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Sci. Pharm., Volume 87, Issue 2 (June 2019)

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Open AccessArticle Acute and Subchronic (28-day) Oral Toxicity Studies on the Film Formulation of k-Carrageenan and Konjac Glucomannan for Soft Capsule Application
Sci. Pharm. 2019, 87(2), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm87020009
Received: 6 March 2019 / Revised: 26 March 2019 / Accepted: 28 March 2019 / Published: 31 March 2019
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the acute and subchronic toxicity of a film formulation that combines κ-Carrageenan and konjac glucomannan for soft capsule application. For the acute toxicity study, a dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight (bw) of the film [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the acute and subchronic toxicity of a film formulation that combines κ-Carrageenan and konjac glucomannan for soft capsule application. For the acute toxicity study, a dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight (bw) of the film suspension was administered orally to rats. The animals were observed for toxic symptoms and mortality daily for 14 days. In a subchronic toxicity study, the film suspension, at doses of 10, 30 and 75 mg/kg bw for 28 days, were orally administered to rats. After 28 days, the rats were sacrificed for hematological, biochemical and histological examination. In the acute toxicity study, neither signs of toxicity nor death among the rats were observed for up to 14 days of the experimental period. The results of the subchronic toxicity study show that there were no significant changes observed in the hematology and organ histology. Some alterations to the relative organ weight and blood biochemistry were observed, but they were considered to be temporary effects and not an indication of toxic effects. The overall findings of this study indicate that the film formulation of κ-Carrageenan and konjac glucomannan is non-toxic up to a dose of 75 mg/kg bw, which could be considered a safe dose for soft capsule application. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Different Rhodiola rosea Rhizome Extracts by UHPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn
Sci. Pharm. 2019, 87(2), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm87020008
Received: 14 February 2019 / Revised: 25 March 2019 / Accepted: 26 March 2019 / Published: 29 March 2019
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Abstract
Rhodiola rosea has been used in folk medicine as ethanolic macerates for a long time. This study aims to provide a quantitative and qualitative analysis and comparison of different ethanolic Rhodiola rosea rhizome macerates (35%, 70%, and 96% v/v) and [...] Read more.
Rhodiola rosea has been used in folk medicine as ethanolic macerates for a long time. This study aims to provide a quantitative and qualitative analysis and comparison of different ethanolic Rhodiola rosea rhizome macerates (35%, 70%, and 96% v/v) and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) extracts prepared with 85% methanol, in order to shed light on the effectivity of different extraction methods. Extract samples were analyzed by UHPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn on a ZORBAX SB-C18 column (100 × 2.1 mm, 1.8 μm) with a mobile phase consisting of water + 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile. Qualitative analysis lead to the tentative identification of 18 compounds: Two cyanogenic glycosides (rhodiocyanoside A, lotaustralin), three phenylethanoids (salidroside, viridoside, 2-phenylethyl-vicianoside), two procyanidin and catechin derivatives (epigallocatechin-epigallocatechin gallate, epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate), five phenylpropanoids (cinnamyl alcohol, rosarin, rosavin, rosin, cinnamyl-(6’-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl)-O-β-glucopyranoside), two monoterpene alcohols (rhodioloside E, rosiridin) and four flavonols (rhodionidin, rhodiosin, rhodionin, kaempferol). Quantity was determined for salidroside, cinnamyl alcohol and its three major glycosides (rosarin, rosavin, rosin), as well as three flavonols (rhodionidin, rhodiosin, rhodionin). Methanolic ASE proved to be the superior extraction method for different substance groups. For macerates, high ethanol content increased yield and lowered hydrolysis of glycosides during extraction, but ethanolic macerates still showed low reproducibility and high fluctuations in quantity of marker compounds salidroside and rosavins, as well as flavonols. Rhodiola rosea rhizomes of wild origins seemed to underly great variability in chemical composition dependent on grow site. Full article
Sci. Pharm. EISSN 2218-0532 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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