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Nanomaterials, Volume 12, Issue 11 (June-1 2022) – 164 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Porphyrins designed to easily distort their planarity are versatile structures. Mixed porphyrins substituted with hydroxy- and methoxy-groups A3B porphyrin and its Pt(II) complex were synthesized and characterized. Our purpose was to search the limits of exploiting of these two porphyrins, firstly as sensitive materials for selective optical and fluorescence detection of hydroquinone (the best result in the range 0.039–6.71 µM with detection limit 0.013 µM), secondly as corrosion inhibitors for steel in an acid medium (best performance of 88% for Pt-porphyrin coverings), and finally as electrocatalytic materials for hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions via the water splitting method. View this paper
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Article
Novel MOF-Based Photocatalyst AgBr/[email protected] with Enhanced Photocatalytic Degradation and Antibacterial Properties
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(11), 1946; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12111946 - 06 Jun 2022
Viewed by 410
Abstract
A novel visible light-driven AgBr/[email protected] catalyst was synthesized by a simple and rapid method. The composition and structure of the photocatalyst were characterized by XRD, SEM, UV-DRS, and XPS. It could be observed that the 2-methylimidazole zinc salt (ZIF-8) exhibited the rhombic dodecahedron [...] Read more.
A novel visible light-driven AgBr/[email protected] catalyst was synthesized by a simple and rapid method. The composition and structure of the photocatalyst were characterized by XRD, SEM, UV-DRS, and XPS. It could be observed that the 2-methylimidazole zinc salt (ZIF-8) exhibited the rhombic dodecahedron morphology with the AgCl and AgBr particles evenly distributed around it. The composite photocatalyst AgBr/[email protected] showed good photocatalytic degradation and antibacterial properties. The degradation rate of RhB solution was 98%, with 60 min of irradiation of visible light, and almost all P. aeruginosaudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and Escherichia coli (E. coli) were inactivated under the irradiation of 90 min. In addition, the prepared catalyst had excellent stability and reusability. Based on the free radical capture experiment, ·O2 and h+ were believed to be the main active substances, and possible photocatalytic degradation and sterilization mechanisms of AgBr/[email protected] were proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hybrid Nanomaterials Applied to Photocatalysis)
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Article
Ternary Nanohybrid of Ni3S2/CoMoS4/MnO2 on Nickel Foam for Aqueous and Solid-State High-Performance Supercapacitors
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(11), 1945; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12111945 - 06 Jun 2022
Viewed by 361
Abstract
To overcome the issues related to supercapacitor (SC) electrodes, such as high cost, low specific capacitance (Cs), low energy density (ED), requirements for expensive binder, etc., binderless electrodes are highly desirable. Here, a new ternary nanohybrid is presented as a [...] Read more.
To overcome the issues related to supercapacitor (SC) electrodes, such as high cost, low specific capacitance (Cs), low energy density (ED), requirements for expensive binder, etc., binderless electrodes are highly desirable. Here, a new ternary nanohybrid is presented as a binder-free SC electrode based on Ni3S2, CoMoS4, and MnO2. A facile two-step hydrothermal route, followed by a short thermal annealing process, is developed to grow amorphous polyhedral structured CoMoS4 and further wrap MnO2 nanowires on Ni foam. This rationally designed binder-free electrode exhibited the highest Cs of 2021 F g−1 (specific capacity of 883.8 C g−1 or 245.5 mAh g−1) at a current density of 1 A g−1 in 1 M KOH electrolyte with a highly porous surface morphology. This electrode material exhibited excellent cycling stability (90% capacitance retention after 4000 cycles) due to the synergistic contribution of individual components and advanced surface properties. Furthermore, an aqueous binder-free asymmetric SC based on this ternary composite exhibited an ED of 20.7 Wh kg−1, whereas a solid-state asymmetric SC achieved an ED of 13.8 Wh kg−1. This nanohybrid can be considered a promising binder-free electrode for both aqueous and solid-state asymmetric SCs with these remarkable electrochemical properties. Full article
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Article
Green Synthesis via Eucalyptus globulus L. Extract of Ag-TiO2 Catalyst: Antimicrobial Activity Evaluation toward Water Disinfection Process
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(11), 1944; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12111944 - 06 Jun 2022
Viewed by 424
Abstract
The problem of water pollution by persistent substances and microorganisms requires solutions that materials such as silver-modified titanium dioxide can provide due to their excellent photocatalytic and antimicrobial properties. However, the synthesis methods conventionally used to obtain these materials involve toxic chemical reagents [...] Read more.
The problem of water pollution by persistent substances and microorganisms requires solutions that materials such as silver-modified titanium dioxide can provide due to their excellent photocatalytic and antimicrobial properties. However, the synthesis methods conventionally used to obtain these materials involve toxic chemical reagents such as sodium borohydride (NaBH4). The search for alternative synthesis methods that use environmentally friendly substances, such as the biosynthesis method, was evaluated. Silver-titanium dioxide (Ag-TiO2) was synthesized by a Eucalyptus globulus L. extract as a reductive agent through sol-gel and microwave-assisted sol-gel processes. Four different solvents were tested to extract secondary metabolites to determine their roles in reducing silver nanoparticles. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles with sizes from 11 to 14 nm were obtained in the anatase phase, and no narrowing of the bandgap was observed (3.1–3.2 eV) for the Ag-TiO2 materials compared with the pure TiO2. Interestingly, the bacterial inhibition values were close to 100%, suggesting an effective antimicrobial mechanism related to the properties of silver. Finally, by the physicochemical characterization of the materials and their antimicrobial properties, it was possible to obtain a suitable biosynthesized Ag-TiO2 material as a green option for water disinfection that may be compared to the conventional methods. Full article
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Article
Novel Graphene Oxide/Quercetin and Graphene Oxide/Juglone Nanostructured Platforms as Effective Drug Delivery Systems with Biomedical Applications
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(11), 1943; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12111943 - 06 Jun 2022
Viewed by 374
Abstract
In this paper, novel drug delivery systems (DDS) were designed based on graphene oxide (GO) as nanocarrier, loaded with two natural substances (quercetin (Qu) and juglone (Ju)) at different concentrations. The chemical structure and morphology of the synthesized GO-based materials were characterized by [...] Read more.
