The Fundamental Role of Precision Atomic-Physics Measurements in Modern Science

A special issue of Atoms (ISSN 2218-2004).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 September 2023) | Viewed by 13818

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Physics, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409, USA
Interests: quantum field theory and atomic systems; relativistic quantum dynamic processes in high-power laser fields; novel states of the light field (twisted photons); computational physics and related algorithms; renormalization group and critical phenomena; general relativity and relativistic quantum mechanics
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Guest Editor
Atomic Spectroscopy Group, Physical Measurement Laboratory, Quantum Measurement Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, 20899-8422, USA
Interests: atomic spectroscopy—critical evaluation of experimental and theoretical data on energy structure and radiative transitions in atoms and atomic ions; atomic spectroscopy databases
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Atomic physics is presently the most precise science available to humankind. We all know that the time standard is presently defined by an atomic transition, which became possible as a result of high-precision measurements. Further improvement of experimental precision, which is now entangled with high-precision theory, may lead to breakthroughs in our understanding of fundamental principles of nature, e.g., answer the question of whether fundamental constants are really constant in time, provide insights into existence of hitherto undiscovered new forces, tackle the properties of dark matter, and shed light on the evolution of our Universe. Precise measurements may also open new avenues in technology and applied sciences, e.g., atomic clocks can be used in geodesy and improve precision of GPS, while precise measurements of some atomic systems may help to develop quantum computers.

This Special Issue will include original and review papers on high-precision atomic measurements and related theory with a focus on inter-science connections, prospects of new applications, and description of the most important problems in the way of improvement of precision. Aspects of nuclear, molecular and optical physics directly related to atomic physics may also be discussed in the submitted articles but should not be the main topic, which should be atomic physics.

Prof. Dr. Ulrich D. Jentschura
Dr. Alexander Kramida
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • atomic structure
  • frequency measurement
  • atomic clocks
  • nuclear clocks
  • transition rates
  • variation of fundamental constants
  • new forces of nature

