Special Issue "Optical Sensors for Biomedical Applications"

A special issue of Biosensors (ISSN 2079-6374).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2015).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Yuliya Semenova
Website
Guest Editor
School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Photonics Research Centre, City Campus TU Dublin - Kevin Street, D08 NF82, Ireland
Interests: optical sensing; whispering gallery mode effects in microfibre based resonators for chemical and bio-sensing; smart optical sensors for engineering applications; sensing of volatile organic compounds in environmental monitoring, medical diagnostics and industrial control; optics and applications of liquid crystals in photonics
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Growing demand for biological information in medical diagnostics, healthcare, agriculture, environmental monitoring, and many other application areas resulted in a tremendous interest in the field of biosensors. Optical biosensors, utilizing optical techniques, have become one of the most common types of biosensors due their high selectivity and specificity, compact design, immunity to electromagnetic interference, fast and real-time measurements, and remote sensing capabilities.

This Special Issue invites original contributions relating to optical biosensors, including, but not limited to, novel materials and principles in optical detection and transducing mechanisms, lab-on-a-chip optical platforms and solutions, micro- and nano-optical sensor arrays, methods of surface (bio)functionalization for optical sensing, applications of optical biosensors in medical diagnostics, pharmacology, health care, intracellular sensing, food analysis, agriculture, environmental monitoring, defense, and security.

Prof. Yuliya Semenova
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biosensors is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • optical transducing mechanisms
  • lab-on-a-chip
  • micro- and nano-optical sensor arrays
  • surface (bio)functionalization