In this paper, novel drug delivery systems (DDS) were designed based on graphene oxide (GO) as nanocarrier, loaded with two natural substances (quercetin (Qu) and juglone (Ju)) at different concentrations. The chemical structure and morphology of the synthesized GO-based materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Raman spectroscopy. The antibacterial activity was evaluated against standard strains, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. Results demonstrated excellent antimicrobial activity, with a 5 log reduction of E. coli and a 1 log to 3.04 log reduction of S. aureus populations. Reduction rates were above 90%. Biocompatibility tests were also performed on GO-based materials, and the results showed biocompatible behavior for both L929 fibroblast cell line and BT474 breast cancer cells at lower concentrations. The identity of Qu and Ju was demonstrated by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) analysis, showing the compounds’ mass with high accuracy. In addition, specific properties of GO made it a versatile matrix for the MALDI analysis. The results of this study indicated that GO-based platforms may be suitable for applications in many areas for the effective and beneficial use of hydrophobic compounds such as Ju and Qu. Full article
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Article
Targeted Immuno-Antiretroviral to Promote Dual Protection against HIV: A Proof-of-Concept Study
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(11), 1942; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12111942 - 06 Jun 2022
Viewed by 474
Abstract
The C–C motif chemokine receptor-5 (CCR5) expression on the T-cell surface is the prime barrier to HIV/AIDS eradication, as it promotes both active human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection and latency; however, antiretrovirals (ARVs) suppress plasma viral loads to non-detectable levels. Keeping this in mind, [...] Read more.
The C–C motif chemokine receptor-5 (CCR5) expression on the T-cell surface is the prime barrier to HIV/AIDS eradication, as it promotes both active human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection and latency; however, antiretrovirals (ARVs) suppress plasma viral loads to non-detectable levels. Keeping this in mind, we strategically designed a targeted ARVs-loaded nanoformulation that targets CCR5 expressing T-cells (e.g., CD4+ cells). Conceptually, CCR5-blocking and targeted ARV delivery would be a dual protection strategy to prevent HIV infection. For targeting CCR5+ T-cells, the nanoformulation was surface conjugated with anti-CCR5 monoclonal antibodies (CCR5 mAb) and loaded with dolutegravir+tenofovir alafenamide (D+T) ARVs to block HIV replication. The result demonstrated that the targeted-ARV nanoparticle’s multimeric CCR5 binding property improved its antigen-binding affinity, prolonged receptor binding, and ARV intracellular retention. Further, nanoformulation demonstrated high binding affinity to CCR5 expressing CD4+ cells, monocytes, and other CCR5+ T-cells. Finally, the short-term pre-exposure prophylaxis study demonstrated that prolonged CCR5 blockage and ARV presence further induced a “protective immune phenotype” with a boosted T-helper (Th), temporary memory (TM), and effector (E) sub-population. The proof-of-concept study that the targeted-ARV nanoformulation dual-action mechanism could provide a multifactorial solution toward achieving HIV “functional cure.” Full article
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Article
Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity and Photoluminescence of ZnO Nano-Wires Coupled with Aluminum Nanostructures
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(11), 1941; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12111941 - 06 Jun 2022
Viewed by 418
Abstract
In this study, we fabricated a hybrid plasmonic/semiconductor material by combining the chemical bath deposition of zinc oxide nanowires (ZnONWs) with the physical vapor deposition of aluminum nanostructures (AlNSs) under controlled temperature and atmosphere. The morphological and the optical properties of the ZnONWs/AlNSs [...] Read more.
In this study, we fabricated a hybrid plasmonic/semiconductor material by combining the chemical bath deposition of zinc oxide nanowires (ZnONWs) with the physical vapor deposition of aluminum nanostructures (AlNSs) under controlled temperature and atmosphere. The morphological and the optical properties of the ZnONWs/AlNSs hybrid material fabricated at different temperatures (250, 350, and 450 °C) and thicknesses (5, 7, and 9 nm) of Al layers were investigated. By adjusting the deposition and annealing parameters, it was possible to tune the size distribution of the AlNSs. The resonant coupling between the plasmonic AlNSs and ZnONWs leads to an enhanced photoluminescence response. The photocatalytic activity was studied through photodegradation under UV-light irradiation of methylene blue (MB) adsorbed at the surface of ZnO. The MB photodegradation experiment reveals that the ZnONWs covered with 7 nm aluminum film and annealed at 450 °C exhibit the highest degradation efficiency. The comparison between ZnONws and ZnONws/AlNSs shows a photoluminescence enhancement factor of 1.7 and an increase in the kinetics constant of photodegradation with a factor of 4. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis of Nanowires)
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Article
Dendritic Mesoporous Silica Hollow Spheres for Nano-Bioreactor Application
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(11), 1940; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12111940 - 06 Jun 2022
Viewed by 382
Abstract
Mesoporous silica materials have attracted great research interest for various applications ranging from (bio)catalysis and sensing to drug delivery. It remains challenging to prepare hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSN) with large center-radial mesopores that could provide a more efficient transport channel through the [...] Read more.
Mesoporous silica materials have attracted great research interest for various applications ranging from (bio)catalysis and sensing to drug delivery. It remains challenging to prepare hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSN) with large center-radial mesopores that could provide a more efficient transport channel through the cell for guest molecules. Here, we propose a novel strategy for the preparation of HMSN with large dendritic mesopores to achieve higher enzyme loading capacity and more efficient bioreactors. The materials were prepared by combining barium sulfate nanoparticles (BaSO4 NP) as a hard template and the in situ-formed 3-aminophenol/formaldehyde resin as a porogen for directing the dendritic mesopores’ formation. HMSNs with different particle sizes, shell thicknesses, and pore structures have been prepared by choosing BaSO4 NP of various sizes and adjusting the amount of tetraethyl orthosilicate added in synthesis. The obtained HMSN-1.1 possesses a high pore volume (1.07 cm3 g−1), a large average pore size (10.9 nm), and dendritic mesopores that penetrated through the shell. The advantages of HMSNs are also demonstrated for enzyme (catalase) immobilization and subsequent use of catalase-loaded HMSNs as bioreactors for catalyzing the H2O2 degradation reaction. The hollow and dendritic mesoporous shell features of HMSNs provide abundant tunnels for molecular transport and more accessible surfaces for molecular adsorption, showing great promise in developing efficient nanoreactors and drug delivery vehicles. Full article
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Article
Erbium-Doped GQD-Embedded Coffee-Ground-Derived Porous Biochar for Highly Efficient Asymmetric Supercapacitor
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(11), 1939; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12111939 - 06 Jun 2022
Viewed by 399
Abstract
A nanocomposite with erbium-doped graphene quantum dots embedded in highly porous coffee-ground-derived biochar (Er-GQD/HPB) was synthesized as a promising electrode material for a highly efficient supercapacitor. The HPB showed high porosity, with a large surface area of 1295 m2 g−1 and [...] Read more.