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 1413 KiB  
Article
Charge-State Distributions after Beta Decay of 6He to Form 6Li+
by Aaron T. Bondy and Gordon W. F. Drake
Atoms 2023, 11(3), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms11030041 - 23 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1398
Abstract
The shake-off processes and charge-state fractions of 6Li+, 6Li++, and 6Li3+ were studied following the beta decay of 6He in the 1s21S0, [...] Read more.
The shake-off processes and charge-state fractions of 6Li+, 6Li++, and 6Li3+ were studied following the beta decay of 6He in the 1s21S0, 1s2s1S0, and 1s2s3S1 initial states. The sudden approximation was used, together with fully correlated Hylleraas wave functions and pseudostates. A projection operator method was introduced to separate the charge-state fractions in the positive energy region of overlapping continua. The results show that 6Li++ (single-ionisation) remains dominant, even in the energy range E>0, where the formation of 6Li3+ (double-ionisation) is energetically allowed. The results reduce disagreements with the experiment for the fraction of 6Li3+ by nearly an order of magnitude, but substantial disagreements remain that are inconsistent with the sudden approximation widely used in other similar work. Full article
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12 pages, 519 KiB  
Article
Deep Laser Cooling of Thulium Atoms to Sub-µK Temperatures in Magneto-Optical Trap
by Daniil Provorchenko, Dmitry Tregubov, Denis Mishin, Mikhail Yaushev, Denis Kryuchkov, Vadim Sorokin, Ksenia Khabarova, Artem Golovizin and Nikolay Kolachevsky
Atoms 2023, 11(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms11020030 - 05 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1429
Abstract
Deep laser cooling of atoms, ions, and molecules facilitates the study of fundamental physics as well as applied research. In this work, we report on the narrow-line laser cooling of thulium atoms at the wavelength of 506.2nm with the natural linewidth of [...] Read more.
Deep laser cooling of atoms, ions, and molecules facilitates the study of fundamental physics as well as applied research. In this work, we report on the narrow-line laser cooling of thulium atoms at the wavelength of 506.2nm with the natural linewidth of 7.8kHz, which widens the limits of atomic cloud parameters control. Temperatures of about 400nK, phase-space density of up to 3.5×104 and 2×106 number of trapped atoms were achieved. We have also demonstrated formation of double cloud structure in an optical lattice by adjusting parameters of the 506.2nm magneto-optical trap. These results can be used to improve experiments with BEC, atomic interferometers, and optical clocks. Full article
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16 pages, 588 KiB  
Article
Implications of W-Boson Mass Anomaly for Atomic Parity Violation
by Hoang Bao Tran Tan and Andrei Derevianko
Atoms 2022, 10(4), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms10040149 - 09 Dec 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1392
Abstract
We consider the implications of the recent measurement of the W-boson mass MW=80,433.5±9.4MeV/c2 for atomic parity violation experiments. We show that the change in MW shifts the Standard Model prediction for the 133 [...] Read more.
We consider the implications of the recent measurement of the W-boson mass MW=80,433.5±9.4MeV/c2 for atomic parity violation experiments. We show that the change in MW shifts the Standard Model prediction for the 133Cs nuclear weak charge to QW(133Cs)=73.11(1), i.e., by 8.5σ from its current value, and the proton weak charge by 2.7%. The shift in QW(133Cs) ameliorates the tension between existing determinations of its value and motivates more accurate atomic theory calculations, while the shift in QW(p) inspires next-generation atomic parity violation experiments with hydrogen. Using our revised value for QW(133Cs), we also readjust constraints on parameters of physics beyond the Standard Model. Finally, we reexamine the running of the electroweak coupling for the new W boson mass. Full article
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17 pages, 338 KiB  
Article
On Photoeffect in the Few-Electron Atomic Systems
by Alexei M. Frolov
Atoms 2022, 10(4), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms10040126 - 01 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1014
Abstract
Closed analytical formulas are derived for the differential and total cross sections of the non-relativistic photoelectric effect in the three main classes of few-electron atomic systems: (a) neutral atoms and positively charged atomic ions which contain more than one bound electron, (b) negatively [...] Read more.
Closed analytical formulas are derived for the differential and total cross sections of the non-relativistic photoelectric effect in the three main classes of few-electron atomic systems: (a) neutral atoms and positively charged atomic ions which contain more than one bound electron, (b) negatively charged atomic ions, and (c) one-electron atoms and ions. Our procedure developed in this study is a combination of QED methods and results of the density functional theory obtained for atoms and ions. In all these systems the photoelectric effect is considered as photodetachment of the outer-most electron and our analysis is based on the results of density functional theory obtained for the electron density (radial) distribution in these atomic systems. Analytical formulas (similar to ours) for the differential and total cross sections of photoelectric effect for atomic systems from classes (a) and (b) contribute to our understanding of these systems and have not appeared in the literature, to the best of our knowledge. Full article
13 pages, 1176 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Polarizability of the 85Rb 5D3/2-State in 1064 nm Light
by Alisher Duspayev, Ryan Cardman and Georg Raithel
Atoms 2022, 10(4), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms10040117 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1590
Abstract
We report a measurement of the dynamic (ac) scalar polarizability of the 5D3/2 state in 85Rb atoms at a laser wavelength of 1064 nm. Contrary to a recent measurement in Phys. Rev. A 104, 063304 (2021), the experiments [...] Read more.
We report a measurement of the dynamic (ac) scalar polarizability of the 5D3/2 state in 85Rb atoms at a laser wavelength of 1064 nm. Contrary to a recent measurement in Phys. Rev. A 104, 063304 (2021), the experiments are performed in a low-intensity regime in which the ac shift is less than the 5D3/2 state’s hyperfine structure, as utilized in numerous experiments with cold, trapped atoms. The extracted ac polarizability is α5D3/2=499±59 a.u., within the uncertainty of the aforementioned previous result. The calibration of the 1064 nm light intensity, performed by analyzing light shifts of the D1 line, is the main source of uncertainty. Our results are useful for applications of the Rb 5D3/2 state in metrology, quantum sensing, and fundamental-physics research on Rydberg atoms and molecules. Full article
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14 pages, 656 KiB  
Article
Long-Range Interactions for Hydrogen Atoms in Excited D States
by Chandra M. Adhikari and Ulrich D. Jentschura
Atoms 2022, 10(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms10010006 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3019
Abstract
Pressure shifts inside an atomic beam are among the more theoretically challenging effects in high-precision measurements of atomic transitions. A crucial element in their theoretical analysis is the understanding of long-range interatomic interactions inside the beam. For excited reference states, the presence of [...] Read more.
Pressure shifts inside an atomic beam are among the more theoretically challenging effects in high-precision measurements of atomic transitions. A crucial element in their theoretical analysis is the understanding of long-range interatomic interactions inside the beam. For excited reference states, the presence of quasi-degenerate states leads to additional challenges, due to the necessity to diagonalize large matrices in the quasi-degenerate hyperfine manifolds. Here, we focus on the interactions of hydrogen atoms in reference states composed of an excited nD state (atom A), and in the metastable 2S state (atom B). We devote special attention to the cases n=3 and n=8. For n=3, the main effect is generated by quasi-degenerate virtual P states from both atoms A and B and leads to experimentally relevant second-order long-range (van-der-Waals) interactions proportional to the sixth inverse power of the interatomic distance. For n=8, in addition to virtual states with two states of P symmetry, one needs to take into account combined virtual P and F states from atoms A and B. The numerical value of the so-called C6 coefficients multiplying the interaction energy was found to grow with the principal quantum number of the reference D state; it was found to be of the order of 1011 in atomic units. The result allows for the calculation of the pressure shift inside atomic beams while driving transitions to nD states. Full article
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9 pages, 624 KiB  
Article
Magic Wavelengths for 1SnS and 2SnS Transitions in Hydrogenlike Systems
by Chandra M. Adhikari, Jonathan C. Canales, Thusitha P. W. Arthanayaka and Ulrich D. Jentschura
Atoms 2022, 10(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms10010001 - 22 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2664
Abstract
We study the magic wavelength for two-photon 1SnS transitions in a hydrogen and deuterium atom, as well as 2SnS transitions, where the lower level is the metastable 2S state. At the magic wavelength, the [...] Read more.
We study the magic wavelength for two-photon 1SnS transitions in a hydrogen and deuterium atom, as well as 2SnS transitions, where the lower level is the metastable 2S state. At the magic wavelength, the dynamic Stark shifts of the ground and the excited state of the transition coincide, so that the transition frequency is independent of the intensity of the trapping laser field. Experimentally feasible magic wavelengths of transitions with small slopes in the atomic polarizabilities are determined; these are the most stable magic wavelengths against variations of the laser frequency. We provide data for the magic wavelengths for the 1SnS and 2SnS transitions in hydrogen and deuterium, with n=2,,8. We also analyze the stability of the elimination of the ac Stark shift at the magic wavelength against tiny variations of the trapping laser frequency from the magic value. Full article
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