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Asymmetric Mach–Zehnder Interferometer Based Biosensors for Aflatoxin M1 Detection
Biosensors 2016, 6(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios6010001 - 06 Jan 2016
Cited by 31
Abstract
In this work, we present a study of Aflatoxin M1 detection by photonic biosensors based on Si3N4 Asymmetric Mach–Zehnder Interferometer (aMZI) functionalized with antibodies fragments (Fab′). We measured a best volumetric sensitivity of 104 rad/RIU, leading to a Limit [...] Read more.
In this work, we present a study of Aflatoxin M1 detection by photonic biosensors based on Si3N4 Asymmetric Mach–Zehnder Interferometer (aMZI) functionalized with antibodies fragments (Fab′). We measured a best volumetric sensitivity of 104 rad/RIU, leading to a Limit of Detection below 5 × 10−7 RIU. On sensors functionalized with Fab′, we performed specific and non-specific sensing measurements at various toxin concentrations. Reproducibility of the measurements and re-usability of the sensor were also investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Sensors for Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Sensing of p53 and EGFR Biomarkers Using High Efficiency SERS Substrates
Biosensors 2015, 5(4), 664-677; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios5040664 - 28 Oct 2015
Cited by 13
Abstract
In this paper we describe a method for the determination of protein concentration using Surface Enhanced Raman Resonance Scattering (SERRS) immunoassays. We use two different Raman active linkers, 4-aminothiophenol and 6-mercaptopurine, to bind to a high sensitivity SERS substrate and investigate the influence [...] Read more.
In this paper we describe a method for the determination of protein concentration using Surface Enhanced Raman Resonance Scattering (SERRS) immunoassays. We use two different Raman active linkers, 4-aminothiophenol and 6-mercaptopurine, to bind to a high sensitivity SERS substrate and investigate the influence of varying concentrations of p53 and EGFR on the Raman spectra. Perturbations in the spectra are due to the influence of protein–antibody binding on Raman linker molecules and are attributed to small changes in localised mechanical stress, which are enhanced by SERRS. These influences are greatest for peaks due to the C-S functional group and the Full Width Half Maximum (FWHM) was found to be inversely proportional to protein concentration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Sensors for Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Smart Textile Based on Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors for Respiratory Monitoring: Design and Preliminary Trials
Biosensors 2015, 5(3), 602-615; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios5030602 - 14 Sep 2015
Cited by 55
Abstract
Continuous respiratory monitoring is important to assess adequate ventilation. We present a fiber optic-based smart textile for respiratory monitoring able to work during Magnetic Resonance (MR) examinations. The system is based on the conversion of chest wall movements into strain of two fiber [...] Read more.
Continuous respiratory monitoring is important to assess adequate ventilation. We present a fiber optic-based smart textile for respiratory monitoring able to work during Magnetic Resonance (MR) examinations. The system is based on the conversion of chest wall movements into strain of two fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors, placed on the upper thorax (UT). FBGs are glued on the textile by an adhesive silicon rubber. To increase the system sensitivity, the FBGs positioning was led by preliminary experiments performed using an optoelectronic system: FBGs placed on the chest surface experienced the largest strain during breathing. System performances, in terms of respiratory period (TR), duration of inspiratory (TI) and expiratory (TE) phases, as well as left and right UT volumes, were assessed on four healthy volunteers. The comparison of results obtained by the proposed system and an optoelectronic plethysmography highlights the high accuracy in the estimation of TR, TI, and TE: Bland-Altman analysis shows mean of difference values lower than 0.045 s, 0.33 s, and 0.35 s for TR, TI, and TE, respectively. The mean difference of UT volumes between the two systems is about 8.3%. The promising results foster further development of the system to allow routine use during MR examinations.Continuous respiratory monitoring is important to assess adequate ventilation. We present a fiber optic-based smart textile for respiratory monitoring able to work during Magnetic Resonance (MR) examinations. The system is based on the conversion of chest wall movements into strain of two fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors, placed on the upper thorax (UT). FBGs are glued on the textile by an adhesive silicon rubber. To increase the system sensitivity, the FBGs positioning was led by preliminary experiments performed using an optoelectronic system: FBGs placed on the chest surface experienced the largest strain during breathing. System performances, in terms of respiratory period (TR), duration of inspiratory (TI) and expiratory (TE) phases, as well as left and right UT volumes, were assessed on four healthy volunteers. The comparison of results obtained by the proposed system and an optoelectronic plethysmography highlights the high accuracy in the estimation of TR, TI, and TE: Bland-Altman analysis shows mean of difference values lower than 0.045 s, 0.33 s, and 0.35 s for TR, TI, and TE, respectively. The mean difference of UT volumes between the two systems is about 8.3%. The promising results foster further development of the system to allow routine use during MR examinations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Sensors for Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
The Detection of Helicobacter hepaticus Using Whispering-Gallery Mode Microcavity Optical Sensors
Biosensors 2015, 5(3), 562-576; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios5030562 - 07 Aug 2015
Cited by 14
Abstract
Current bacterial detection techniques are relatively slow, require bulky instrumentation, and usually require some form of specialized training. The gold standard for bacterial detection is culture testing, which can take several days to receive a viable result. Therefore, simpler detection techniques that are [...] Read more.
Current bacterial detection techniques are relatively slow, require bulky instrumentation, and usually require some form of specialized training. The gold standard for bacterial detection is culture testing, which can take several days to receive a viable result. Therefore, simpler detection techniques that are both fast and sensitive could greatly improve bacterial detection and identification. Here, we present a new method for the detection of the bacteria Helicobacter hepaticus using whispering-gallery mode (WGM) optical microcavity-based sensors. Due to minimal reflection losses and low material adsorption, WGM-based sensors have ultra-high quality factors, resulting in high-sensitivity sensor devices. In this study, we have shown that bacteria can be non-specifically detected using WGM optical microcavity-based sensors. The minimum detection for the device was 1 × 104 cells/mL, and the minimum time of detection was found to be 750 s. Given that a cell density as low as 1 × 103 cells/mL for Helicobacter hepaticus can cause infection, the limit of detection shown here would be useful for most levels where Helicobacter hepaticus is biologically relevant. This study suggests a new approach for H. hepaticus detection using label-free optical sensors that is faster than, and potentially as sensitive as, standard techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Sensors for Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Recent Improvement of Medical Optical Fibre Pressure and Temperature Sensors
Biosensors 2015, 5(3), 432-449; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios5030432 - 13 Jul 2015
Cited by 21
Abstract
This investigation describes a detailed analysis of the fabrication and testing of optical fibre pressure and temperature sensors (OFPTS). The optical sensor of this research is based on an extrinsic Fabry–Perot interferometer (EFPI) with integrated fibre Bragg grating (FBG) for simultaneous pressure and [...] Read more.
This investigation describes a detailed analysis of the fabrication and testing of optical fibre pressure and temperature sensors (OFPTS). The optical sensor of this research is based on an extrinsic Fabry–Perot interferometer (EFPI) with integrated fibre Bragg grating (FBG) for simultaneous pressure and temperature measurements. The sensor is fabricated exclusively in glass and with a small diameter of 0.2 mm, making it suitable for volume-restricted bio-medical applications. Diaphragm shrinking techniques based on polishing, hydrofluoric (HF) acid and femtosecond (FS) laser micro-machining are described and analysed. The presented sensors were examined carefully and demonstrated a pressure sensitivity in the range of \(s_p\) = 2–10 \(\frac{\text{nm}}{\text{kPa}}\) and a resolution of better than \(\Delta P\) = 10 Pa protect (0.1 cm H\(_2\)O). A static pressure test in 38 cmH\(_2\)O shows no drift of the sensor in a six-day period. Additionally, a dynamic pressure analysis demonstrated that the OFPTS never exceeded a drift of more than 130 Pa (1.3 cm H\(_2\)O) in a 12-h measurement, carried out in a cardiovascular simulator. The temperature sensitivity is given by \(k=10.7\) \(\frac{\text{pm}}{\text{K}}\), which results in a temperature resolution of better than \(\Delta T\) = 0.1 K. Since the temperature sensing element is placed close to the pressure sensing element, the pressure sensor is insensitive to temperature changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Sensors for Biomedical Applications)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Optical Microfibre Based Photonic Components and Their Applications in Label-Free Biosensing
Biosensors 2015, 5(3), 471-499; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios5030471 - 22 Jul 2015
Cited by 17
Abstract
Optical microfibre photonic components offer a variety of enabling properties, including large evanescent fields, flexibility, configurability, high confinement, robustness and compactness. These unique features have been exploited in a range of applications such as telecommunication, sensing, optical manipulation and high Q resonators. Optical [...] Read more.
Optical microfibre photonic components offer a variety of enabling properties, including large evanescent fields, flexibility, configurability, high confinement, robustness and compactness. These unique features have been exploited in a range of applications such as telecommunication, sensing, optical manipulation and high Q resonators. Optical microfibre biosensors, as a class of fibre optic biosensors which rely on small geometries to expose the evanescent field to interact with samples, have been widely investigated. Due to their unique properties, such as fast response, functionalization, strong confinement, configurability, flexibility, compact size, low cost, robustness, ease of miniaturization, large evanescent field and label-free operation, optical microfibres based biosensors seem a promising alternative to traditional immunological methods for biomolecule measurements. Unlabeled DNA and protein targets can be detected by monitoring the changes of various optical transduction mechanisms, such as refractive index, absorption and surface plasmon resonance, since a target molecule is capable of binding to an immobilized optical microfibre. In this review, we critically summarize accomplishments of past optical microfibre label-free biosensors, identify areas for future research and provide a detailed account of the studies conducted to date for biomolecules detection using optical microfibres. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Sensors for Biomedical Applications)
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