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Biosensors, Volume 5, Issue 4 (December 2015) – 10 articles , Pages 616-803

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Open AccessArticle
A Label-Free Impedance Immunosensor Using Screen-Printed Interdigitated Electrodes and Magnetic Nanobeads for the Detection of E. coli O157:H7
Biosensors 2015, 5(4), 791-803; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios5040791 - 15 Dec 2015
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 3134
Abstract
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is one of the leading bacterial pathogens causing foodborne illness. In this study, an impedance immunosensor based on the use of magnetic nanobeads and screen-printed interdigitated electrodes was developed for the rapid detection of E. coli O157:H7. Magnetic nanobeads coated [...] Read more.
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is one of the leading bacterial pathogens causing foodborne illness. In this study, an impedance immunosensor based on the use of magnetic nanobeads and screen-printed interdigitated electrodes was developed for the rapid detection of E. coli O157:H7. Magnetic nanobeads coated with anti-E. coli antibody were mixed with an E. coli sample and used to isolate and concentrate the bacterial cells. The sample was suspended in redox probe solution and placed onto a screen-printed interdigitated electrode. A magnetic field was applied to concentrate the cells on the surface of the electrode and the impedance was measured. The impedance immunosensor could detect E. coli O157:H7 at a concentration of 104.45 cfu·mL−1 (~1400 bacterial cells in the applied volume of 25 μL) in less than 1 h without pre-enrichment. A linear relationship between bacteria concentration and impedance value was obtained between 104 cfu·mL−1 and 107 cfu·mL−1. Though impedance measurement was carried out in the presence of a redox probe, analysis of the equivalent circuit model showed that the impedance change was primarily due to two elements: Double layer capacitance and resistance due to electrode surface roughness. The magnetic field and impedance were simulated using COMSOL Multiphysics software. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Affinity Sensors)
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Open AccessReview
High Content Imaging (HCI) on Miniaturized Three-Dimensional (3D) Cell Cultures
Biosensors 2015, 5(4), 768-790; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios5040768 - 14 Dec 2015
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 4637
Abstract
High content imaging (HCI) is a multiplexed cell staining assay developed for better understanding of complex biological functions and mechanisms of drug action, and it has become an important tool for toxicity and efficacy screening of drug candidates. Conventional HCI assays have been [...] Read more.
High content imaging (HCI) is a multiplexed cell staining assay developed for better understanding of complex biological functions and mechanisms of drug action, and it has become an important tool for toxicity and efficacy screening of drug candidates. Conventional HCI assays have been carried out on two-dimensional (2D) cell monolayer cultures, which in turn limit predictability of drug toxicity/efficacy in vivo; thus, there has been an urgent need to perform HCI assays on three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures. Although 3D cell cultures better mimic in vivo microenvironments of human tissues and provide an in-depth understanding of the morphological and functional features of tissues, they are also limited by having relatively low throughput and thus are not amenable to high-throughput screening (HTS). One attempt of making 3D cell culture amenable for HTS is to utilize miniaturized cell culture platforms. This review aims to highlight miniaturized 3D cell culture platforms compatible with current HCI technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell and Organ on Chip: Challenges and Advances)
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Open AccessArticle
A Simple Microfluidic Platform for Long-Term Analysis and Continuous Dual-Imaging Detection of T-Cell Secreted IFN-γ and IL-2 on Antibody-Based Biochip
Biosensors 2015, 5(4), 750-767; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios5040750 - 04 Dec 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2940
Abstract
The identification and characterization, at the cellular level, of cytokine productions present a high interest for both fundamental research and clinical studies. However, the majority of techniques currently available (ELISA, ELISpot, flow cytometry, etc.) have several shortcomings including, notably, the assessment of [...] Read more.
The identification and characterization, at the cellular level, of cytokine productions present a high interest for both fundamental research and clinical studies. However, the majority of techniques currently available (ELISA, ELISpot, flow cytometry, etc.) have several shortcomings including, notably, the assessment of several cytokines in relation to individual secreting cells and the monitoring of living cell responses for a long incubation time. In the present work, we describe a system composed of a microfluidic platform coupled with an antibody microarray chip for continuous SPR imaging and immunofluorescence analysis of cytokines (IL-2 and IFN-γ) secreted by T-Lymphocytes, specifically, and stably captured on the biochip under flow upon continued long-term on-chip culture (more than 24 h). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell and Organ on Chip: Challenges and Advances)
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Open AccessArticle
Microfluidic Impedimetric Cell Regeneration Assay to Monitor the Enhanced Cytotoxic Effect of Nanomaterial Perfusion
Biosensors 2015, 5(4), 736-749; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios5040736 - 27 Nov 2015
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3168
Abstract
In the last decade, the application of nanomaterials (NMs) in technical products and biomedicine has become a rapidly increasing market trend. As the safety and efficacy of NMs are of utmost importance, new methods are needed to study the dynamic interactions of NMs [...] Read more.
