagreements with experiment by nearly an order of magnitude. View this paper
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14 pages, 902 KiB  
Article
The Shapes of Stellar Spectra
by Carlos Allende Prieto
Atoms 2023, 11(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms11030061 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1427
Abstract
Stellar atmospheres separate the hot and dense stellar interiors from the emptiness of space. Radiation escapes from the outermost layers of a star, carrying direct physical information. Underneath the atmosphere, the very high opacity keeps radiation thermalized and resembling a black body with [...] Read more.
Stellar atmospheres separate the hot and dense stellar interiors from the emptiness of space. Radiation escapes from the outermost layers of a star, carrying direct physical information. Underneath the atmosphere, the very high opacity keeps radiation thermalized and resembling a black body with the local temperature. In the atmosphere the opacity drops, and radiative energy leaks out, which is redistributed in wavelength according to the physical processes by which matter and radiation interact, in particular photoionization. In this article, I will evaluate the role of photoionization in shaping the stellar energy distribution of stars. To that end, I employ simple, state-of-the-art plane-parallel model atmospheres and a spectral synthesis code, dissecting the effects of photoionization from different chemical elements and species, for stars of different masses in the range of 0.3 to 2 M. I examine and interpret the changes in the observed spectral energy distributions of the stars as a function of the atmospheric parameters. The photoionization of atomic hydrogen and H are the most relevant contributors to the continuum opacity in the optical and near-infrared regions, while heavier elements become important in the ultraviolet region. In the spectra of the coolest stars (spectral types M and later), the continuum shape from photoionization is no longer recognizable due to the accumulation of lines, mainly from molecules. These facts have been known for a long time, but the calculations presented provide an updated quantitative evaluation and insight into the role of photoionization on the structure of stellar atmospheres. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photoionization of Atoms)
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21 pages, 1924 KiB  
Article
Electron-Impact Excitation and Dissociation of Heavy Rare Gas Heteronuclear Ions via Transitions to Charge Transfer States
by Alexander Narits, Konstantin Kislov and Vladimir Lebedev
Atoms 2023, 11(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms11030060 - 17 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1171
Abstract
Heteronuclear diatomic rare gas molecular cations feature excited electronic terms with charge transfer character located several eV above the ground term. The role of such terms in collisions involving heteronuclear ions is studied theoretically under conditions typical of the plasma-based sources of UV [...] Read more.
Heteronuclear diatomic rare gas molecular cations feature excited electronic terms with charge transfer character located several eV above the ground term. The role of such terms in collisions involving heteronuclear ions is studied theoretically under conditions typical of the plasma-based sources of UV and IR radiation. Calculations were carried out for processes of dissociative excitation, dissociative recombination and electron impact bound–bound excitation in Ar/Xe and Kr/Xe plasmas using the recently developed semiclassical approach combined with the ab initio data for potential energy curves and oscillator strengths of electronic transitions. The approach consistently describes the contributions from the entire rovibrational manifold to the processes studied. The cross sections of the processes mentioned are calculated for wide ranges of gas temperatures and electron energies. We show that the processes considered are quite effective when they are accompanied by transitions to charge transfer terms. For the range of electron energies typical of active media of UV and IR radiation sources the cross sections exceed those reported for the processes usually considered to involve transitions between the ground and first excited electronic state. The excitation of charge transfer electronic terms can play an important role in the kinetics of rare gas mixture plasmas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Spectroscopy and Collisions)
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6 pages, 1780 KiB  
Obituary
Werner Eissner (1930–2022): A Pioneer in Computational Atomic Physics
by Anand K. Bhatia, Anthony E. Lynas-Gray, Claudio Mendoza, Sultana Nahar, Harry Nussbaumer, Anil K. Pradhan, Anthony M. Seaton, Günter Wunner and Claude J. Zeippen
Atoms 2023, 11(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms11030059 - 17 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1155
Abstract
Werner Eissner (Figure 1), a pioneer in computational atomic physics, was born on 16 October 1930 in the city of Görlitz, Germany, to Bernhard and Frieda (née Eckert) Eissner [...] Full article
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15 pages, 1634 KiB  
Article
Hypersatellite Kα Production in Trapped Ar Ions at KK Trielectronic Recombination Energies
by Weronika Biela-Nowaczyk, Pedro Amaro, Filipe Grilo, David S. La Mantia, John Tanis and Andrzej Warczak
Atoms 2023, 11(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms11030058 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1150
Abstract
We report measurements of hypersatellite radiation of argon ions in the electron energy region of 5200 eV to 7500 eV. Here, we observed a strong enhancement of this hypersatellite Kαh production. Trielectronic recombination (TR) is discussed as a possible channel for [...] Read more.