A nanocomposite with erbium-doped graphene quantum dots embedded in highly porous coffee-ground-derived biochar (Er-GQD/HPB) was synthesized as a promising electrode material for a highly efficient supercapacitor. The HPB showed high porosity, with a large surface area of 1295 m2 g−1 and an average pore size of 2.8 nm. The 2–8-nanometer Er-GQD nanoparticles were uniformly decorated on the HPB, subsequently increasing its specific surface area and thermal stability. Furthermore, the intimate contact between the Er-GQDs and HPB significantly reduced the charge-transfer resistance and diffusion path, leading to the rapid migration of ions/electrons in the mesoporous channels of the HPB. By adding Er-GQDs, the specific capacitance was dramatically increased from 337 F g−1 for the pure HPB to 699 F g−1 for the Er-GQD/HPB at 1 A g−1. The Ragone plot of the Er-GQD/HPB exhibited an ultrahigh energy density of 94.5 Wh kg−1 and a power density of 1.3 kW kg−1 at 1 A g−1. Furthermore, the Er-GQD/HPB electrode displayed excellent cycling stability, and 81% of the initial capacitance remained after 5000 cycles. Our results provide further insights into a promising supercapacitance material that offers the benefits of both fast ion transport from highly porous carbons and electrocatalytic improvement due to the embedment of Er-doped GQDs to enhance energy density relative to conventional materials. Full article
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Article
Circular Optical Phased Arrays with Radial Nano-Antennas
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(11), 1938; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12111938 - 06 Jun 2022
Viewed by 375
Abstract
On-chip optical phased arrays (OPAs) are the enabling technology for diverse applications, ranging from optical interconnects to metrology and light detection and ranging (LIDAR). To meet the required performance demands, OPAs need to achieve a narrow beam width and wide-angle steering, along with [...] Read more.
On-chip optical phased arrays (OPAs) are the enabling technology for diverse applications, ranging from optical interconnects to metrology and light detection and ranging (LIDAR). To meet the required performance demands, OPAs need to achieve a narrow beam width and wide-angle steering, along with efficient sidelobe suppression. A typical OPA configuration consists of either one-dimensional (1D) linear or two-dimensional (2D) rectangular arrays. However, the presence of grating sidelobes from these array configurations in the far-field pattern limits the aliasing-free beam steering, when the antenna element spacing is larger than half of a wavelength. In this work, we provide numerical analysis for 2D circular OPAs with radially arranged nano-antennas. The circular array geometry is shown to effectively suppress the grating lobes, expand the range for beam steering and obtain narrower beamwidths, while increasing element spacing to about 10 μm. To allow for high coupling efficiency, we propose the use of a central circular grating coupler to feed the designed circular OPA. Leveraging radially positioned nano-antennas and an efficient central grating coupler, our design can yield an aliasing-free azimuthal field of view (FOV) of 360°, while the elevation angle FOV is limited by the far-field beamwidth of the nano-antenna element and its array arrangement. With a main-to-sidelobe contrast ratio of 10 dB, a 110-element OPA offers an elevation FOV of 5° and an angular beamwidth of 1.14°, while an 870-element array provides an elevation FOV up to 20° with an angular beamwidth of 0.35°. Our analysis suggests that the performance of the circular OPAs can be further improved by integrating more elements, achieving larger aliasing-free FOV and narrower beamwidths. Our proposed design paves a new way for the development of on-chip OPAs with large 2D beam steering and high resolutions in communications and LIDAR systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanophotonics and Integrated Optics Devices)
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Article
Promising Colloidal Rhenium Disulfide Nanosheets: Preparation and Applications for In Vivo Breast Cancer Therapy
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(11), 1937; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12111937 - 06 Jun 2022
Viewed by 349
Abstract
Photothermal therapy (PTT) has become an important therapeutic strategy in the treatment of cancer. However, exploring novel photothermal nanomaterials with satisfactory biocompatibility, high photothermal conversion efficiency, and efficient theranostic outcomes, remains a major challenge for satisfying clinical application. In this study, poly-ethylene glycol [...] Read more.
Photothermal therapy (PTT) has become an important therapeutic strategy in the treatment of cancer. However, exploring novel photothermal nanomaterials with satisfactory biocompatibility, high photothermal conversion efficiency, and efficient theranostic outcomes, remains a major challenge for satisfying clinical application. In this study, poly-ethylene glycol modified rhenium disulfide (PEG-ReS2) nanosheets are constructed by a simple-liquid phase exfoliation method. The PEG-ReS2 nanosheets were demonstrated to have good solubility, good biocompatibility, low toxicity, and strong capability of accumulating near-infrared (NIR) photons. Under 808 nm laser irradiation, the PEG-ReS2 nanosheets were found to have an excellent photothermal conversion efficiency (PTCE) of 42%. Moreover, the PEG-ReS2 nanosheets were demonstrated to be ideal photothermal transduction agents (PTAs), which promoted rapid cancer cell death in vitro and efficiently ablated tumors in vivo. Interestingly, the potential utility of up-regulation or down-regulation of miRNAs was proposed to evaluate the therapeutic outcomes of PEG-ReS2 nanosheets. The expression levels of a set of miRNAs in tumor-bearing mice were restored to normal levels after PTT therapy with PEG-ReS2 nanosheets. Both down-regulation miRNAs (miR-125a-5p, miR-34a-5p, miR-132-3p, and miR-148b-3p) and up-regulation miRNAs (miR-133a-3p, miR-200c-5p, miR-9-3p, and miR-150-3p) were suggested to be important clinical biomarkers for evaluating therapeutic outcomes of breast cancer-related PTT. This work highlights the great significance of PEG-ReS2 nanosheets as therapeutic nanoagents for cancer therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Nanotechnology for Biomedical Application)
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Review
Carbon-Coatings Improve Performance of Li-Ion Battery
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(11), 1936; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12111936 - 06 Jun 2022
Viewed by 417
Abstract
The development of lithium-ion batteries largely relies on the cathode and anode materials. In particular, the optimization of cathode materials plays an extremely important role in improving the performance of lithium-ion batteries, such as specific capacity or cycling stability. Carbon coating modifying the [...] Read more.
