Advances in Nano-Bio Interactions: Nanosafety and Nanotoxicology

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Biology and Medicines".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2022) | Viewed by 38436

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Guest Editor
Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Interests: Ecotoxicology; nanotoxicology; engineered nanomaterials; rare earth elements; nuclear analytical techniques
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The broad application of nanomaterials (NMs) has raised concerns regarding potential environmental and human health risks associated with the exposure to NMs. The physicochemical properties of NM, such as size, shape, chemical composition, and surface modification, etc. determine how the NMs interact with biological medium, biomolecules, cells, organs, and organisms. With new nanomaterials based products being introduced in the market on daily bases, there is urgent need to reduce the knowledge gap between the physicochemical properties and their influence on the manifestation of toxicities issues.

This Special Issue will bring together the latest advances in nano-bio interactions at systemic, cellular, and molecular levels. Understanding the nano-bio interactions and the relationships between the nanomaterial properties/structure and activity will provide a conceptual basis for the rational design and safe use of NMs.

Prof. Dr. Zhiyong Zhang
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Nanosafety
  • Nanotoxicology
  • Nanoecotoxicology
  • Bio-nano interactions
  • Protein corona
  • Physicochemical properties

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 3514 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Chronic Exposure of Graphene Nanoplates on the Viability and Motility of A549 Cells
by Blanka Šestáková, Ladislava Schröterová, Aleš Bezrouk, Dana Čížková, Moustafa Elkalaf, Radim Havelek, Emil Rudolf and Věra Králová
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(12), 2074; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12122074 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1602
Abstract
Graphene and its derivatives are popular nanomaterials used worldwide in many technical fields and biomedical applications. Due to such massive use, their anticipated accumulation in the environment is inevitable, with a largely unknown chronic influence on living organisms. Although repeatedly tested in chronic [...] Read more.
Graphene and its derivatives are popular nanomaterials used worldwide in many technical fields and biomedical applications. Due to such massive use, their anticipated accumulation in the environment is inevitable, with a largely unknown chronic influence on living organisms. Although repeatedly tested in chronic in vivo studies, long-term cell culture experiments that explain the biological response to these nanomaterials are still scarce. In this study, we sought to evaluate the biological responses of established model A549 tumor cells exposed to a non-toxic dose of pristine graphene for eight weeks. Our results demonstrate that the viability of the A549 cells exposed to the tested graphene did not change as well as the rate of their growth and proliferation despite nanoplatelet accumulation inside the cells. In addition, while the enzymatic activity of mitochondrial dehydrogenases moderately increased in exposed cells, their overall mitochondrial damage along with energy production changes was also not detected. Conversely, chronic accumulation of graphene nanoplates in exposed cells was detected, as evidenced by electron microscopy associated with impaired cellular motility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nano-Bio Interactions: Nanosafety and Nanotoxicology)
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24 pages, 5227 KiB  
Article
Modulation of Pulmonary Toxicity in Metabolic Syndrome Due to Variations in Iron Oxide Nanoparticle-Biocorona Composition
by Li Xia, Saeed Alqahtani, Christina R. Ferreira, Uma K. Aryal, Katelyn Biggs and Jonathan H. Shannahan
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(12), 2022; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12122022 - 11 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2209
Abstract
Nanoparticles (NPs) interact with biomolecules by forming a biocorona (BC) on their surface after introduction into the body and alter cell interactions and toxicity. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a prevalent condition and enhances susceptibility to inhaled exposures. We hypothesize that distinct NP-biomolecule interactions [...] Read more.