We report measurements of hypersatellite radiation of argon ions in the electron energy region of 5200 eV to 7500 eV. Here, we observed a strong enhancement of this hypersatellite Kαh production. Trielectronic recombination (TR) is discussed as a possible channel for Kαh production leading to this enhancement where main TR resonances are expected to occur. Data analysis was mainly based on the extracted intensity ratio of hypersatellite Kαh to Kα lines (Kαh/Kα). In addition, the collisional excitation and the collisional ionisation of the K-shell ions were modeled as main background processes of the Kα X-ray production. The Kαh/Kα intensity ratio shows a significant rise around 6500 eV electron energy by a factor of about two above the background level. This observation is compared with calculations of the expected electron energies for the resonant Kαh emission due to the KK TR process. The observed rise as a function of the electron collision energy, which occurs in the vicinity of the predicted TR resonances, is significantly stronger and energetically much wider than the results of theoretical calculations for the TR process. However, the experimental evidence of this process is not definitive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Spectroscopy and Collisions)
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8 pages, 710 KiB  
Communication
Identification of Visible Lines in Pm-like W13+
by Priti, Kota Inadome, Mayuko Funabashi, Nobuyuki Nakamura, Hiroyuki A. Sakaue, Izumi Murakami and Daiji Kato
Atoms 2023, 11(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms11030057 - 13 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1309
Abstract
To provide spectroscopic data for W13+, the present work is focused on the analysis of spectra observed in the visible range, using a compact electron beam ion trap (CoBIT). Line identification is done by using a collisional radiative model, along [...] Read more.
To provide spectroscopic data for W13+, the present work is focused on the analysis of spectra observed in the visible range, using a compact electron beam ion trap (CoBIT). Line identification is done by using a collisional radiative model, along with sophisticated structure calculations from FAC and GRASP2018. Most of the identified lines belong to magnetic dipole (M1) transitions between the levels of the 4f125p1 and 4f13 configurations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 20th International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions)
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10 pages, 2734 KiB  
Communication
Searching for Systems with Planar Hexacoordinate Carbons
by Diego Inostroza, Luis Leyva-Parra, Osvaldo Yañez, José Solar-Encinas, Alejandro Vásquez-Espinal, Maria Luisa Valenzuela and William Tiznado
Atoms 2023, 11(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms11030056 - 13 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1834
Abstract
Here, we present evidence that the D2h M2C50/2+ (M = Li-K, Be-Ca, Al-In, and Zn) species comprises planar hexacoordinate carbon (phC) structures that exhibit four covalent and two electrostatic interactions. These findings have been made possible using evolutionary [...] Read more.
