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Coatings, Volume 6, Issue 3 (September 2016) – 16 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Ethylene–chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer (ECTFE) composite hollow-fiber membranes have been prepared by dip-coating commercial polypropylene hollow-fibers (PP). By varying the operating parameters of the dip-coating process, it was possible to control the morphology and properties (i.e. hydrophobicity) of the ECTFE layer without compromising the morphology of the pristine PP hollow-fibers. In fact, ECTFE coating enabled tailoring the pore size of novel composite hollow-fiber membranes and improving the chemical resistance of the PP membrane.View this paper.
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Article
Development of Novel ECTFE Coated PP Composite Hollow-Fiber Membranes
Coatings 2016, 6(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings6030040 - 19 Sep 2016
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3504
Abstract
In this work composite hollow-fibers were prepared by dip-coating of commercial polypropylene (PP) with a thin layer of ethylene–chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer (ECTFE). The employment of N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) as solvent improved the polymer processability favoring dip-coating at lower temperature (135 °C). Scanning electron microscopy [...] Read more.
In this work composite hollow-fibers were prepared by dip-coating of commercial polypropylene (PP) with a thin layer of ethylene–chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer (ECTFE). The employment of N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) as solvent improved the polymer processability favoring dip-coating at lower temperature (135 °C). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses showed that after dip-coating the PP support maintained its microstructure, whereas a thin coated layer of ECTFE on the external surface of the PP hollow-fiber was clearly distinguishable. Membrane characterization evidenced the effects of the concentration of ECTFE in the dope-solution and the time of dip-coating on the thickness of ECTFE layer and membrane properties (i.e., contact angle and pore size). ECTFE coating decreased the surface roughness reducing, as a consequence, the hydrophobicity of the membrane. Moreover, increasing the ECTFE concentration and dip-coating time enabled the preparation of a thicker layer of ECTFE with low and narrow pore size that negatively affected the water transport. On the basis of the superior chemical resistance of ECTFE, ECTFE/PP composite hollow fibers could be considered as very promising candidates to be employed in membrane processes involving harsh conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fabric Coatings)
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Article
Deposition and Characterization of Si-Doped Diamond Films Using Tetraethoxysilane onto a WC-Co Substrate
Coatings 2016, 6(3), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings6030039 - 05 Sep 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2539
Abstract
Silicon-doped (Si-doped) diamond films were deposited on a Co-cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) substrate using the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) method with a mixture of acetone, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), and hydrogen as the recant source. The as-deposited doped diamond films were characterized with [...] Read more.
Silicon-doped (Si-doped) diamond films were deposited on a Co-cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) substrate using the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) method with a mixture of acetone, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), and hydrogen as the recant source. The as-deposited doped diamond films were characterized with field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Raman spectrum, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Furthermore, Rockwell C indentation tests were conducted to evaluate the adhesion of the Si-doped diamond films grown on the WC-Co substrate. The results demonstrated that the silicon concentration in the reactant source played an important role in the surface morphology and adhesion of diamond films. The size of diamond grain varied from 3 μm to 500 nm with silicon concentration increasing from 0 to 1.41 atom %. When the silicon concentration rose to 1.81 atom %, the grain size became bigger than that of the lower concentration. The ratio of diamond peak {220}/{111} varied with different silicon concentrations. Raman study features revealed high purity of as-deposited diamond films. The Raman spectra also demonstrated the presence of silicon in the diamond films with Si–Si, Si–C and Si–O bonds. Si-doped diamond films with strong adhesive strength on the WC-Co substrate was beneficial for diamond films applied on cutting tools and wear resistance components. Full article
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Editorial
Coatings Best Paper Award 2016
Coatings 2016, 6(3), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings6030038 - 02 Sep 2016
Viewed by 3285
Abstract
Coatings has established the Best Paper Award to recognize its best published articles each year.[...] Full article
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Article
Feasibility of Coloring Bamboo with the Application of Natural and Extracted Fungal Pigments
Coatings 2016, 6(3), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings6030037 - 30 Aug 2016
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3210
Abstract
Fungal pigments, specifically those generated from spalting fungi, are being developed for broader use in the wood and textile industry, and due to their coloration properties, may also be useful as aesthetic bamboo dyes. This paper evaluates the potential use of fungal pigments [...] Read more.