The development of lithium-ion batteries largely relies on the cathode and anode materials. In particular, the optimization of cathode materials plays an extremely important role in improving the performance of lithium-ion batteries, such as specific capacity or cycling stability. Carbon coating modifying the surface of cathode materials is regarded as an effective strategy that meets the demand of Lithium-ion battery cathodes. This work mainly reviews the modification mechanism and method of carbon coating, and summarizes the recent progress of carbon coating on some typical cathode materials (LiFePO4, LiMn2O4, LiCoO2, NCA (LiNiCoAlO2) and NCM (LiNiMnCoO2)). In addition, the limitations of the carbon coating on the cathode are also introduced. Suggestions on improving the effectiveness of carbon coating for future study are also presented. Full article
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Correction
Correction: Khan et al. High Mobility Graphene on EVA/PET. Nanomaterials 2022, 12, 331
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(11), 1935; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12111935 - 06 Jun 2022
Viewed by 228
Abstract
The authors wish to make following corrections in this paper [...] Full article
Article
Field Electron Emission from Crumpled CVD Graphene Patterns Printed via Laser-Induced Forward Transfer
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(11), 1934; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12111934 - 06 Jun 2022
Viewed by 371
Abstract
A new approach to the fabrication of graphene field emitters on a variety of substrates at room temperature and in an ambient environment is demonstrated. The required shape and orientation of the graphene flakes along the field are created by the blister-based laser-induced [...] Read more.
A new approach to the fabrication of graphene field emitters on a variety of substrates at room temperature and in an ambient environment is demonstrated. The required shape and orientation of the graphene flakes along the field are created by the blister-based laser-induced forward transfer of CVD high-quality single-layer graphene. The proposed technique allows the formation of emitting crumpled graphene patterns without losing the quality of the initially synthesized graphene, as shown by Raman spectroscopy. The electron field emission properties of crumpled graphene imprints 1 × 1 mm2 in size were studied. The transferred graphene flakes demonstrated good adhesion and emission characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Synthesis and Processing of Nanostructured Materials)
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Review
Silver Nanowires in Stretchable Resistive Strain Sensors
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(11), 1932; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12111932 - 06 Jun 2022
Viewed by 530
Abstract
Silver nanowires (AgNWs), having excellent electrical conductivity, transparency, and flexibility in polymer composites, are reliable options for developing various sensors. As transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs), AgNWs are applied in optoelectronics, organic electronics, energy devices, and flexible electronics. In recent times, research groups across [...] Read more.
Silver nanowires (AgNWs), having excellent electrical conductivity, transparency, and flexibility in polymer composites, are reliable options for developing various sensors. As transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs), AgNWs are applied in optoelectronics, organic electronics, energy devices, and flexible electronics. In recent times, research groups across the globe have been concentrating on developing flexible and stretchable strain sensors with a specific focus on material combinations, fabrication methods, and performance characteristics. Such sensors are gaining attention in human motion monitoring, wearable electronics, advanced healthcare, human-machine interfaces, soft robotics, etc. AgNWs, as a conducting network, enhance the sensing characteristics of stretchable strain-sensing polymer composites. This review article presents the recent developments in resistive stretchable strain sensors with AgNWs as a single or additional filler material in substrates such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU), polyurethane (PU), and other substrates. The focus is on the material combinations, fabrication methods, working principles, specific applications, and performance metrics such as sensitivity, stretchability, durability, transparency, hysteresis, linearity, and additional features, including self-healing multifunctional capabilities. Full article
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Article
Green Synthesis of Lead Sulphide Nanoparticles for High-Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cell Applications
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(11), 1933; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12111933 - 05 Jun 2022
Viewed by 495
Abstract
In this study, lead sulfide (PbS) nanoparticles were synthesized by the chemical precipitation method using Aloe Vera extract with PbCl2 and Thiourea (H2N-CS-NH2). The synthesized nanoparticles have been investigated using x-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), [...] Read more.
In this study, lead sulfide (PbS) nanoparticles were synthesized by the chemical precipitation method using Aloe Vera extract with PbCl2 and Thiourea (H2N-CS-NH2). The synthesized nanoparticles have been investigated using x-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XRD and TEM results confirm that the films are in the cubic phase. The crystallite size, lattice constant, micro-strain, dislocation density, optical bandgap, etc. have been determined using XRD and UV-Vis for investigating the quality of prepared nanoparticles. The possible application of these synthesized nanoparticles in the solar cells was investigated by fabricating the thin films on an FTO-coated and bare glass substrate. The properties of nanoparticles were found to be nearly retained in the film state as well. The experimentally found properties of thin films have been implemented for perovskite solar cell simulation and current-voltage and capacitance-voltage characteristics have been investigated. The simulation results showed that PbS nanoparticles could be a potential hole transport layer for high-efficiency perovskite solar cell applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stable Perovskite Materials: From Synthesis to Optoelectronic Devices)
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Article
Tunable Carrier Transfer of Polymeric Carbon Nitride with Charge-Conducting CoV2O6∙2H2O for Photocatalytic O2 Evolution
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(11), 1931; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12111931 - 05 Jun 2022
Viewed by 401
Abstract
Photocatalytic water splitting is one of the promising approaches to solving environmental problems and energy crises. However, the sluggish 4e transfer kinetics in water oxidation half-reaction restricts the 2e reduction efficiency in photocatalytic water splitting. Herein, cobalt vanadate-decorated polymeric carbon nitride [...] Read more.
