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Sci. Pharm., Volume 87, Issue 3 (September 2019) – 10 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Effect of Cajanus cajan in N-Nitrosodiethylamine-Induced Liver Damage
Sci. Pharm. 2019, 87(3), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm87030024 - 06 Sep 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1085
Abstract
N-Nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) is a nitrosamine derivative with carcinogenic and mutagenic properties which can be found in tobacco smoke, meat and various food products. This study examined the antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of Cajanus cajan (C. cajan) with respect to hepatotoxicity in male Wistar [...] Read more.
N-Nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) is a nitrosamine derivative with carcinogenic and mutagenic properties which can be found in tobacco smoke, meat and various food products. This study examined the antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of Cajanus cajan (C. cajan) with respect to hepatotoxicity in male Wistar rats. Administration of NDEA induced hepatotoxicity at 200 mg/kg while C. cajan was administered (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg) for 28 days. NDEA-induced hepatotoxicity significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and significantly (p ≤ 0.05) decreased reduced glutathione (GSH), albumin (ALB), glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). C. cajan-treated groups were seen to have significantly (p ≤ 0.05) decreased ALT and AST and significantly (p < 0.05) increased ALB, GST, GSH, SOD and CAT. The NDEA-treated group also showed a marginal increase in body weight and a significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in liver weight. The C. cajan treated groups showed a significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase and decrease respectively in body and liver weights. Histopathological changes also substantiated NDEA-induced hepatotoxicity and the hepatoprotective effect of C. cajan on the liver. The results indicate that C. cajan has the potential to ameliorate NDEA-induced hepatotoxicity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Structural Insight into the In Vitro Anti-Intravasative Properties of Flavonoids
Sci. Pharm. 2019, 87(3), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm87030023 - 03 Sep 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1011
Abstract
We investigated the effect of 21 flavonoids in a three-dimensional in vitro system for their ability to inhibit gap formation by MCF-7 breast cancer spheroids in monolayers of lymphendothelial cells. Different representatives of the classes of flavones, flavonols, and flavanones were tested in [...] Read more.
We investigated the effect of 21 flavonoids in a three-dimensional in vitro system for their ability to inhibit gap formation by MCF-7 breast cancer spheroids in monolayers of lymphendothelial cells. Different representatives of the classes of flavones, flavonols, and flavanones were tested in the circular chemorepellent-induced defects (CCID)-assay. Bay11-7082, a known inhibitor of CCID formation served as the positive control. This study provides the first comparison of the potential of flavonoids to suppress features influencing the intravasation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells aggregates through the lymph endothelial barrier. The most significant effects were seen after incubation with the flavones luteolin, chrysin, and apigenin. Additional hydroxylation or methoxylation in positions 6 or 8, as expected, resulted in decreased activity. The tested flavanones remained without or low efficacy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Activities of Medicinal Plants Used by Traditional Healers for Antiulcer Treatment
Sci. Pharm. 2019, 87(3), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm87030022 - 02 Sep 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1190
Abstract
For centuries, many kinds of native plants and their products have been used for the treatment of gastric ulcers by traditional healers in Phayao province. The current study aimed to investigate the polyphenol content in some of these medicinal plants and to point [...] Read more.
For centuries, many kinds of native plants and their products have been used for the treatment of gastric ulcers by traditional healers in Phayao province. The current study aimed to investigate the polyphenol content in some of these medicinal plants and to point out the relationship between their antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory activities. Six species were selected based on ethnopharmacologic considerations: Punica granatum L., Psidium guajava L., Careya arborea Roxb., Gochnatia decora (Kurz) Cabr., Shorea obtusa Wall. ex Blume, and Ficus hispida L.f. The leaves or bark of these plants were extracted with 70% ethanol and water. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of the extracts were analyzed based on nitric oxide (NO) and proinflammatory cytokine production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and through the determination of scavenging activity. The results demonstrated that the ethanol extract from P. granatum and P. guajava leaves significantly inhibited NO production by suppressing nitric oxide synthase. The extracts also inhibited tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1, and interleukin-6 in terms of both mRNA and protein levels and possessed high antioxidants. These extracts were shown to contain the highest amount of polyphenols. Our study concluded that among the plants studied, P. granatum and P. guajava have the most significant anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities and polyphenols. These plants may have the potential for use in gastric ulcer therapy due to their indicated properties. Future research should focus on the isolation of their active compounds and their in vivo biological activities. Their beneficial applications need to be warranted by such evidence. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Integrated In Silico and In Vitro Assays of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 and α-Glucosidase Inhibition by Stellasterol from Ganoderma australe
Sci. Pharm. 2019, 87(3), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm87030021 - 14 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1035
Abstract
Background: Ganoderma fungus is rich in terpenoids. These compounds are known for their anti-hyperglycemic activities. However, the study of terpenoids as the secondary metabolite from Ganoderma as a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor remains unexplored. In addition, we examined the α-glucosidase inhibition activity. Objective: [...] Read more.