Fungal pigments, specifically those generated from spalting fungi, are being developed for broader use in the wood and textile industry, and due to their coloration properties, may also be useful as aesthetic bamboo dyes. This paper evaluates the potential use of fungal pigments in bamboo (Phyllostachys spp.), and compares the difference between natural spalting and the direct application of extracted fungal pigments of three known spalting fungi: Scytalidium cuboideum, Scytalidium ganodermophthorum, and Chlorociboria aeruginosa. Bamboo was significantly spalted by S. cuboideum under live inoculation, while the other two fungi did not colonize. For the direct application of fungal pigments, bamboo did not develop internal pigmentation with any pigment, but did develop visible surface color for S. cuboideium and C. aeruginosa. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the presence of hyphae in bamboo vessels and parenchyma. An HPLC analysis for simple sugars showed the presence of glucose but no sucrose. Results indicate that the extracted pigments of the aforementioned fungi are ideal for the surface treatment of bamboo, while only direct inoculation of S. cuboideum is appropriate for internal coloration. Full article
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Article
High Temperature Corrosion Studies of a Zirconia Coating: Implications for Waste-to-Energy (WTE) Plants
Coatings 2016, 6(3), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings6030036 - 25 Aug 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3279
Abstract
Corrosion of functional parts within waste-to-energy (WTE) plants significantly reduces their efficiency with respect to maintenance costs. Currently, nickel-based alloy claddings, several millimeters thick, are the state of the art as anti-corrosion coating. Another approach is to utilize thermally sprayed multilayer coatings with [...] Read more.
Corrosion of functional parts within waste-to-energy (WTE) plants significantly reduces their efficiency with respect to maintenance costs. Currently, nickel-based alloy claddings, several millimeters thick, are the state of the art as anti-corrosion coating. Another approach is to utilize thermally sprayed multilayer coatings with a zirconia top-coat. Lab-scale experiments under simulated WTE plant conditions and in situ tests within a WTE plant revealed a partially reduced porosity of the zirconia top-coat after the experiments, enabling the coating to act as a barrier against aggressive gases. In a lab-scale experiment sample the pores are filled up with zirconia, while the pores of the in situ samples are filled up with newly formed metal (Cr, Ni, Fe) oxides. Full article
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Review
Techniques and Challenges for Characterizing Metal Thin Films with Applications in Photonics
Coatings 2016, 6(3), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings6030035 - 17 Aug 2016
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 4766
Abstract
The proliferation of laser technologies has profoundly increased the demand for high-quality optical thin films whose physical properties are tunable and well defined. Such films are frequently deposited in thicknesses much shorter than the wavelengths of visible light and consequently present challenges for [...] Read more.
The proliferation of laser technologies has profoundly increased the demand for high-quality optical thin films whose physical properties are tunable and well defined. Such films are frequently deposited in thicknesses much shorter than the wavelengths of visible light and consequently present challenges for characterization by traditional microscopy. Metal films in particular exemplify these challenges, due to their broad range of refractive indices, optical absorption and often near-complete reflectivity in the visible spectrum. However, due to their relatively consistent crystalline structure, the bulk optical properties of metal thin films are chiefly dependent on their thickness. This review therefore presents a compendium of viable alternative characterization techniques to highlight their respective utilities, limitations and resolutions, specifically with regard to the characterization of the thickness of metal films. Furthermore, this review explicitly addresses the operating theories, methods and analyses relating to the five most predominantly utilized techniques: X-ray Reflectivity (XRR), Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). This work is intended as an introductory guide to thin film characterization modalities and their applicability for metal and optically-absorptive films, while also identifying AFM and SEM/EDS as being amongst the more reliable of the techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Optical Coatings)
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Review
An Overview on Corrosion-Resistant Coating Technologies in Biomass/Waste-to-Energy Plants in Recent Decades
Coatings 2016, 6(3), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings6030034 - 05 Aug 2016
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 4068
Abstract
Highly efficient electric power generation from biomass/waste fuels becomes an important worldwide issue to prevent global warming. In these plants, severe high-temperature corrosion and erosion-corrosion damage occur in boiler tubes influenced by HCl, SOx gases, and chlorides as contaminants in fuels. Coating [...] Read more.