Photocatalytic water splitting is one of the promising approaches to solving environmental problems and energy crises. However, the sluggish 4e transfer kinetics in water oxidation half-reaction restricts the 2e reduction efficiency in photocatalytic water splitting. Herein, cobalt vanadate-decorated polymeric carbon nitride (named CoVO/PCN) was constructed to mediate the carrier kinetic process in a photocatalytic water oxidation reaction (WOR). The photocatalysts were well-characterized by various physicochemical techniques such as XRD, FT-IR, TEM, and XPS. Under UV and visible light irradiation, the O2 evolution rate of optimized 3 wt% CoVO/PCN reached 467 and 200 μmol h−1 g−1, which were about 6.5 and 5.9 times higher than that of PCN, respectively. Electrochemical tests and PL results reveal that the recombination of photogenerated carriers on PCN is effectively suppressed and the kinetics of WOR is significantly enhanced after CoVO introduction. This work highlights key features of the tuning carrier kinetics of PCN using charge-conducting materials, which should be the basis for the further development of photocatalytic O2 reactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Nanomaterials in Photodegradation)
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Article
One A3B Porphyrin Structure—Three Successful Applications
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(11), 1930; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12111930 - 05 Jun 2022
Viewed by 495
Abstract
Porphyrins are versatile structures capable of acting in multiple ways. A mixed substituted A3B porphyrin, 5-(3-hydroxy-phenyl)-10,15,20-tris-(3-methoxy-phenyl)-porphyrin and its Pt(II) complex, were synthesised and fully characterised by 1H- and 13C-NMR, TLC, UV-Vis, FT-IR, fluorescence, AFM, TEM and SEM with EDX [...] Read more.
Porphyrins are versatile structures capable of acting in multiple ways. A mixed substituted A3B porphyrin, 5-(3-hydroxy-phenyl)-10,15,20-tris-(3-methoxy-phenyl)-porphyrin and its Pt(II) complex, were synthesised and fully characterised by 1H- and 13C-NMR, TLC, UV-Vis, FT-IR, fluorescence, AFM, TEM and SEM with EDX microscopy, both in organic solvents and in acidic mediums. The pure compounds were used, firstly, as sensitive materials for sensitive and selective optical and fluorescence detection of hydroquinone with the best results in the range 0.039–6.71 µM and a detection limit of 0.013 µM and, secondly, as corrosion inhibitors for carbon–steel (OL) in an acid medium giving a best performance of 88% in the case of coverings with Pt-porphyrin. Finally, the electrocatalytic activity for the hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions (HER and OER) of the free-base and Pt-metalated A3B porphyrins was evaluated in strong alkaline and acidic electrolyte solutions. The best results were obtained for the electrode modified with the metalated porphyrin, drop-casted on a graphite substrate from an N,N-dimethylformamide solution. In the strong acidic medium, the electrode displayed an HER overpotential of 108 mV, at i = −10 mA/cm2 and a Tafel slope value of 205 mV/dec. Full article
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Review
Strain-Modulated Magnetism in MoS2
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(11), 1929; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12111929 - 04 Jun 2022
Viewed by 448
Abstract
Since the experiments found that two-dimensional (2D) materials such as single-layer MoS2 can withstand up to 20% strain, strain-modulated magnetism has gradually become an emerging research field. However, applying strain alone is difficult to modulate the magnetism of single-layer pristine MoS2 [...] Read more.
Since the experiments found that two-dimensional (2D) materials such as single-layer MoS2 can withstand up to 20% strain, strain-modulated magnetism has gradually become an emerging research field. However, applying strain alone is difficult to modulate the magnetism of single-layer pristine MoS2, but applying strain combined with other tuning techniques such as introducing defects makes it easier to produce and alter the magnetism in MoS2. Here, we summarize the recent progress of strain-dependent magnetism in MoS2. First, we review the progress in theoretical study. Then, we compare the experimental methods of applying strain and their effects on magnetism. Specifically, we emphasize the roles played by web buckles, which induce biaxial tensile strain conveniently. Despite some progress, the study of strain-dependent MoS2 magnetism is still in its infancy, and a few potential directions for future research are discussed at the end. Overall, a broad and in-depth understanding of strain-tunable magnetism is very necessary, which will further drive the development of spintronics, straintronics, and flexible electronics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Review Papers in 2D and Carbon Nanomaterials)
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Article
Investigation of Heater Structures for Thermal Conductivity Measurements of SiO2 and Al2O3 Thin Films Using the 3-Omega Method
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(11), 1928; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12111928 - 04 Jun 2022
Viewed by 366
Abstract
A well-known method for measuring thermal conductivity is the 3-Omega (3ω) method. A prerequisite for it is the deposition of a metal heater on top of the sample surface. The known design rules for the heater geometry, however, are not yet [...] Read more.
A well-known method for measuring thermal conductivity is the 3-Omega (3ω) method. A prerequisite for it is the deposition of a metal heater on top of the sample surface. The known design rules for the heater geometry, however, are not yet sufficient. In this work, heaters with different lengths and widths within the known restrictions were investigated. The measurements were carried out on SiO2 thin films with different film thicknesses as a reference. There was a significant difference between theoretical deposited heater width and real heater width, which could lead to errors of up to 50% for the determined thermal conductivity. Heaters with lengths between 11 and 13 mm and widths of 6.5 µm or more proved to deliver the most trustworthy results. To verify the performance of these newfound heaters, additional investigations on Al2O3 thin films were carried out, proving our conclusions to be correct and delivering thermal conductivity values of 0.81 Wm−1 K−1 and 0.93 Wm−1 K−1 for unannealed and annealed samples, respectively. Furthermore, the effect of annealing on Al2O3 was studied, revealing a significant shrinking in film thickness of approximately 11% and an increase in thermal conductivity of 15%. The presented results on well-defined geometries will help to produce optimized heater structures for the 3ω method. Full article
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Article
Utilization of Carbon-Based Nanomaterials and Plate-Fin Networks in a Cold PCM Container with Application in Air Conditioning of Buildings
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(11), 1927; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12111927 - 04 Jun 2022
Viewed by 498
Abstract
Cold energy storage devices are widely used for coping with the mismatch between thermal energy production and demand. These devices can store cold thermal energy and return it when required. Besides the countless advantages of these devices, their freezing rate is sluggish, therefore [...] Read more.