Here, we present evidence that the D2h M2C50/2+ (M = Li-K, Be-Ca, Al-In, and Zn) species comprises planar hexacoordinate carbon (phC) structures that exhibit four covalent and two electrostatic interactions. These findings have been made possible using evolutionary methods for exploring the potential energy surface (AUTOMATON program) and the Interacting Quantum Atoms (IQA) methodology, which support the observed bonding interactions. It is worth noting, however, that these structures are not the global minimum. Nonetheless, incorporating two cyclopentadienyl anion ligands (Cp) into the CaC52+ system has enhanced the relative stability of the phC isomer. Moreover, cycloparaphenylene ([8]CPP) provides system protection and kinetic stability. These results indicate that using appropriate ligands presents a promising approach for expanding the chemistry of phC species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Planar Tetracoordinate Carbon—Fifty Years and Beyond)
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15 pages, 472 KiB  
Article
Positron Scattering from Pyrimidine
by Abhishek Prashant, Meetu Luthra, Kanupriya Goswami, Anand Bharadvaja and Kasturi Lal Baluja
Atoms 2023, 11(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms11030055 - 10 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1149
Abstract
The positron impact cross-sections of pyrimidine molecules are reported from 1 eV to 5000 eV. These cross-sections include differential elastic, integral elastic, and direct ionisation. The elastic cross-sections are computed using the single-centre expansion scheme whereas the direct ionisation cross-sections are obtained using [...] Read more.
The positron impact cross-sections of pyrimidine molecules are reported from 1 eV to 5000 eV. These cross-sections include differential elastic, integral elastic, and direct ionisation. The elastic cross-sections are computed using the single-centre expansion scheme whereas the direct ionisation cross-sections are obtained using the binary-encounter-Bethe formula. The integral and differential cross-sections exhibit consistency with the experimental and other theoretical results. The direct ionisation cross-sections, which are reported for the first time, are compared with the experimental inelastic cross-sections (the sum of excitation and ionisation) to assess the trends in theoretically computed ionisation cross-sections and with the corresponding results for the electrons. The incoherently summed elastic and ionisation cross-sections match very well with the total cross-sections after 40 eV indicating the minimal impact of the positronium formation and electronic excitation processes. Based on this study, we recommend that the experimental data of the inelastic cross-sections reported by Palihawadana et al. be revisited. Full article
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27 pages, 3766 KiB  
Review
Photoionization and Electron–Ion Recombination in Astrophysical Plasmas
by D. John Hillier
Atoms 2023, 11(3), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms11030054 - 9 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1682
Abstract
Photoionization and its inverse, electron–ion recombination, are key processes that influence many astrophysical plasmas (and gasses), and the diagnostics that we use to analyze the plasmas. In this review we provide a brief overview of the importance of photoionization and recombination in astrophysics. [...] Read more.
Photoionization and its inverse, electron–ion recombination, are key processes that influence many astrophysical plasmas (and gasses), and the diagnostics that we use to analyze the plasmas. In this review we provide a brief overview of the importance of photoionization and recombination in astrophysics. We highlight how the data needed for spectral analyses, and the required accuracy, varies considerably in different astrophysical environments. We then discuss photoionization processes, highlighting resonances in their cross-sections. Next we discuss radiative recombination, and low and high temperature dielectronic recombination. The possible suppression of low temperature dielectronic recombination (LTDR) and high temperature dielectronic recombination (HTDR) due to the radiation field and high densities is discussed. Finally we discuss a few astrophysical examples to highlight photoionization and recombination processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photoionization of Atoms)
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23 pages, 5041 KiB  
Article
Review of the NPA Diagnostic Application at Globus-M/M2
by Nikolai N. Bakharev, Andrey D. Melnik and Fedor V. Chernyshev
Atoms 2023, 11(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms11030053 - 7 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1311
Abstract
The application of a neutral particle analyzer (NPA) diagnostic at the Globus-M/M2 spherical tokamaks is discussed. Physical principles of the diagnostic are reviewed. Two general approaches—active and passive measurements—are described. Examples of NPA application for the ion temperature and isotope composition measurements are [...] Read more.
The application of a neutral particle analyzer (NPA) diagnostic at the Globus-M/M2 spherical tokamaks is discussed. Physical principles of the diagnostic are reviewed. Two general approaches—active and passive measurements—are described. Examples of NPA application for the ion temperature and isotope composition measurements are presented. NPA-aided studies of the energetic ions in the MHD-free discharges, as well as in the experiments with sawtooth oscillations and toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes, are considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neutral Atoms in Controlled Fusion and Space Plasmas)
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12 pages, 439 KiB  
Review
Photoionization and Opacity
by Anil Pradhan
Atoms 2023, 11(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms11030052 - 6 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1195
Abstract
Opacity determines radiation transport through material media. In a plasma source, the primary contributors to atomic opacity are bound–bound line transitions and bound-free photoionization into the continuum. We review the theoretical methodology for state-of-the-art photoionization calculations based on the R-matrix method as employed [...] Read more.