Highly efficient electric power generation from biomass/waste fuels becomes an important worldwide issue to prevent global warming. In these plants, severe high-temperature corrosion and erosion-corrosion damage occur in boiler tubes influenced by HCl, SOx gases, and chlorides as contaminants in fuels. Coating technologies become important as a countermeasure for such damage, because of the easy maintenance, cost performance, and ease of application on various materials. In severe corrosive conditions of boilers, formation of dense, homogenous, and tough coating layers, as well as protective oxide layers of corrosion-resistant materials, are important. In the last 30 years, materials and coating processes applied in shop and on site have progressed based on many field observations and the consideration of deterioration mechanisms in order to maintain long lifetimes in the plants. Furthermore, new innovative coatings are now being developed by using advanced precise control, nanotechnologies, etc. This paper introduces recent trends of advanced coating developments and applications, such as weld-overlay, cladding, thermal spray coating, and slurry coating for biomass/waste boilers. Furthermore, the evaluation results of deterioration mechanisms and lifetime of coatings, and the future issue for innovative coatings, are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Temperature Coatings)
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Review
Surface-Engineered Fire Protective Coatings for Fabrics through Sol-Gel and Layer-by-Layer Methods: An Overview
Coatings 2016, 6(3), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings6030033 - 29 Jul 2016
Cited by 53 | Viewed by 4427
Abstract
Fabric flammability is a surface-confined phenomenon: in fact, the fabric surface represents the most critical region, through which the mass and heat transfers, responsible for fueling the flame, are controlled and exchanged with the surroundings. More specifically, the heat the fabric surface is [...] Read more.
Fabric flammability is a surface-confined phenomenon: in fact, the fabric surface represents the most critical region, through which the mass and heat transfers, responsible for fueling the flame, are controlled and exchanged with the surroundings. More specifically, the heat the fabric surface is exposed to is transferred to the bulk, from which volatile products of thermal degradation diffuse toward the surface and the gas phase, hence feeding the flame. As a consequence, the chemical and physical characteristics of the fabric surface considerably affect the ignition and combustion processes, as the surface influences the flux of combustible volatile products toward the gas phase. In this context, it is possible to significantly modify (and improve) the fire performance of textile materials by “simply” tailoring their surface: currently, one of the most effective approaches exploits the deposition of tailored coatings able to slow down the heat and mass transfer phenomena occurring during the fire stages. This paper reviews the current state of the art related to the design of inorganic, hybrid, or organic flame-retardant coatings suitable for the fire protection of different fabric substrates (particularly referring to cotton, polyester, and their blends). More specifically, the use of sol-gel and layer-by-layer (LbL) methods is thoroughly discussed; then, some recent examples of flame retardant coatings are presented, showing their potential advances and their current limitations. Full article
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Article
Graphite–Cement Paste: A New Coating of Reinforced Concrete Structural Elements for the Application of Electrochemical Anti-Corrosion Treatments
Coatings 2016, 6(3), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings6030032 - 28 Jul 2016
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3132
Abstract
This paper reviews research carried out towards the development of a novel conductive coating for reinforced concrete structures in order to enable the application of electrochemical anti-corrosion treatments. The coating is composed of a hardened paste containing graphite powder and cement. The applied [...] Read more.
This paper reviews research carried out towards the development of a novel conductive coating for reinforced concrete structures in order to enable the application of electrochemical anti-corrosion treatments. The coating is composed of a hardened paste containing graphite powder and cement. The applied techniques were electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE), cathodic protection (CP), and cathodic prevention, as well as combined treatments such as ECE-CP. This research has demonstrated their efficiency when using the new conductive coating as an anode system. The influence of the shape of the structural elements on the performance of the electrochemical treatments was also studied. Several characteristics of the coating have been determined, such as conductivity, durability, adhesion to the concrete surfaces, and ease of application. The results demonstrate the adequacy of using this coating as the anode for anti-corrosion treatments on reinforced concrete structural elements of different shapes, for the purpose of extending service life. Full article
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Article
Non-Cyanide Electrodeposited Ag–PTFE Composite Coating Using Direct or Pulsed Current Deposition
Coatings 2016, 6(3), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings6030031 - 26 Jul 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3323
Abstract
The effects of FC-4 cationic surfactant on electrodeposited Ag–PTFE composite coating using direct or pulsed currents were studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDS), optical microscope, and a linear tribometer. FC-4:PTFE in various ratios were added to a non-cyanide succinimide [...] Read more.
