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The Technical Challenges Facing the Integration of Small-Scale and Large-scale PV Systems into the Grid: A Critical Review

The University of Nottingham, Institute of Sustainable Energy Technology, SRB Building, Main Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
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Electronics 2019, 8(12), 1443; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8121443
Received: 13 September 2019 / Revised: 21 November 2019 / Accepted: 25 November 2019 / Published: 1 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Power Electronics)
Decarbonisation, energy security and expanding energy access are the main driving forces behind the worldwide increasing attention in renewable energy. This paper focuses on the solar photovoltaic (PV) technology because, currently, it has the most attention in the energy sector due to the sharp drop in the solar PV system cost, which was one of the main barriers of PV large-scale deployment. Firstly, this paper extensively reviews the technical challenges, potential technical solutions and the research carried out in integrating high shares of small-scale PV systems into the distribution network of the grid in order to give a clearer picture of the impact since most of the PV systems installations were at small scales and connected into the distribution network. The paper reviews the localised technical challenges, grid stability challenges and technical solutions on integrating large-scale PV systems into the transmission network of the grid. In addition, the current practices for managing the variability of large-scale PV systems by the grid operators are discussed. Finally, this paper concludes by summarising the critical technical aspects facing the integration of the PV system depending on their size into the grid, in which it provides a strong point of reference and a useful framework for the researchers planning to exploit this field further on.
Keywords: Small-scale PV system; Large-scale PV system; PV system integration; High penetration; Technical challenges; Power system stability Small-scale PV system; Large-scale PV system; PV system integration; High penetration; Technical challenges; Power system stability
MDPI and ACS Style

Alshahrani, A.; Omer, S.; Su, Y.; Mohamed, E.; Alotaibi, S. The Technical Challenges Facing the Integration of Small-Scale and Large-scale PV Systems into the Grid: A Critical Review. Electronics 2019, 8, 1443.

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