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Open AccessReview

Biocompatible Hydrogels for Microarray Cell Printing and Encapsulation

Department of Chemical & Biomedical Engineering, Cleveland State University, 1960 East 24th Street Cleveland, OH 44115-2214, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Christophe A. Marquette
Biosensors 2015, 5(4), 647-663; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios5040647
Received: 28 September 2015 / Revised: 21 October 2015 / Accepted: 22 October 2015 / Published: 26 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell and Organ on Chip: Challenges and Advances)
Conventional drug screening processes are a time-consuming and expensive endeavor, but highly rewarding when they are successful. To identify promising lead compounds, millions of compounds are traditionally screened against therapeutic targets on human cells grown on the surface of 96-wells. These two-dimensional (2D) cell monolayers are physiologically irrelevant, thus, often providing false-positive or false-negative results, when compared to cells grown in three-dimensional (3D) structures such as hydrogel droplets. However, 3D cell culture systems are not easily amenable to high-throughput screening (HTS), thus inherently low throughput, and requiring relatively large volume for cell-based assays. In addition, it is difficult to control cellular microenvironments and hard to obtain reliable cell images due to focus position and transparency issues. To overcome these problems, miniaturized 3D cell cultures in hydrogels were developed via cell printing techniques where cell spots in hydrogels can be arrayed on the surface of glass slides or plastic chips by microarray spotters and cultured in growth media to form cells encapsulated 3D droplets for various cell-based assays. These approaches can dramatically reduce assay volume, provide accurate control over cellular microenvironments, and allow us to obtain clear 3D cell images for high-content imaging (HCI). In this review, several hydrogels that are compatible to microarray printing robots are discussed for miniaturized 3D cell cultures. View Full-Text
Keywords: microarray; cell encapsulation; hydrogel; bioprinting; miniaturized 3D cell culture microarray; cell encapsulation; hydrogel; bioprinting; miniaturized 3D cell culture
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Datar, A.; Joshi, P.; Lee, M.-Y. Biocompatible Hydrogels for Microarray Cell Printing and Encapsulation. Biosensors 2015, 5, 647-663.

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