Nanoparticles (NPs) interact with biomolecules by forming a biocorona (BC) on their surface after introduction into the body and alter cell interactions and toxicity. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a prevalent condition and enhances susceptibility to inhaled exposures. We hypothesize that distinct NP-biomolecule interactions occur in the lungs due to MetS resulting in the formation of unique NP-BCs contributing to enhanced toxicity. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected from healthy and MetS mouse models and used to evaluate variations in the BC formation on 20 nm iron oxide (Fe3O4) NPs. Fe3O4 NPs without or with BCs were characterized for hydrodynamic size and zeta potential. Unique and differentially associated proteins and lipids with the Fe3O4 NPs were identified through proteomic and lipidomic analyses to evaluate BC alterations based on disease state. A mouse macrophage cell line was utilized to examine alterations in cell interactions and toxicity due to BCs. Exposures to 6.25, 12.5, 25, and 50 μg/mL of Fe3O4 NPs with BCs for 1 h or 24 h did not demonstrate overt cytotoxicity. Macrophages increasingly associated Fe3O4 NPs following addition of the MetS BC compared to the healthy BC. Macrophages exposed to Fe3O4 NPs with a MetS-BC for 1 h or 24 h at a concentration of 25 μg/mL demonstrated enhanced gene expression of inflammatory markers: CCL2, IL-6, and TNF-α compared to Fe3O4 NPs with a healthy BC. Western blot analysis revealed activation of STAT3, NF-κB, and ERK pathways due to the MetS-BC. Specifically, the Jak/Stat pathway was the most upregulated inflammatory pathway following exposure to NPs with a MetS BC. Overall, our study suggests the formation of distinct BCs due to NP exposure in MetS, which may contribute to exacerbated inflammatory effects and susceptibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nano-Bio Interactions: Nanosafety and Nanotoxicology)
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21 pages, 4493 KiB  
Article
Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles on Cell Growth and Migration of A549 Cells under Simulated Microgravity
by Mei Wang, Jinxia Li, Shunyu Zhang, Yue You, Xianyu Zhu, Huandong Xiang, Liang Yan, Feng Zhao and Yunhui Li
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(11), 1879; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12111879 - 31 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2474
Abstract
With the increasing application of nanomaterials in aerospace technology, the long-term space exposure to nanomaterials especially in the space full of radiation coupled with microgravity condition has aroused great health concerns of the astronauts. However, few studies have been conducted to assess these [...] Read more.
With the increasing application of nanomaterials in aerospace technology, the long-term space exposure to nanomaterials especially in the space full of radiation coupled with microgravity condition has aroused great health concerns of the astronauts. However, few studies have been conducted to assess these effects, which are crucial for seeking the possible intervention strategy. Herein, using a random positioning machine (RPM) to simulate microgravity, we investigated the behaviors of cells under simulated microgravity and also evaluated the possible toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs), a multifunctional nanomaterial with potential application in aerospace. Pulmonary epithelial cells A549 were exposed to normal gravity (1 g) and simulated gravity (~10−3 g), respectively. The results showed that simulated microgravity had no significant effect on the viability of A549 cells as compared with normal gravity within 48 h. The effects of TiO2 NPs exposure on cell viability and apoptosis were marginal with only a slightly decrease in cell viability and a subtle increase in apoptosis rate observed at a high concentration of TiO2 NPs (100 μg/mL). However, it was observed that the exposure to simulated microgravity could obviously reduce A549 cell migration compared with normal gravity. The disruption of F-actin network and the deactivation of FAK (Tyr397) might be responsible for the impaired mobility of simulated microgravity-exposed A549 cells. TiO2 NPs exposure inhibited cell migration under two different gravity conditions, but to different degrees, with a milder inhibition under simulated microgravity. Meanwhile, it was found that A549 cells internalized more TiO2 NPs under normal gravity than simulated microgravity, which may account for the lower cytotoxicity and the lighter inhibition of cell migration induced by the same exposure concentration of TiO2 NPs under simulated microgravity at least partially. Our study has provided some tentative information on the effects of TiO2 NPs exposure on cell behaviors under simulated microgravity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nano-Bio Interactions: Nanosafety and Nanotoxicology)
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16 pages, 3326 KiB  
Article
Size- and Oxidation-Dependent Toxicity of Graphene Oxide Nanomaterials in Embryonic Zebrafish
by Ryan M. Lopez, Joshua R. White, Lisa Truong and Robyn L. Tanguay
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(7), 1050; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12071050 - 23 Mar 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2228
Abstract
Graphene oxides (GOs) are a popular graphene alternative. The goal of this study was to compare the biocompatibility of a diversity of well-characterized GOs. Our previous work advanced developmental zebrafish as a model to interrogate the interactions and biological responses following exposures to [...] Read more.