In the last decade, the application of nanomaterials (NMs) in technical products and biomedicine has become a rapidly increasing market trend. As the safety and efficacy of NMs are of utmost importance, new methods are needed to study the dynamic interactions of NMs at the nano-biointerface. However, evaluation of NMs based on standard and static cell culture end-point detection methods does not provide information on the dynamics of living biological systems, which is crucial for the understanding of physiological responses. To bridge this technological gap, we here present a microfluidic cell culture system containing embedded impedance microsensors to continuously and non-invasively monitor the effects of NMs on adherent cells under varying flow conditions. As a model, the impact of silica NMs on the vitality and regenerative capacity of human lung cells after acute and chronic exposure scenarios was studied over an 18-h period following a four-hour NM treatment. Results of the study demonstrated that the developed system is applicable to reliably analyze the consequences of dynamic NM exposure to physiological cell barriers in both nanotoxicology and nanomedicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell and Organ on Chip: Challenges and Advances)
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Open AccessReview
Recent Advances in Electrochemical Biosensors Based on Fullerene-C60 Nano-Structured Platforms
Biosensors 2015, 5(4), 712-735; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios5040712 - 23 Nov 2015
Cited by 45 | Viewed by 3853
Abstract
Nanotechnology is becoming increasingly important in the field of (bio)sensors. The performance and sensitivity of biosensors is greatly improved with the integration of nanomaterials into their construction. Since its first discovery, fullerene-C60 has been the object of extensive research. Its unique and [...] Read more.
Nanotechnology is becoming increasingly important in the field of (bio)sensors. The performance and sensitivity of biosensors is greatly improved with the integration of nanomaterials into their construction. Since its first discovery, fullerene-C60 has been the object of extensive research. Its unique and favorable characteristics of easy chemical modification, conductivity, and electrochemical properties has led to its tremendous use in (bio)sensor applications. This paper provides a concise review of advances in fullerene-C60 research and its use as a nanomaterial for the development of biosensors. We examine the research work reported in the literature on the synthesis, functionalization, approaches to nanostructuring electrodes with fullerene, and outline some of the exciting applications in the field of (bio)sensing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphene and Carbon Nanotube Based Biosensors)
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Open AccessReview
Bees as Biosensors: Chemosensory Ability, Honey Bee Monitoring Systems, and Emergent Sensor Technologies Derived from the Pollinator Syndrome
Biosensors 2015, 5(4), 678-711; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios5040678 - 30 Oct 2015
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 6413
Abstract
This review focuses on critical milestones in the development path for the use of bees, mainly honey bees and bumble bees, as sentinels and biosensors. These keystone species comprise the most abundant pollinators of agro-ecosystems. Pollinating 70%–80% of flowering terrestrial plants, bees and [...] Read more.
This review focuses on critical milestones in the development path for the use of bees, mainly honey bees and bumble bees, as sentinels and biosensors. These keystone species comprise the most abundant pollinators of agro-ecosystems. Pollinating 70%–80% of flowering terrestrial plants, bees and other insects propel the reproduction and survival of plants and themselves, as well as improve the quantity and quality of seeds, nuts, and fruits that feed birds, wildlife, and us. Flowers provide insects with energy, nutrients, and shelter, while pollinators are essential to global ecosystem productivity and stability. A rich and diverse milieu of chemical signals establishes and maintains this intimate partnership. Observations of bee odor search behavior extend back to Aristotle. In the past two decades great strides have been made in methods and instrumentation for the study and exploitation of bee search behavior and for examining intra-organismal chemical communication signals. In particular, bees can be trained to search for and localize sources for a variety of chemicals, which when coupled with emerging tracking and mapping technologies create novel potential for research, as well as bee and crop management. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sensing of p53 and EGFR Biomarkers Using High Efficiency SERS Substrates
Biosensors 2015, 5(4), 664-677; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios5040664 - 28 Oct 2015
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3372
Abstract
In this paper we describe a method for the determination of protein concentration using Surface Enhanced Raman Resonance Scattering (SERRS) immunoassays. We use two different Raman active linkers, 4-aminothiophenol and 6-mercaptopurine, to bind to a high sensitivity SERS substrate and investigate the influence [...] Read more.