Opacity determines radiation transport through material media. In a plasma source, the primary contributors to atomic opacity are bound–bound line transitions and bound-free photoionization into the continuum. We review the theoretical methodology for state-of-the-art photoionization calculations based on the R-matrix method as employed in the Opacity Project, the Iron Project, and solution of the heretofore unsolved problem of plasma broadening of autoionizing resonances due to electron impact, Stark (electric microfields), Doppler (thermal), and core-excitations. R-matrix opacity calculations entail huge amount of atomic data and calculations of unprecedented complexity. It is shown that in high-energy-density (HED) plasmas, photoionization cross sections become 3-D energy–temperature–density-dependent owing to considerable attenuation of autoionizing resonance profiles. Hence, differential oscillator strengths and monochromatic opacities are redistributed in energy. Consequently, Rosseland and Planck mean opacities are affected significantly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photoionization of Atoms)
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23 pages, 1784 KiB  
Article
Characterization of a Continuous Beam Cold Atom Ramsey Interferometer
by Michael P. Manicchia, Jeffrey G. Lee and Frank A. Narducci
Atoms 2023, 11(3), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms11030051 - 5 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1663
Abstract
The use of atom interferometers in inertial systems holds the promise of improvement of several orders of magnitude in sensitivity over sensors using current technology such as micro-electro-mechanical (MEMS) devices or ring laser gyroscopes (RLGs). This paper describes the construction and characterization of [...] Read more.
The use of atom interferometers in inertial systems holds the promise of improvement of several orders of magnitude in sensitivity over sensors using current technology such as micro-electro-mechanical (MEMS) devices or ring laser gyroscopes (RLGs). This paper describes the construction and characterization of an atomic interferometry system for eventual use in a dual-atom-beam accelerometer/gyroscope sensor. In contrast with current state-of-the-art atomic sensors which use pulsed cold atom sources and pulsed laser beams, the investigated apparatus relies purely on continuous atomic and laser beams. These differences can result in a sensor with reduced complexity, a smaller physical footprint, and reduced power consumption. However, these differences also introduce challenges resulting from laser and atomic beam divergences and from velocity averaging due to both longitudinal and transverse velocity spreads. In this work, we characterize our rubidium-based atom beam system and show that Ramsey-style interference can still be observed. The implications for future research are also outlined and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in and Prospects for Matter Wave Interferometry)
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15 pages, 1524 KiB  
Article
Radiative Recombination Plasma Rate Coefficients for Multiply Charged Ions
by Stephan Fritzsche, Anna V. Maiorova and Zhongwen Wu
Atoms 2023, 11(3), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms11030050 - 4 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1439
Abstract
Radiative recombination (RR) plasma rate coefficients are often applied to estimate electron densities and temperatures under quite different plasma conditions. Despite their frequent use, however, these rate coefficients are available only for selected (few-electron) ions and isoelectronic sequences, mainly because of the computational [...] Read more.