Graphene oxides (GOs) are a popular graphene alternative. The goal of this study was to compare the biocompatibility of a diversity of well-characterized GOs. Our previous work advanced developmental zebrafish as a model to interrogate the interactions and biological responses following exposures to engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Here, we investigated GO 250 nm × 250 nm (sGO), 400 nm × 400 nm (mGO), and 1 μm × 1 μm (lGO), partially reduced GO (prGO) 400 nm × 400 nm, and reduced GO (rGO) 400 nm × 400 nm and 2 μm × 2 μm, which first underwent extensive characterization under the support of the Nanomaterials Health Implications Research (NHIR) Consortium. GOs were stabilized in water (GOs), while prGO and rGOs were dispersed in sodium cholate. Zebrafish were statically exposed to up to 50 μg/mL of each material from 6 h post-fertilization (hpf) until 120 hpf. Toxicity was dependent on GO properties. mGO was the most toxic material; its effects manifested in the yolk syncytial layer (YSL). Additionally, sodium cholate stabilization significantly increased GO toxicity. The observed effects were size- and oxidation-state-dependent, revealing the importance of identifying the structure-specific toxicity of GOs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nano-Bio Interactions: Nanosafety and Nanotoxicology)
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9 pages, 12310 KiB  
Article
Impact of Albumin Pre-Coating on Gold Nanoparticles Uptake at Single-Cell Level
by Tao Li, Yun Wang, Meng Wang, Lingna Zheng, Wanqin Dai, Chunlei Jiao, Zhuda Song, Yuhui Ma, Yayun Ding, Zhiyong Zhang, Fang Yang and Xiao He
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(5), 749; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12050749 - 23 Feb 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1744
Abstract
Nanoparticles (NPs) suspension is thermodynamically unstable, agglomeration and sedimentation may occur after introducing NPs into a physiological solution, which in turn affects their recognition and uptake by cells. In this work, rod-like gold NPs (AuNRs) with uniform morphology and size were synthesized to [...] Read more.
Nanoparticles (NPs) suspension is thermodynamically unstable, agglomeration and sedimentation may occur after introducing NPs into a physiological solution, which in turn affects their recognition and uptake by cells. In this work, rod-like gold NPs (AuNRs) with uniform morphology and size were synthesized to study the impact of bovine serum albumin (BSA) pre-coating on the cellular uptake of AuNRs. A comparison study using horizontal and vertical cell culture configurations was performed to reveal the effect of NPs sedimentation on AuNRs uptake at the single-cell level. Our results demonstrate that the well-dispersed AuNRs-BSA complexes were more stable in culture medium than the pristine AuNRs, and therefore were less taken up by cells. The settled AuNRs agglomerates, although only a small fraction of the total AuNRs, weighed heavily in determining the average AuNRs uptake at the population level. These findings highlight the necessity of applying single-cell quantification analysis in the study of the mechanisms underlying the cellular uptake of NPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nano-Bio Interactions: Nanosafety and Nanotoxicology)
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13 pages, 2328 KiB  
Article
Effects of the Surface Charge of Graphene Oxide Derivatives on Ocular Compatibility
by Liyuan Rong, Yan Fu, Qiyou Li, Xinji Yang, Yueyue Li, Liang Yan, Liqiang Wang and Wei Wu
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(5), 735; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12050735 - 22 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1515
Abstract
The incorporation of functional groups endows graphene oxide (GO) with different surface charges, which plays important roles in biological interactions with cells. However, the effect of surface charge of GO derivatives on ocular biocompatibility has not been fully elucidated. Previously, we found that [...] Read more.
The incorporation of functional groups endows graphene oxide (GO) with different surface charges, which plays important roles in biological interactions with cells. However, the effect of surface charge of GO derivatives on ocular biocompatibility has not been fully elucidated. Previously, we found that positively, negatively and neutrally charged PEGylated GO (PEG-GO) nanosheets exerted similar effect on the viability of ocular cells. In this work, we performed in vitro and in vivo studies to comprehensively study the effect of surface charge of PEG-GO on ocular compatibility. The in vitro results showed that the cellular uptake efficacy of negatively charged PEG-GO nanosheets was significantly decreased compared with positively charged and neutrally charged analogs. However, three kinds of PEG-GO nanosheets produced similar amounts of intracellular reactive oxygen species and showed similar influence on mitochondrial membrane potential. By analysis of global gene expression profiles, we found that the correlation coefficients between three kinds of PEG-GO-treated cells were more than 0.98. Furthermore, in vivo results showed that all these PEG-GO nanosheets had no significant toxicity to ocular structure and function. Taken together, our work suggested that surface charge of PEG-GO exerted negligible effect on its ocular compatibility, except for the cellular uptake. Our work is conducive to understanding the relationship between surface charge and biocompatibility of GO derivatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nano-Bio Interactions: Nanosafety and Nanotoxicology)
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17 pages, 3602 KiB  
Article
Toxicity of Modified Magnetite-Based Nanocomposites Used for Wastewater Treatment and Evaluated on Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Model
by Amaimen Guillén, Yeferzon Ardila, Mabel Juliana Noguera, Ana Lucía Campaña, Miranda Bejarano, Veronica Akle and Johann F. Osma
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(3), 489; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12030489 - 29 Jan 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4023
Abstract
Magnetite-based nanocomposites are used for biomedical, industrial, and environmental applications. In this study, we evaluated their effects on survival, malformation, reproduction, and behavior in a zebrafish animal model. Nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical coprecipitation and were surface-functionalized with (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES), L-cysteine (Cys), [...] Read more.