Background: Ganoderma fungus is rich in terpenoids. These compounds are known for their anti-hyperglycemic activities. However, the study of terpenoids as the secondary metabolite from Ganoderma as a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor remains unexplored. In addition, we examined the α-glucosidase inhibition activity. Objective: This study aimed to isolate the major terpenoid from non-laccate Ganoderma and examined its inhibitor activity on DPP-4 and α-glucosidase enzymes, and its interaction. Methods: The compound was isolated using column chromatography from Ganoderma australe. The structure of the isolated compound was confirmed by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, while the inhibitory activity was evaluated using an enzymatic assay. The interaction of the isolated compound with DPP-4 and α-glucosidase enzymes was investigated using an in silico study. Results: The isolated compound was identified as stellasterol; IC50 values for DPP-4 and α-glucosidase inhibitor were 427.39 µM and 314.54 µM, respectively. This study revealed that the inhibitory effect of stellasterol on DPP-4 enzyme is through hydrophobic interaction, while the α-glucosidase enzyme is due to the interaction with six amino acids of the enzyme. Conclusion: Stellasterol is the major component of the steroid from G. australe. Enzyme inhibitory assay and in silico study suggest that stellasterol may contribute antidiabetic activity with a mechanism closer to acarbose rather than to sitagliptin. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Microparticles, Microspheres, and Microcapsules for Advanced Drug Delivery
Sci. Pharm. 2019, 87(3), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm87030020 - 09 Aug 2019
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2091
Abstract
Microparticles, microspheres, and microcapsules are widely used constituents of multiparticulate drug delivery systems, offering both therapeutic and technological advantages. Microparticles are generally in the 1–1000 µm size range, serve as multiunit drug delivery systems with well-defined physiological and pharmacokinetic benefits in order to [...] Read more.
Microparticles, microspheres, and microcapsules are widely used constituents of multiparticulate drug delivery systems, offering both therapeutic and technological advantages. Microparticles are generally in the 1–1000 µm size range, serve as multiunit drug delivery systems with well-defined physiological and pharmacokinetic benefits in order to improve the effectiveness, tolerability, and patient compliance. This paper reviews their evolution, significance, and formulation factors (excipients and procedures), as well as their most important practical applications (inhaled insulin, liposomal preparations). The article presents the most important structures of microparticles (microspheres, microcapsules, coated pellets, etc.), interpreted with microscopic images too. The most significant production processes (spray drying, extrusion, coacervation, freeze-drying, microfluidics), the drug release mechanisms, and the commonly used excipients, the characterization, and the novel drug delivery systems (microbubbles, microsponges), as well as the preparations used in therapy are discussed in detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Drug Delivery and Absorption)
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Open AccessReview
Methods to Evaluate Skin Penetration In Vitro
Sci. Pharm. 2019, 87(3), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm87030019 - 08 Aug 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1922
Abstract
Dermal and transdermal drug therapy is increasing in importance nowadays in drug development. To completely utilize the potential of this administration route, it is necessary to optimize the drug release and skin penetration measurements. This review covers the most well-known and up-to-date methods [...] Read more.
Dermal and transdermal drug therapy is increasing in importance nowadays in drug development. To completely utilize the potential of this administration route, it is necessary to optimize the drug release and skin penetration measurements. This review covers the most well-known and up-to-date methods for evaluating the cutaneous penetration of drugs in vitro as a supporting tool for pharmaceutical research scientists in the early stage of drug development. The aim of this article is to present various experimental models used in dermal/transdermal research and summarize the novel knowledge about the main in vitro methods available to study skin penetration. These techniques are: Diffusion cell, skin-PAMPA, tape stripping, two-photon microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and confocal Raman microscopic method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Drug Delivery and Absorption)
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Open AccessArticle
Antinociceptive Effect of Single Components Isolated from Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. Extract
Sci. Pharm. 2019, 87(3), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm87030018 - 02 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 964
Abstract
Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. produces an antinociceptive effect in ICR mice in both chemically induced and thermal pain models. In the present study, we examined the antinociceptive effects of single components isolated from Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. (AP) extract in ICR mice. Three active compounds [...] Read more.
Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. produces an antinociceptive effect in ICR mice in both chemically induced and thermal pain models. In the present study, we examined the antinociceptive effects of single components isolated from Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. (AP) extract in ICR mice. Three active compounds isolated from AP, including rutin, luteolin-7-O-glucuronide, and apigenin-7-O-glucuronide, were isolated and identified by comparing EI-MS, 1H-, 13C-NMR, and UV. We studied the antinociceptive effects of three single components administered orally at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg in monosodium urate (MSU)-treated pain model as measured by von Frey test. Among these compounds, apigenin-7-O-glucuronide was more effective in the production of antinociceptive effects. We further characterized the antinociceptive effects and possible mechanisms of apigenin-7-O-glucuronide in writhing and formalin tests. Oral administration of Apigenin-7-O-glucuronide caused a reduction in the number of writhing and effectively reduced the pain behavior observed during the second phase of the formalin test in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the pretreatment of yohimbine instead of naloxone or methysergide attenuated apigenin-7-O-glucuronide-induced antinociception in the writhing test. Moreover, apigenin-7-O-glucuronide caused reduction in the expression of p-P38, p-CREB, and p-mTOR induced by formalin injection. Our results indicate that apigenin-7-O-glucuronide shows an antinociceptive effect in various pain models. In addition, spinal α2-adrenergic receptors appear to be involved in the production of antinociception induced by apigenin-7-O-glucuronide. Furthermore, the antinociceptive effect of apigenin-7-O-glucuronide appears to be mediated by reduction in the expression of p-P38, p-CREB and p-mTOR levels in the spinal cord. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Nanoemulsion: A Review on Mechanisms for the Transdermal Delivery of Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Drugs
Sci. Pharm. 2019, 87(3), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm87030017 - 12 Jul 2019
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2057
Abstract
Nanoemulsions (NEs) are colloidal dispersions of two immiscible liquids, oil and water, in which one is dispersed in the other with the aid of a surfactant/co-surfactant mixture, either forming oil-in-water (o/w) or water-in-oil (w/o) nanodroplets systems, with droplets 20–200 nm in size. NEs [...] Read more.