The effects of FC-4 cationic surfactant on electrodeposited Ag–PTFE composite coating using direct or pulsed currents were studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDS), optical microscope, and a linear tribometer. FC-4:PTFE in various ratios were added to a non-cyanide succinimide silver complex bath. Direct or pulsed current method was used at a constant current density to enable comparison between both methods. A high incorporation rate of PTFE was successfully achieved, with pulsed current being highly useful in increasing the amount of PTFE in the composite coating. The study of coating wear under sliding showed that a large majority of the electrodeposited coatings still managed to adhere to the substrate, even after 10 wear cycles of sliding tests. Performance improvements were achieved on all the samples with a coefficient of friction (CoF) between 0.06 and 0.12. Full article
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Article
A Surface Photovoltage Study of Surface Defects on Co-Doped TiO2 Thin Films Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis
Coatings 2016, 6(3), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings6030030 - 22 Jul 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2986
Abstract
Surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying electronic defects on semiconductor surfaces, at interfaces, and in bulk for a wide range of materials. Undoped and Cobalt-doped TiO2 (CTO) thin films were deposited on Crystalline Silicon (c-Si) and Flourine doped [...] Read more.
Surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying electronic defects on semiconductor surfaces, at interfaces, and in bulk for a wide range of materials. Undoped and Cobalt-doped TiO2 (CTO) thin films were deposited on Crystalline Silicon (c-Si) and Flourine doped Tin oxide (SnO2:F) substrates by chemical spray pyrolysis at a substrate temperature of 400 °C. The concentration of the Co dopant in the films was determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and ranged between 0 and 4.51 at %. The amplitude of the SPV signals increased proportionately with the amount of Co in the films, which was a result of the enhancement of the slow processes of charge separation and recombination. Photogenerated holes were trapped at the surface, slowing down the time response and relaxation of the samples. The surface states were effectively passivated by a thin In2S3 over-layer sprayed on top of the TiO2 and CTO films. Full article
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Communication
A Novel Technique for the Deposition of Bismuth Tungstate onto Titania Nanoparticulates for Enhancing the Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity
Coatings 2016, 6(3), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings6030029 - 21 Jul 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2718
Abstract
A novel powder handling technique was used to allow the deposition of bismuth tungstate coatings onto commercial titanium dioxide photocatalytic nanoparticles. The coatings were deposited by reactive pulsed DC magnetron sputtering in an argon/oxygen atmosphere. The use of an oscillating bowl with rotary [...] Read more.
A novel powder handling technique was used to allow the deposition of bismuth tungstate coatings onto commercial titanium dioxide photocatalytic nanoparticles. The coatings were deposited by reactive pulsed DC magnetron sputtering in an argon/oxygen atmosphere. The use of an oscillating bowl with rotary particle propagation, positioned beneath two closed-field planar magnetrons, provided uniform coverage of the titania particle surfaces. The bismuth/tungsten atomic ratio of the coatings was controlled by varying the power applied to each target. The resulting materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area measurements, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Photocatalytic properties under visible light irradiation were assessed using an acetone degradation test. It was found that deposition of bismuth tungstate onto titania nanoparticles resulted in significant increases in visible light photocatalytic activity, compared to uncoated titania. Of the coatings studied, the highest photocatalytic activity was measured for the sample with a Bi/W atomic ratio of 2/1. Full article
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Article
Effect of Activated Plastic Films on Inactivation of Foodborne Pathogens
Coatings 2016, 6(3), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings6030028 - 19 Jul 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2251
Abstract
In the present study, low density polyethylene films were activated by co-extrusion with zinc oxide, zinc acetate or potassium sorbate. Films were also surface-activated with tyrosol singly or in combination with lactic acid or p-hydroxybenzoic acid. Activated films were tested on Listeria monocytogenes [...] Read more.
In the present study, low density polyethylene films were activated by co-extrusion with zinc oxide, zinc acetate or potassium sorbate. Films were also surface-activated with tyrosol singly or in combination with lactic acid or p-hydroxybenzoic acid. Activated films were tested on Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The combinations showing greatest inhibition zones and broadest inhibitory spectrum were the films activated with tyrosol plus p-hydroxybenzoic acid. A small delay in growth of Listeria innocua was observed on seabream packed in ZnO-activated films during refrigerated storage for 7 days. When films activated with 2.5% tyrosol or with 1.5% tyrosol plus 0.5 p-hydroxybenzoic acid were used for vacuum packaging of smoked salmon and smoked tuna challenged with cocktails of S. enterica and L. monocytogenes strains, the combination of tyrosol and p-hydroxybenzoic acid improved inactivation of both pathogens during chill storage compared to films singly activated with tyrosol. The best results were obtained in smoked salmon, since no viable pathogens were detected after 7 days of chill storage for the activated film. Results from the study highlight the potential of plastic films surface-activated with tyrosol and p-hydroxybenzoic acid in the control of foodborne pathogens in smoked seafood. Full article
Review
Preparation and Grafting Functionalization of Self-Assembled Chitin Nanofiber Film
Coatings 2016, 6(3), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings6030027 - 12 Jul 2016
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3381
Abstract
Chitin is a representative biomass resource comparable to cellulose. Although considerable efforts have been devoted to extend novel applications to chitin, lack of solubility in water and common organic solvents causes difficulties in improving its processability and functionality. Ionic liquids have paid much [...] Read more.