Magnetite-based nanocomposites are used for biomedical, industrial, and environmental applications. In this study, we evaluated their effects on survival, malformation, reproduction, and behavior in a zebrafish animal model. Nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical coprecipitation and were surface-functionalized with (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES), L-cysteine (Cys), and 3-(triethoxysilyl) propylsuccinic anhydride (CAS). All these nanocomposites were designed for the treatment of wastewater. Zebrafish embryos at 8 h post-fertilization (hpf) and larvae at 4 days post-fertilization (dpf) were exposed to the magnetic nanocomposites Fe3O4 MNP (magnetite), MNP+APTES, MNP+Cys, MNP+APTES+Cys, and MNP+CAS, at concentrations of 1, 10, 100, and 1000 µg/mL. Zebrafish were observed until 13 dpf, registering daily hatching, survival, and malformations. Behavior was tested at 10 dpf for larvae, and reproduction was analyzed later in adulthood. The results showed that the toxicity of the nanocomposites used were relatively low. Exploratory behavior tests showed no significant changes. Reproduction in adults treated during development was not affected, even at concentrations above the OECD recommendation. Given the slight effects observed so far, these results suggest that nanocomposites at the concentrations evaluated here could be a viable alternative for water remediation because they do not affect the long-term survival and welfare of the animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nano-Bio Interactions: Nanosafety and Nanotoxicology)
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21 pages, 3591 KiB  
Article
Safety Profile of Rapamycin Perfluorocarbon Nanoparticles for Preventing Cisplatin-Induced Kidney Injury
by Qingyu Zhou, Justin Doherty, Antonina Akk, Luke E. Springer, Ping Fan, Ivan Spasojevic, Ganesh V. Halade, Huanghe Yang, Christine T. N. Pham, Samuel A. Wickline and Hua Pan
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(3), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12030336 - 21 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2670
Abstract
Cancer treatment-induced toxicities may restrict maximal effective dosing for treatment and cancer survivors’ quality of life. It is critical to develop novel strategies that mitigate treatment-induced toxicity without affecting the efficacy of anti-cancer therapies. Rapamycin is a macrolide with anti-cancer properties, but its [...] Read more.
Cancer treatment-induced toxicities may restrict maximal effective dosing for treatment and cancer survivors’ quality of life. It is critical to develop novel strategies that mitigate treatment-induced toxicity without affecting the efficacy of anti-cancer therapies. Rapamycin is a macrolide with anti-cancer properties, but its clinical application has been hindered, partly by unfavorable bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, and side effects. As a result, significant efforts have been undertaken to develop a variety of nano-delivery systems for the effective and safe administration of rapamycin. While the efficacy of nanostructures carrying rapamycin has been studied intensively, the pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and safety remain to be investigated. In this study, we demonstrate the potential for rapamycin perfluorocarbon (PFC) nanoparticles to mitigate cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury with a single preventative dose. Evaluations of pharmacokinetics and biodistribution suggest that the PFC nanoparticle delivery system improves rapamycin pharmacokinetics. The safety of rapamycin PFC nanoparticles was shown both in vitro and in vivo. After a single dose, no disturbance was observed in blood tests or cardiac functional evaluations. Repeated dosing of rapamycin PFC nanoparticles did not affect overall spleen T cell proliferation and responses to stimulation, although it significantly decreased the number of Foxp3+CD4+ T cells and NK1.1+ cells were observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nano-Bio Interactions: Nanosafety and Nanotoxicology)
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22 pages, 12067 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Safety and Toxicity of the Original Copper Nanocomposite Based on Poly-N-vinylimidazole
by Irina A. Shurygina, Galina F. Prozorova, Irina S. Trukhan, Svetlana A. Korzhova, Nataliya N. Dremina, Artem I. Emel’yanov, Olesya V. Say, Nadezhda P. Kuznetsova, Alexander S. Pozdnyakov and Michael G. Shurygin
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12010016 - 22 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2684
Abstract
A new original copper nanocomposite based on poly-N-vinylimidazole was synthesized and characterized by a complex of modern physicochemical and biological methods. The low cytotoxicity of the copper nanocomposite in relation to the cultured hepatocyte cells was found. The possibility to involve the copper [...] Read more.