Radiative recombination (RR) plasma rate coefficients are often applied to estimate electron densities and temperatures under quite different plasma conditions. Despite their frequent use, however, these rate coefficients are available only for selected (few-electron) ions and isoelectronic sequences, mainly because of the computational efforts required. To overcome this limitation, we report here a (relativistic) cascade model which helps compute fine-structure and shell-resolved as well as total RR plasma rate coefficients for many, if not most, elements of the periodic table. This model is based on Jac, the Jena Atomic Calculator, and supports studies on how the electron is captured in selected levels of the recombined ion, a relativistic (Maxwellian) electron distribution, or how the multipoles beyond the electric-dipole field in the electron-photon interaction affect the RR rate coefficients and, hence, the ionization and recombination dynamics of hot plasma. As a demonstration of this model, we compute, compare, and discuss different RR plasma rate coefficients for initially helium-like ions, with an emphasis especially on Fe24+ ions. Full article
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8 pages, 475 KiB  
Communication
Electron Emission Cross Section from Methane under 250 keV Proton Impact
by Debasmita Chakraborty, László Gulyás and Lokesh C. Tribedi
Atoms 2023, 11(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms11030049 - 4 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1084
Abstract
We measure double differential cross sections (DDCS) of electrons emitted from CH4 molecules in collisions with 250 keV protons. The projectile ions are obtained from a 400 kV electron cyclotron resonance-based ion accelerator (ECRIA). We study the energy and angular distributions of [...] Read more.
We measure double differential cross sections (DDCS) of electrons emitted from CH4 molecules in collisions with 250 keV protons. The projectile ions are obtained from a 400 kV electron cyclotron resonance-based ion accelerator (ECRIA). We study the energy and angular distributions of the electron DDCS. The observed double and single differential and the total cross section are compared with the state-of-the-art continuum distorted wave eikonal initial state (CDW-EIS) model predictions. Two different approaches are used considering the different target descriptions: complete neglect of differential overlap (CNDO) and molecular orbital (MO) approximations. The MO model uses two different scaling parameters (d = 0.7 and 1.0). In the energy distribution of the DDCS, the carbon KLL Auger line is also observed at 240 eV. The single differential cross section (SDCS) and total cross section (TCS) are derived. Both the MO-based CDW-EIS models are in good agreement with the experimental results; however, the CNDO approach overestimates the data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 20th International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions)
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7 pages, 400 KiB  
Article
Background and Blended Spectral Line Reduction in Precision Spectroscopy of EUV and X-ray Transitions in Highly Charged Ions
by Adam Hosier, Dipti, Yang Yang, Paul Szypryt, Grant P. Mondeel, Aung Naing, Joseph N. Tan, Roshani Silwal, Galen O’Neil, Alain Lapierre, Steven A. Blundell, John D. Gillaspy, Gerald Gwinner, Antonio C. C. Villari, Yuri Ralchenko and Endre Takacs
Atoms 2023, 11(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms11030048 - 3 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1442
Abstract
Extreme ultraviolet spectra of Na-like and Mg-like Os and Ir were recorded at the National Institute of Standards and Technology using a grazing incidence spectrometer. We report a method in EBIT spectral analysis that reduces signals from contaminant lines of known or unknown [...] Read more.
Extreme ultraviolet spectra of Na-like and Mg-like Os and Ir were recorded at the National Institute of Standards and Technology using a grazing incidence spectrometer. We report a method in EBIT spectral analysis that reduces signals from contaminant lines of known or unknown origin. We utilize similar ion charge distributions of heavy highly charged ions that create similar potentials for lighter contaminating background elements. First-order approximations to ion distributions are presented to demonstrate differences between impurity elements with and without heavy ions present. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 20th International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions)
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13 pages, 1703 KiB  
Article
Rigorous Negative Ion Binding Energies in Low-Energy Electron Elastic Collisions with Heavy Multi-Electron Atoms and Fullerene Molecules: Validation of Electron Affinities
by Alfred Z. Msezane and Zineb Felfli
Atoms 2023, 11(3), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms11030047 - 3 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1130
Abstract
Dramatically sharp resonances manifesting stable negative ion formation characterize Regge pole-calculated low-energy electron elastic total cross sections (TCSs) of heavy multi-electron systems. The novelty of the Regge pole analysis is in the extraction of rigorous and unambiguous negative ion binding energies (BEs), corresponding [...] Read more.