In this paper we describe a method for the determination of protein concentration using Surface Enhanced Raman Resonance Scattering (SERRS) immunoassays. We use two different Raman active linkers, 4-aminothiophenol and 6-mercaptopurine, to bind to a high sensitivity SERS substrate and investigate the influence of varying concentrations of p53 and EGFR on the Raman spectra. Perturbations in the spectra are due to the influence of protein–antibody binding on Raman linker molecules and are attributed to small changes in localised mechanical stress, which are enhanced by SERRS. These influences are greatest for peaks due to the C-S functional group and the Full Width Half Maximum (FWHM) was found to be inversely proportional to protein concentration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Sensors for Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessReview
Biocompatible Hydrogels for Microarray Cell Printing and Encapsulation
Biosensors 2015, 5(4), 647-663; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios5040647 - 26 Oct 2015
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3633
Abstract
Conventional drug screening processes are a time-consuming and expensive endeavor, but highly rewarding when they are successful. To identify promising lead compounds, millions of compounds are traditionally screened against therapeutic targets on human cells grown on the surface of 96-wells. These two-dimensional (2D) [...] Read more.
Conventional drug screening processes are a time-consuming and expensive endeavor, but highly rewarding when they are successful. To identify promising lead compounds, millions of compounds are traditionally screened against therapeutic targets on human cells grown on the surface of 96-wells. These two-dimensional (2D) cell monolayers are physiologically irrelevant, thus, often providing false-positive or false-negative results, when compared to cells grown in three-dimensional (3D) structures such as hydrogel droplets. However, 3D cell culture systems are not easily amenable to high-throughput screening (HTS), thus inherently low throughput, and requiring relatively large volume for cell-based assays. In addition, it is difficult to control cellular microenvironments and hard to obtain reliable cell images due to focus position and transparency issues. To overcome these problems, miniaturized 3D cell cultures in hydrogels were developed via cell printing techniques where cell spots in hydrogels can be arrayed on the surface of glass slides or plastic chips by microarray spotters and cultured in growth media to form cells encapsulated 3D droplets for various cell-based assays. These approaches can dramatically reduce assay volume, provide accurate control over cellular microenvironments, and allow us to obtain clear 3D cell images for high-content imaging (HCI). In this review, several hydrogels that are compatible to microarray printing robots are discussed for miniaturized 3D cell cultures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell and Organ on Chip: Challenges and Advances)
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Open AccessArticle
In Vivo Electrochemical Analysis of a PEDOT/MWCNT Neural Electrode Coating
Biosensors 2015, 5(4), 618-646; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios5040618 - 13 Oct 2015
Cited by 47 | Viewed by 4777
Abstract
Neural electrodes hold tremendous potential for improving understanding of brain function and restoring lost neurological functions. Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and dexamethasone (Dex)-doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) coatings have shown promise to improve chronic neural electrode performance. Here, we employ electrochemical techniques to characterize the [...] Read more.
Neural electrodes hold tremendous potential for improving understanding of brain function and restoring lost neurological functions. Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and dexamethasone (Dex)-doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) coatings have shown promise to improve chronic neural electrode performance. Here, we employ electrochemical techniques to characterize the coating in vivo. Coated and uncoated electrode arrays were implanted into rat visual cortex and subjected to daily cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for 11 days. Coated electrodes experienced a significant decrease in 1 kHz impedance within the first two days of implantation followed by an increase between days 4 and 7. Equivalent circuit analysis showed that the impedance increase is the result of surface capacitance reduction, likely due to protein and cellular processes encapsulating the porous coating. Coating’s charge storage capacity remained consistently higher than uncoated electrodes, demonstrating its in vivo electrochemical stability. To decouple the PEDOT/MWCNT material property changes from the tissue response, in vitro characterization was conducted by soaking the coated electrodes in PBS for 11 days. Some coated electrodes exhibited steady impedance while others exhibiting large increases associated with large decreases in charge storage capacity suggesting delamination in PBS. This was not observed in vivo, as scanning electron microscopy of explants verified the integrity of the coating with no sign of delamination or cracking. Despite the impedance increase, coated electrodes successfully recorded neural activity throughout the implantation period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neural Sensing and Interfacing Technology)
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Open AccessEditorial
Introduction to Special Issue on “Fluorescence-Based Sensing Technologies”
Biosensors 2015, 5(4), 616-617; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios5040616 - 10 Oct 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2196
Abstract
The application of fluorescence-based technologies to sensing applications in biosciences and related industries is growing. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescence Based Sensing Technologies)
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