Cold energy storage devices are widely used for coping with the mismatch between thermal energy production and demand. These devices can store cold thermal energy and return it when required. Besides the countless advantages of these devices, their freezing rate is sluggish, therefore researchers are continuously searching for techniques to improve their operating speed. This paper tries to address this problem by simultaneously combining a network of plate fins and various types of carbon-based nanomaterials (NMs) in a series of complex computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations that are validated by published experimental results. Horizontal, vertical, and the combination of these two plate-fin arrangements are tested and compared to the base model. Subsequently, several carbon-based NMs, including SWCNT, MWCNT, and graphene-oxide NMs are utilized to further improve the process. The influence of these fin networks, nanoparticle types, and their volume- and mass-based concentrations within the PCM container are studied and discussed. According to the results, carbon-based NMs exhibit superior performance compared to metal-oxide NMs, so that at identical NM volume and mass fractions, MWCNT particles present a 2.77% and 17.72% faster freezing rate than the CuO particles. The combination of plate-fin network and MWCNT particles is a promising technique that can expedite the ice formation rate by up to 70.14%. Full article
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Article
Ratiometric Upconversion Temperature Sensor Based on Cellulose Fibers Modified with Yttrium Fluoride Nanoparticles
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(11), 1926; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12111926 - 04 Jun 2022
Viewed by 344
Abstract
In this study, an optical thermometer based on regenerated cellulose fibers modified with YF3: 20% Yb3+, 2% Er3+ nanoparticles was developed. The presented sensor was fabricated by introducing YF3 nanoparticles into cellulose fibers during their formation by [...] Read more.
In this study, an optical thermometer based on regenerated cellulose fibers modified with YF3: 20% Yb3+, 2% Er3+ nanoparticles was developed. The presented sensor was fabricated by introducing YF3 nanoparticles into cellulose fibers during their formation by the so-called Lyocell process using N-methylmorpholine N-oxide as a direct solvent of cellulose. Under near-infrared excitation, the applied nanoparticles exhibited thermosensitive upconversion emission, which originated from the thermally coupled levels of Er3+ ions. The combination of cellulose fibers with upconversion nanoparticles resulted in a flexible thermometer that is resistant to environmental and electromagnetic interferences and allows precise and repeatable temperature measurements in the range of 298–362 K. The obtained fibers were used to produce a fabric that was successfully applied to determine human skin temperature, demonstrating its application potential in the field of wearable health monitoring devices and providing a promising alternative to thermometers based on conductive materials that are sensitive to electromagnetic fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nanoelectronics, Nanosensors and Devices)
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Article
Nanohollow Titanium Oxide Structures on Ti/FTO Glass Formed by Step-Bias Anodic Oxidation for Photoelectrochemical Enhancement
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(11), 1925; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12111925 - 04 Jun 2022
Viewed by 377
Abstract
In this study, a new anodic oxidation with a step-bias increment is proposed to evaluate oxidized titanium (Ti) nanostructures on transparent fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) on glass. The optimal Ti thickness was determined to be 130 nm. Compared to the use of a [...] Read more.
In this study, a new anodic oxidation with a step-bias increment is proposed to evaluate oxidized titanium (Ti) nanostructures on transparent fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) on glass. The optimal Ti thickness was determined to be 130 nm. Compared to the use of a conventional constant bias of 25 V, a bias ranging from 5 V to 20 V with a step size of 5 V for 3 min per period can be used to prepare a titanium oxide (TiOx) layer with nanohollows that shows a large increase in current of 142% under UV illumination provided by a 365 nm LED at a power of 83 mW. Based on AFM and SEM, the TiOx grains formed in the step-bias anodic oxidation were found to lead to nanohollow generation. Results obtained from EDS mapping, HR-TEM and XPS all verified the TiOx composition and supported nanohollow formation. The nanohollows formed in a thin TiOx layer can lead to a high surface roughness and photon absorbance for photocurrent generation. With this step-bias anodic oxidation methodology, TiOx with nanohollows can be obtained easily without any extra cost for realizing a high current under photoelectrochemical measurements that shows potential for electrochemical-based sensing applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials: Selected Papers from CCMR)
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Article
Control over the Surface Properties of Zinc Oxide Powders via Combining Mechanical, Electron Beam, and Thermal Processing
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(11), 1924; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12111924 - 04 Jun 2022
Viewed by 341
Abstract
The surface properties of zinc oxide powders prepared using mechanical activation, electron beam irradiation, and vacuum annealing, as well using combinations of these types of treatments, were studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The structure of the obtained materials was studied by an X-ray [...] Read more.
The surface properties of zinc oxide powders prepared using mechanical activation, electron beam irradiation, and vacuum annealing, as well using combinations of these types of treatments, were studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The structure of the obtained materials was studied by an X-ray diffraction technique and by scanning electron microscopy. We found that over five hours of grinding in an attritor, the size of nanocrystals decreases from 37 to 21 nm, and microdeformations increase from 0.3% to 0.6%. It was also found that a five-hour grinding treatment promoted formation of vacancies in the zinc sublattice at the surface and diffusion of Zn2+ cations into the bulk of the material. Irradiation of commercial zinc oxide powders with an electron beam with an energy of 0.9 MeV and a dose of 1 MGy induced breaking of Zn–O bonds, diffusion of interstitial zinc ions into the bulk, and oxygen atom escape from regular positions into the gas phase. A combined treatment of five hours of grinding and electron beam irradiation promoted accumulation of interstitial zinc ions at the surface of the material. Annealing of both initial and mechanically activated ZnO powders at temperatures up to 400 °C did not lead to a significant change in the properties of the samples. Upon exceeding the 400 °C annealing temperature the X-ray photoelectron spectra show almost identical atomic composition of the two types of materials, which is related to diffusion of interstitial zinc ions from the bulk of the material to the surface. Full article
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Editorial
Special Issue “Nanomaterials for Biomedical and Biotechnological Applications”
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(11), 1923; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12111923 - 04 Jun 2022
Viewed by 330
Abstract
In the last few decades, biomedical and biotechnological researchers have turned their interest to nanocomposite materials [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Biomedical and Biotechnological Applications)
Review
Reactive Oxygen Species Formed by Metal and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles in Physiological Media—A Review of Reactions of Importance to Nanotoxicity and Proposal for Categorization
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(11), 1922; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12111922 - 04 Jun 2022
Viewed by 504
Abstract
Diffusely dispersed metal and metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) can adversely affect living organisms through various mechanisms and exposure routes. One mechanism behind their toxic potency is their ability to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) directly or indirectly to an extent that depends on [...] Read more.