Dramatically sharp resonances manifesting stable negative ion formation characterize Regge pole-calculated low-energy electron elastic total cross sections (TCSs) of heavy multi-electron systems. The novelty of the Regge pole analysis is in the extraction of rigorous and unambiguous negative ion binding energies (BEs), corresponding to the measured electron affinities (EAs) of the investigated multi-electron systems. The measured EAs have engendered the crucial question: is the EA of multi-electron atoms and fullerene molecules identified with the BE of the attached electron in the ground, metastable or excited state of the formed negative ion during a collision? Inconsistencies in the meaning of the measured EAs are elucidated and new EA values for Bk, Cf, Fm, and Lr are presented. Full article
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10 pages, 3117 KiB  
Communication
Interaction of Electrons and Positrons with Protons Aligned in One-Dimension Line
by Musab S. Al-Ajaleen and Károly Tőkési
Atoms 2023, 11(3), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms11030046 - 3 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1140
Abstract
We present theoretical studies of electron and positron interaction with protons aligned in a one-dimension periodic line. The equally spaced protons were artificially generated where the individual protons are fixed in a certain position. The incident energies were 500 eV and 1000 eV. [...] Read more.
We present theoretical studies of electron and positron interaction with protons aligned in a one-dimension periodic line. The equally spaced protons were artificially generated where the individual protons are fixed in a certain position. The incident energies were 500 eV and 1000 eV. The electron and positron trajectories passing through these periodic multiple scattering objects were calculated using a classical trajectory Monte Carlo method. We show that this proton configuration has focusing and defocusing properties depending on the certain initial conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interaction of Electrons with Atoms, Molecules and Surfaces)
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17 pages, 371 KiB  
Viewpoint
EUV Beam–Foil Spectra of Germanium and a Blind-Spot Problem in Spectroscopy
by Elmar Träbert
Atoms 2023, 11(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms11030045 - 2 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1324
Abstract
Beam–foil extreme-ultraviolet survey spectra of Ge (Z=32) are presented. The data have been garnered at the performance limit of the heavy-ion accelerator available, with a correspondingly limited statistical and calibrational reliability. However, the Ge spectra have been recorded at [...] Read more.
Beam–foil extreme-ultraviolet survey spectra of Ge (Z=32) are presented. The data have been garnered at the performance limit of the heavy-ion accelerator available, with a correspondingly limited statistical and calibrational reliability. However, the Ge spectra have been recorded at various delays after excitation, and this technique points to a possible blind spot in some other spectroscopic techniques, and thus in the literature coverage. A similarly patchy coverage can be noted in various atomic structure computations. The experimental and theoretical gaps seem to be correlated. Full article
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7 pages, 4182 KiB  
Article
Determination of Electron Beam Energy in Measuring the Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section of He-like Fe24+
by Yang Yang, Dipti, Amy Gall, Galen O’Neil, Paul Szypryt, Adam Hosier, Adam Foster, Aung Naing, Joseph N. Tan, David R. Schultz, Randall Smith, Nancy Brickhouse, Yuri Ralchenko and Endre Takacs
Atoms 2023, 11(3), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms11030044 - 1 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1513
Abstract
In an effort to measure electron-impact ionization (EII) cross-sections of He-like Fe24+ at the electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), we have experimentally determined the corrections to the nominal beam energy [...] Read more.
In an effort to measure electron-impact ionization (EII) cross-sections of He-like Fe24+ at the electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), we have experimentally determined the corrections to the nominal beam energy determined by the voltages applied to the EBIT. High-resolution X-ray spectra were recorded at nominal electron beam energies between 6660 eV and 6750 eV using X-ray microcalorimetry based upon an array of 192 transition-edge sensors (TES). A large-scale collisional-radiative simulation of the non-Maxwellian EBIT plasma using relevant atomic data calculated with Flexible Atomic Code allowed us to determine the space-charge correction due to the electron beam including the neutralization factor by the ion cloud of the EBIT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 20th International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions)
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7 pages, 784 KiB  
Article
Analysis of E3 Transitions in Ag-like High-Z Ions Observed with the NIST EBIT
by Endre Takacs, Dipti, David S. La Mantia, Yang Yang, Adam Hosier, Aung Naing, Paul Szypryt, Hunter Staiger, Joseph N. Tan and Yuri Ralchenko
Atoms 2023, 11(3), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms11030043 - 1 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1320
Abstract
We report measurements and identification of the E3 4f7/2,5/2-5s1/2 transitions and E1 allowed transitions in Ag-like W (Z = 74), Re (Z = 75), and Ir (Z = 77). The spectra were [...] Read more.
