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Open AccessReview

Nanoemulsion: A Review on Mechanisms for the Transdermal Delivery of Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Drugs

1
Department of Pharmaceutics &Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Pharmaceutical industries, Future University in Egypt (FUE), 11835 Cairo, Egypt
2
Department of Pharmaceutics& Industrial Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, 11591 Cairo, Egypt
3
Quality Control Department, Elnajah Medical Services, Benghazi, Libya
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sci. Pharm. 2019, 87(3), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm87030017
Received: 1 June 2019 / Revised: 29 June 2019 / Accepted: 9 July 2019 / Published: 12 July 2019
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Abstract

Nanoemulsions (NEs) are colloidal dispersions of two immiscible liquids, oil and water, in which one is dispersed in the other with the aid of a surfactant/co-surfactant mixture, either forming oil-in-water (o/w) or water-in-oil (w/o) nanodroplets systems, with droplets 20–200 nm in size. NEs are easy to prepare and upscale, and they show high variability in their components. They have proven to be very viable, non-invasive, and cost-effective nanocarriers for the enhanced transdermal delivery of a wide range of active compounds that tend to metabolize heavily or suffer from undesirable side effects when taken orally. In addition, the anti-microbial and anti-viral properties of NE components, leading to preservative-free formulations, make NE a very attractive approach for transdermal drug delivery. This review focuses on how NEs mechanistically deliver both lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs through skin layers to reach the blood stream, exerting the desired therapeutic effect. It highlights the mechanisms and strategies executed to effectively deliver drugs, both with o/w and w/o NE types, through the transdermal way. However, the mechanisms reported in the literature are highly diverse, to the extent that a definite mechanism is not conclusive. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoemulsion; transdermal; permeability; water-in-oil; oil-in-water; mechanisms nanoemulsion; transdermal; permeability; water-in-oil; oil-in-water; mechanisms
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Shaker, D.S.; Ishak, R.A.H.; Ghoneim, A.; Elhuoni, M.A. Nanoemulsion: A Review on Mechanisms for the Transdermal Delivery of Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Drugs. Sci. Pharm. 2019, 87, 17.

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