Nanoemulsions (NEs) are colloidal dispersions of two immiscible liquids, oil and water, in which one is dispersed in the other with the aid of a surfactant/co-surfactant mixture, either forming oil-in-water (o/w) or water-in-oil (w/o) nanodroplets systems, with droplets 20–200 nm in size. NEs are easy to prepare and upscale, and they show high variability in their components. They have proven to be very viable, non-invasive, and cost-effective nanocarriers for the enhanced transdermal delivery of a wide range of active compounds that tend to metabolize heavily or suffer from undesirable side effects when taken orally. In addition, the anti-microbial and anti-viral properties of NE components, leading to preservative-free formulations, make NE a very attractive approach for transdermal drug delivery. This review focuses on how NEs mechanistically deliver both lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs through skin layers to reach the blood stream, exerting the desired therapeutic effect. It highlights the mechanisms and strategies executed to effectively deliver drugs, both with o/w and w/o NE types, through the transdermal way. However, the mechanisms reported in the literature are highly diverse, to the extent that a definite mechanism is not conclusive. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Preliminary Study: Purple Sweet Potato Extract Seems to Be Superior to Increase the Migration of Impaired Endothelial Progenitor Cells Compared to l-Ascorbic Acid
Sci. Pharm. 2019, 87(3), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm87030016 - 03 Jul 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1162
Abstract
Impairment of the endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) ability to proliferate and migrate in the patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) is partly caused by oxidative stress. This research evaluates the effect of treatment with Ipomoea batatas L./purple sweet potato (PSP) extract and l [...] Read more.
Impairment of the endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) ability to proliferate and migrate in the patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) is partly caused by oxidative stress. This research evaluates the effect of treatment with Ipomoea batatas L./purple sweet potato (PSP) extract and l-ascorbic acid on the proliferation and migration of impaired EPCs. EPCs were isolated from CHD patient’s peripheral blood. EPCs culture were cultivated and divided into control (untreated), PSP extract treatment (dose 1 and 25 μg/mL), and l-ascorbic acid treatment (dose 10 and 250 μg/mL) groups for 48 h. EPCs proliferation was analyzed with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell proliferation assay, and migration was evaluated with the cell migration assay kit. Statistical tests were evaluated using SPSS 25.0. This research showed that EPCs proliferation and migration was significantly higher in all PSP extract and l-ascorbic acid treatment compared to the control (p < 0.001). EPCs migration on treatment with a PSP extract dose of 25 μg/mL was significantly higher compared to the treatment with l-ascorbic acid dose of 250 μg/mL (303,000 ± 1000 compared to 215,000 ± 3000 cells, p< 0.001). In conclusion, both treatments with PSP extract and l-ascorbic acid can improve the proliferation and migration of impaired EPCs. At the dose of 25 μg/mL, PSP extract seems to be superior to the l-ascorbic acid dose of 250 μg/mL to improve EPCs migration. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Current Approaches to Use Cyclodextrins and Mucoadhesive Polymers in Ocular Drug Delivery—A Mini-Review
Sci. Pharm. 2019, 87(3), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm87030015 - 28 Jun 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1236
Abstract
Ocular drug delivery provides a challenging opportunity to develop optimal formulations with proper therapeutic effects and acceptable patient compliance because there are many restricting factors involved, such as complex anatomical structures, defensive mechanisms, rapid drainage, and applicability issues. Fortunately, recent advances in the [...] Read more.
Ocular drug delivery provides a challenging opportunity to develop optimal formulations with proper therapeutic effects and acceptable patient compliance because there are many restricting factors involved, such as complex anatomical structures, defensive mechanisms, rapid drainage, and applicability issues. Fortunately, recent advances in the field mean that these problems can be overcome through the formulation of innovative ophthalmic products. Through the addition of solubility enhancer cyclodextrin derivatives and mucoadhesive polymers, the permeability of active ingredients is improved, and retention time is increased in the ocular surface. Therefore, preferable efficacy and bioavailability can be achieved. In this short review, the authors describe the theoretical background, technological possibilities, and the current approaches in the field of ophthalmology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Drug Delivery and Absorption)
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