We report measurements and identification of the E3 4f7/2,5/2-5s1/2 transitions and E1 allowed transitions in Ag-like W (Z = 74), Re (Z = 75), and Ir (Z = 77). The spectra were recorded at the NIST EBIT using a grazing-incidence EUV spectrometer. The present measured wavelengths and theoretical predictions using GRASP2K calculations confirm previous observations of the same E3 transitions in Ag-like W. Our collisional–radiative model using the NOMAD code offers an insight into the population kinematics for Ag-like ions of heavy elements. We discuss the observed spectra and comparisons of the measured and simulated spectral lines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 20th International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions)
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13 pages, 801 KiB  
Article
Quantum Fisher Information of Three-Level Atom under the Influence of the Stark Effect and Intrinsic Dechorence
by S. Jamal Anwar, M. Ramzan and M. Khalid Khan
Atoms 2023, 11(3), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms11030042 - 28 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1183
Abstract
We study the dynamical evolution of quantum Fisher information (QFI) and von Neumann entropy (VNE) for a three-level atomic system interacting with the single-mode coherent field in the presence of the Stark effect and intrinsic decoherence (ID) with and without atomic motion. The [...] Read more.
We study the dynamical evolution of quantum Fisher information (QFI) and von Neumann entropy (VNE) for a three-level atomic system interacting with the single-mode coherent field in the presence of the Stark effect and intrinsic decoherence (ID) with and without atomic motion. The effect of the ID is significant on the VNE and QFI for a three-level atom in the absence of atomic motion. It is observed that in the case of a three-level atomic system in the presence of ID, the decay of QFI and VNE is rapid and significant but no prominent effect of the Stark effect is observed. Hence, for a three-level atom, the decay of quantum entanglement (QE) with respect to time is very fast and rapid in the absence of atomic motion with an increasing value of ID. Moreover, ID is not suitable to maintain the QE for three-level atomic systems in the absence of atomic motion. The Stark effect has no significant effect on the QE. In the case of three-level atoms, ID and the Stark do not affect the periodic nature of QFI and VNE with time evolution in the presence of atomic motion. The periodic response of QFI and VNE is observed under the effect of the Stark effect and ID in the presence of a motion of a three-level atom. The QE sudden death and birth is observed in the presence of atomic motion. Therefore, the ID with the Stark effect is suitable to sustain and maintain the QE in the presence of atomic motion for three-level atomic systems. These results show the strong dependence of QFI and VNE on the Stark effect and ID. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Atom Based Quantum Technology)
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14 pages, 1413 KiB  
Article
Charge-State Distributions after Beta Decay of 6He to Form 6Li+
by Aaron T. Bondy and Gordon W. F. Drake
Atoms 2023, 11(3), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms11030041 - 23 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1505
Abstract
The shake-off processes and charge-state fractions of 6Li+, 6Li++, and 6Li3+ were studied following the beta decay of 6He in the 1s21S0, [...] Read more.
The shake-off processes and charge-state fractions of 6Li+, 6Li++, and 6Li3+ were studied following the beta decay of 6He in the 1s21S0, 1s2s1S0, and 1s2s3S1 initial states. The sudden approximation was used, together with fully correlated Hylleraas wave functions and pseudostates. A projection operator method was introduced to separate the charge-state fractions in the positive energy region of overlapping continua. The results show that 6Li++ (single-ionisation) remains dominant, even in the energy range E>0, where the formation of 6Li3+ (double-ionisation) is energetically allowed. The results reduce disagreements with the experiment for the fraction of 6Li3+ by nearly an order of magnitude, but substantial disagreements remain that are inconsistent with the sudden approximation widely used in other similar work. Full article
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