Diffusely dispersed metal and metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) can adversely affect living organisms through various mechanisms and exposure routes. One mechanism behind their toxic potency is their ability to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) directly or indirectly to an extent that depends on the dose, metal speciation, and exposure route. This review provides an overview of the mechanisms of ROS formation associated with metal and metal oxide NPs and proposes a possible way forward for their future categorization. Metal and metal oxide NPs can form ROS via processes related to corrosion, photochemistry, and surface defects, as well as via Fenton, Fenton-like, and Haber–Weiss reactions. Regular ligands such as biomolecules can interact with metallic NP surfaces and influence their properties and thus their capabilities of generating ROS by changing characteristics such as surface charge, surface composition, dissolution behavior, and colloidal stability. Interactions between metallic NPs and cells and their organelles can indirectly induce ROS formation via different biological responses. H2O2 can also be generated by a cell due to inflammation, induced by interactions with metallic NPs or released metal species that can initiate Fenton(-like) and Haber–Weiss reactions forming various radicals. This review discusses these different pathways and, in addition, nano-specific aspects such as shifts in the band gaps of metal oxides and how these shifts at biologically relevant energies (similar to activation energies of biological reactions) can be linked to ROS production and indicate which radical species forms. The influences of kinetic aspects, interactions with biomolecules, solution chemistry (e.g., Cl and pH), and NP characteristics (e.g., size and surface defects) on ROS mechanisms and formation are discussed. Categorization via four tiers is suggested as a way forward to group metal and metal oxide NPs based on the ROS reaction pathways that they may undergo, an approach that does not include kinetics or environmental variations. The criteria for the four tiers are based on the ability of the metallic NPs to induce Fenton(-like) and Haber–Weiss reactions, corrode, and interact with biomolecules and their surface catalytic properties. The importance of considering kinetic data to improve the proposed categorization is highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nano-Bio Interactions: Nanosafety and Nanotoxicology)
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Article
Synthesis of Iron, Zinc, and Manganese Nanofertilizers, Using Andean Blueberry Extract, and Their Effect in the Growth of Cabbage and Lupin Plants
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(11), 1921; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12111921 - 04 Jun 2022
Viewed by 433
Abstract
The predominant aim of the current study was to synthesize the nanofertilizer nanoparticles ZnO_MnO-NPs and FeO_ZnO-NPs using Andean blueberry extract and determine the effect of NPs in the growth promotion of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) and Andean lupin (Lupinus [...] Read more.
The predominant aim of the current study was to synthesize the nanofertilizer nanoparticles ZnO_MnO-NPs and FeO_ZnO-NPs using Andean blueberry extract and determine the effect of NPs in the growth promotion of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) and Andean lupin (Lupinus mutabilis sweet) crops. The nanoparticles were analyzed by visible spectrophotometry, size distribution (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Solutions of nanoparticle concentrations were applied to cabbage, with solutions of 270 and 540 ppm of ZnO_MnO-NPs and 270 and 540 ppm of FeO_ZnO-NPs applied to Andean lupin. Zinc was used in both plants to take advantage of its beneficial properties for plant growth. Foliar NPs sprays were applied at the phenological stage of vegetative growth of the cabbage or Andean lupin plants grown under greenhouse conditions. The diameter of the NPs was 9.5 nm for ZnO, 7.8 nm for FeO, and 10.5 nm for MnO, which facilitate the adsorption of NPs by the stomata of plants. In Andean lupin, treatment with 270 ppm of iron and zinc indicated increases of 6% in height, 19% in root size, 3.5% in chlorophyll content index, and 300% in leaf area, while treatment with 540 ppm of iron and zinc yielded no apparent increases in any variable. In cabbage, the ZnO_MnO-NPs indicate, at a concentration of 270 ppm, increases of 10.3% in root size, 55.1% in dry biomass, 7.1% in chlorophyll content, and 25.6% in leaf area. Cabbage plants treated at a concentration of 540 ppm produced increases of 1.3% in root size and 1.8% in chlorophyll content, compared to the control, which was sprayed with distilled water. Therefore, the spray application of nanofertilizers at 270 ppm indicated an important improvement in both plants’ growth. Full article
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Article
Electrolytes with Micelle-Assisted Formation of Directional Ion Transport Channels for Aqueous Rechargeable Batteries with Impressive Performance
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(11), 1920; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12111920 - 04 Jun 2022
Viewed by 450
Abstract
Low-cost and ecofriendly electrolytes with suppressed water reactivity and raised ionic conductivity are desirable for aqueous rechargeable batteries because it is a dilemma to decrease the water reactivity and increase the ionic conductivity at the same time. In this paper, Li2SO [...] Read more.