Chitin is a representative biomass resource comparable to cellulose. Although considerable efforts have been devoted to extend novel applications to chitin, lack of solubility in water and common organic solvents causes difficulties in improving its processability and functionality. Ionic liquids have paid much attention as solvents for polysaccharides. However, little has been reported regarding the dissolution of chitin with ionic liquids. The author found that an ionic liquid, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (AMIMBr), dissolved chitin in concentrations up to ~4.8 wt % and the higher contents of chitin with AMIMBr gave ion gels. When the ion gel was soaked in methanol for the regeneration of chitin, followed by sonication, a chitin nanofiber dispersion was obtained. Filtration of the dispersion was subsequently carried out to give a chitin nanofiber film. A chitin nanofiber/poly(vinyl alcohol) composite film was also obtained by co-regeneration approach. Chitin nanofiber-graft-synthetic polymer composite films were successfully prepared by surface-initiated graft polymerization technique. For example, the preparation of chitin nanofiber-graft-biodegradable polyester composite film was achieved by surface-initiated graft polymerization from the chitin nanofiber film. The similar procedure also gave chitin nanofiber-graft-polypeptide composite film. The surface-initiated graft atom transfer radical polymerization was conducted from a chitin macroinitiator film derived from the chitin nanofiber film. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Thin Films)
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Article
Wear Behaviour of Nanostructured Polymer-Based Safety Films on Soda-Lime Glass
Coatings 2016, 6(3), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings6030026 - 08 Jul 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2563
Abstract
The wear behaviour of bare and polymer-coated soda-lime glass specimens sliding against 440C stainless steel counterfaces was investigated with the aid of a pin-on-disk apparatus. The selected polymeric coatings were commercially supplied safety films, which are nowadays extensively applied on glass in the [...] Read more.
The wear behaviour of bare and polymer-coated soda-lime glass specimens sliding against 440C stainless steel counterfaces was investigated with the aid of a pin-on-disk apparatus. The selected polymeric coatings were commercially supplied safety films, which are nowadays extensively applied on glass in the automotive and construction industry. One of their main failures is the degradation of their properties due to wear. In this work, the frictional behaviour of these coatings on glass were evaluated and compared to those of bare soda-lime glass. Correlations have been also made between the worn surfaces and weight loss in order to investigate the effect of wear conditions (speed, load) on the wear behaviour of these tribosystems. In addition, during the dry wear of soda-lime glass sliding against stainless steel counterfaces, the dominant wear mechanisms were found to be localized adhesion and abrasion, whereas, in the case of the multilayered polymeric coatings localized adhesion, deformation and tearing were observed. Full article
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Article
Mechanical Color Reading of Wood-Staining Fungal Pigment Textile Dyes: An Alternative Method for Determining Colorfastness
Coatings 2016, 6(3), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings6030025 - 04 Jul 2016
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3209
Abstract
Colorfastness to washing and crocking (color loss due to rubbing) are essential qualities for any dye/fabric combination that will be used for garments or upholstery. In this study, colorfastness to washing and crocking of fabrics dyed with wood-staining fungal pigments was compared to [...] Read more.
Colorfastness to washing and crocking (color loss due to rubbing) are essential qualities for any dye/fabric combination that will be used for garments or upholstery. In this study, colorfastness to washing and crocking of fabrics dyed with wood-staining fungal pigments was compared to colorfastness of commercial dyes using an alternative mechanical testing method. Overall, wood-staining fungal pigments out performed commercial dyes for colorfastness to washing and wet and dry crocking. Xylindein was the most colorfast dye. Draconin red yielded inconsistent results, and the yellow pigment required a mordant to achieve any colorfastness. This study showed that the mechanical color reading method, along with statistical analysis, provided an objective, repeatable gauge of colorfastness, although visual inspection is also needed for practical purposes. Full article
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