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Sci. Pharm., Volume 87, Issue 3 (September 2019)

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Open AccessReview
Nanoemulsion: A Review on Mechanisms for the Transdermal Delivery of Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Drugs
Sci. Pharm. 2019, 87(3), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm87030017
Received: 1 June 2019 / Revised: 29 June 2019 / Accepted: 9 July 2019 / Published: 12 July 2019
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Abstract
Nanoemulsions (NEs) are colloidal dispersions of two immiscible liquids, oil and water, in which one is dispersed in the other with the aid of a surfactant/co-surfactant mixture, either forming oil-in-water (o/w) or water-in-oil (w/o) nanodroplets systems, with droplets 20–200 nm in size. NEs [...] Read more.
Nanoemulsions (NEs) are colloidal dispersions of two immiscible liquids, oil and water, in which one is dispersed in the other with the aid of a surfactant/co-surfactant mixture, either forming oil-in-water (o/w) or water-in-oil (w/o) nanodroplets systems, with droplets 20–200 nm in size. NEs are easy to prepare and upscale, and they show high variability in their components. They have proven to be very viable, non-invasive, and cost-effective nanocarriers for the enhanced transdermal delivery of a wide range of active compounds that tend to metabolize heavily or suffer from undesirable side effects when taken orally. In addition, the anti-microbial and anti-viral properties of NE components, leading to preservative-free formulations, make NE a very attractive approach for transdermal drug delivery. This review focuses on how NEs mechanistically deliver both lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs through skin layers to reach the blood stream, exerting the desired therapeutic effect. It highlights the mechanisms and strategies executed to effectively deliver drugs, both with o/w and w/o NE types, through the transdermal way. However, the mechanisms reported in the literature are highly diverse, to the extent that a definite mechanism is not conclusive. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Preliminary Study: Purple Sweet Potato Extract Seems to Be Superior to Increase the Migration of Impaired Endothelial Progenitor Cells Compared to l-Ascorbic Acid
Sci. Pharm. 2019, 87(3), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm87030016
Received: 9 May 2019 / Revised: 25 June 2019 / Accepted: 28 June 2019 / Published: 3 July 2019
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Abstract
Impairment of the endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) ability to proliferate and migrate in the patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) is partly caused by oxidative stress. This research evaluates the effect of treatment with Ipomoea batatas L./purple sweet potato (PSP) extract and l [...] Read more.
Impairment of the endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) ability to proliferate and migrate in the patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) is partly caused by oxidative stress. This research evaluates the effect of treatment with Ipomoea batatas L./purple sweet potato (PSP) extract and l-ascorbic acid on the proliferation and migration of impaired EPCs. EPCs were isolated from CHD patient’s peripheral blood. EPCs culture were cultivated and divided into control (untreated), PSP extract treatment (dose 1 and 25 μg/mL), and l-ascorbic acid treatment (dose 10 and 250 μg/mL) groups for 48 h. EPCs proliferation was analyzed with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell proliferation assay, and migration was evaluated with the cell migration assay kit. Statistical tests were evaluated using SPSS 25.0. This research showed that EPCs proliferation and migration was significantly higher in all PSP extract and l-ascorbic acid treatment compared to the control (p < 0.001). EPCs migration on treatment with a PSP extract dose of 25 μg/mL was significantly higher compared to the treatment with l-ascorbic acid dose of 250 μg/mL (303,000 ± 1000 compared to 215,000 ± 3000 cells, p< 0.001). In conclusion, both treatments with PSP extract and l-ascorbic acid can improve the proliferation and migration of impaired EPCs. At the dose of 25 μg/mL, PSP extract seems to be superior to the l-ascorbic acid dose of 250 μg/mL to improve EPCs migration. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Current Approaches to Use Cyclodextrins and Mucoadhesive Polymers in Ocular Drug Delivery—A Mini-Review
Sci. Pharm. 2019, 87(3), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm87030015
Received: 28 May 2019 / Revised: 18 June 2019 / Accepted: 25 June 2019 / Published: 28 June 2019
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Abstract
Ocular drug delivery provides a challenging opportunity to develop optimal formulations with proper therapeutic effects and acceptable patient compliance because there are many restricting factors involved, such as complex anatomical structures, defensive mechanisms, rapid drainage, and applicability issues. Fortunately, recent advances in the [...] Read more.
Ocular drug delivery provides a challenging opportunity to develop optimal formulations with proper therapeutic effects and acceptable patient compliance because there are many restricting factors involved, such as complex anatomical structures, defensive mechanisms, rapid drainage, and applicability issues. Fortunately, recent advances in the field mean that these problems can be overcome through the formulation of innovative ophthalmic products. Through the addition of solubility enhancer cyclodextrin derivatives and mucoadhesive polymers, the permeability of active ingredients is improved, and retention time is increased in the ocular surface. Therefore, preferable efficacy and bioavailability can be achieved. In this short review, the authors describe the theoretical background, technological possibilities, and the current approaches in the field of ophthalmology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Drug Delivery and Absorption)
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