Low-cost and ecofriendly electrolytes with suppressed water reactivity and raised ionic conductivity are desirable for aqueous rechargeable batteries because it is a dilemma to decrease the water reactivity and increase the ionic conductivity at the same time. In this paper, Li2SO4–Na2SO4–sodium dodecyl sulfate (LN-SDS)-based aqueous electrolytes are designed, where: (i) Na+ ions dissociated from SDS increase the charge carrier concentration, (ii) DS/SO42− anions and Li+/Na+ cations are capable of trapping water molecules through hydrogen bonding and/or hydration, resulting in a lowered melting point, (iii) Li+ ions reduce the Krafft temperature of LN-SDS, (iv) Na+ and SO42− ions increase the low-temperature electrolyte ionic conductivity, and (v) SDS micelle clusters are orderly aggregated to form directional ion transport channels, enabling the formation of quasi-continuous ion flows without (r.t.) and with (≤0 °C) applying voltage. The screened LN-SDS is featured with suppressed water reactivity and high ionic conductivity at temperatures ranging from room temperature to −15 °C. Additionally, NaTi2(PO4)3‖LiMn2O4 batteries operating with LN-SDS manifest impressive electrochemical performance at both room temperature and −15 °C, especially the cycling stability and low-temperature performance. Full article
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Article
Sonochemical-Assisted Biogenic Synthesis of Theophrasite β-Ni(OH)2 Nanocluster Using Chia Seeds Extract: Characterization and Anticancer Activity
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(11), 1919; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12111919 - 03 Jun 2022
Viewed by 374
Abstract
Theophrasite β-Ni(OH)2 nanocluster were fabricated via the sonochemical-assisted biogenic method using chia seeds extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The optical and morphological feature of the synthesized nanocluster was characterized using UV-Vis, FTIR, FE-SEM-EDS, HR-TEM, DLS, XPS, and XRD analysis. According [...] Read more.
Theophrasite β-Ni(OH)2 nanocluster were fabricated via the sonochemical-assisted biogenic method using chia seeds extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The optical and morphological feature of the synthesized nanocluster was characterized using UV-Vis, FTIR, FE-SEM-EDS, HR-TEM, DLS, XPS, and XRD analysis. According to FE-SEM and HR-TEM images of the synthesized materials, β-Ni(OH)2 nanocluster illustrates the hexagonal particle shape with an average size of 5.8 nm, while the EDS results confirm the high purity of the synthesized nanocluster. Moreover, the XRD pattern of the synthesized materials shows typical peaks that match the reference pattern of the Theophrasite form of β-Ni(OH)2 with a hexagonal crystal system. The XPS analysis illustrates that the prepared samples exhibit both Ni2+ and Ni3+ with the predominance of Ni2+ species. Additionally the in-vitro cytotoxic activity of β-Ni(OH)2 nanocluster is tested against the MCF7 cell lines (breast cancer cells). The MTT assay results proved that the synthesized β-Ni(OH)2 nanocluster has potent cytotoxic activity against breast cancer cell lines (IC50: 62.7 μg/mL). Full article
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Communication
Enhanced Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production Activity by Constructing a Robust Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Material Based Fulvalene and TiO2
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(11), 1918; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12111918 - 03 Jun 2022
Viewed by 378
Abstract
A novel redox-active organic-inorganic hybrid material (denoted as H4TTFTB-TiO2) based on tetrathiafulvalene derivatives and titanium dioxide with a micro/mesoporous nanomaterial structure has been synthesized via a facile sol-gel method. In this study, tetrathiafulvalene-3,4,5,6-tetrakis(4-benzoic acid) (H4TTFTB) is an [...] Read more.
A novel redox-active organic-inorganic hybrid material (denoted as H4TTFTB-TiO2) based on tetrathiafulvalene derivatives and titanium dioxide with a micro/mesoporous nanomaterial structure has been synthesized via a facile sol-gel method. In this study, tetrathiafulvalene-3,4,5,6-tetrakis(4-benzoic acid) (H4TTFTB) is an ideal electron-rich organic material and has been introduced into TiO2 for promoting photocatalytic H2 production under visible light irradiation. Notably, the optimized composites demonstrate remarkably enhanced photocatalytic H2 evolution performance with a maximum H2 evolution rate of 1452 μmol g−1 h−1, which is much higher than the prototypical counterparts, the common dye-sensitized sample (denoted as H4TTFTB-5.0/TiO2) (390.8 μmol g−1 h−1) and pure TiO2 (18.87 μmol g−1 h−1). Moreover, the composites perform with excellent stability even after being used for seven time cycles. A series of characterizations of the morphological structure, the photoelectric physics performance and the photocatalytic activity of the hybrid reveal that the donor-acceptor structural H4TTFTB and TiO2 have been combined robustly by covalent titanium ester during the synthesis process, which improves the stability of the hybrid nanomaterials, extends visible-light adsorption range and stimulates the separation of photogenerated charges. This work provides new insight for regulating precisely the structure of the fulvalene-based composite at the molecule level and enhances our in-depth fundamental understanding of the photocatalytic mechanism. Full article
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Article
Optimization of Sulfonated Polycatechol:PEDOT Energy Storage Performance by the Morphology Control
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(11), 1917; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12111917 - 03 Jun 2022
Viewed by 340
Abstract
Anionic catechol-containing polymers represent a promising class of functional dopants for the capacity improvement of conductive polymers. For example, sulfonated poly(vinylcatechol) SPVC with outstanding theoretical capacity was used as a dopant for poly(ethylenedixythiophene) (PEDOT) conductive polymer, increasing its energy storage performance. However, such [...] Read more.
Anionic catechol-containing polymers represent a promising class of functional dopants for the capacity improvement of conductive polymers. For example, sulfonated poly(vinylcatechol) SPVC with outstanding theoretical capacity was used as a dopant for poly(ethylenedixythiophene) (PEDOT) conductive polymer, increasing its energy storage performance. However, such materials suffer from insufficient utilization of the theoretical capacity of SPVC originating from non-optimal morphology. In the present study, we performed systematic optimization of the composition and morphology of the PEDOT:SPVC material as a function of the deposition parameters to overcome this problem. As a result, a capacity of 95 mAh·g−1 was achieved in a thin film demonstrating considerable electrochemical stability: 75% capacity retention after 100 cycles and 57% after 1000 cycles. Since the capacity was found to suffer from thickness limitation, a nanocomposite of PEDOT:SPVC and single-walled carbon nanotubes with high PEDOT:SPVC loading was fabricated, yielding the capacitance 178 F·g−1 or 89 F·cm−2. The capacity values exceed non-optimized film twofold for thin film and 1.33 times for nanocomposite with carbon nanotubes. The obtained results demonstrate the importance of fine-tuning of the composition and morphology of the PEDOT:SPVC materials to ensure optimal interactions between the redox/anionic and conductive components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Nanostructured Materials—from Synthesis to Applications)
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