A new original copper nanocomposite based on poly-N-vinylimidazole was synthesized and characterized by a complex of modern physicochemical and biological methods. The low cytotoxicity of the copper nanocomposite in relation to the cultured hepatocyte cells was found. The possibility to involve the copper from the nanocomposite in the functioning of the copper-dependent enzyme systems was evaluated during the incubation of the hepatocyte culture with this nanocomposite introduced to the nutrient medium. The synthesized new water-soluble copper-containing nanocomposite is promising for biotechnological and biomedical research as a new non-toxic hydrophilic preparation that is allowed to regulate the work of key enzymes involved in energy metabolism and antioxidant protection as well as potentially serving as an additional source of copper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nano-Bio Interactions: Nanosafety and Nanotoxicology)
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14 pages, 3327 KiB  
Article
MicroRNAs as a Suitable Biomarker to Detect the Effects of Long-Term Exposures to Nanomaterials. Studies on TiO2NP and MWCNT
by Sandra Ballesteros, Gerard Vales, Antonia Velázquez, Susana Pastor, Mohamed Alaraby, Ricard Marcos and Alba Hernández
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(12), 3458; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11123458 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2359
Abstract
The presence of nanomaterials (NMs) in the environment may represent a serious risk to human health, especially in a scenario of chronic exposure. To evaluate the potential relationship between NM-induced epigenetic alterations and carcinogenesis, the present study analyzed a panel of 33 miRNAs [...] Read more.
The presence of nanomaterials (NMs) in the environment may represent a serious risk to human health, especially in a scenario of chronic exposure. To evaluate the potential relationship between NM-induced epigenetic alterations and carcinogenesis, the present study analyzed a panel of 33 miRNAs related to the cell transformation process in BEAS-2B cells transformed by TiO2NP and long-term MWCNT exposure. Our battery revealed a large impact on miRNA expression profiling in cells exposed to both NMs. From this analysis, a small set of five miRNAs (miR-23a, miR-25, miR-96, miR-210, and miR-502) were identified as informative biomarkers of the transforming effects induced by NM exposures. The usefulness of this reduced miRNA battery was further validated in other previously generated transformed cell systems by long-term exposure to other NMs (CoNP, ZnONP, MSiNP, and CeO2NP). Interestingly, the five selected miRNAs were consistently overexpressed in all cell lines and NMs tested. These results confirm the suitability of the proposed set of mRNAs to identify the potential transforming ability of NMs. Particular attention should be paid to the epigenome and especially to miRNAs for hazard assessment of NMs, as wells as for the study of the underlying mechanisms of action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nano-Bio Interactions: Nanosafety and Nanotoxicology)
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13 pages, 1640 KiB  
Article
Implementation of a Dynamic Co-Culture Model Abated Silver Nanoparticle Interactions and Nanotoxicological Outcomes In Vitro
by Nicholas J. Braun, Rachel M. Galaska, Maggie E. Jewett and Kristen A. Krupa
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(7), 1807; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11071807 - 12 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1936
Abstract
The incorporation of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) into everyday consumer goods, products, and applications has given rise to the field of nanotoxicology, which evaluates the safety of NPs within biological environments. The unique physicochemical properties of NPs have made this an insurmountable challenge, as [...] Read more.
The incorporation of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) into everyday consumer goods, products, and applications has given rise to the field of nanotoxicology, which evaluates the safety of NPs within biological environments. The unique physicochemical properties of NPs have made this an insurmountable challenge, as their reactivity and variable behavior have given rise to discrepancies between standard cell-based in vitro and animal in vivo models. In this study, enhanced in vitro models were generated that retained the advantages of traditional cell cultures, but incorporated the modifications of (1) inclusion of an activated immune element and (2) the presence of physiologically-relevant dynamic flow. Following verification that the human alveolar epithelial and macrophage (A549/U937) co-culture could be successfully sustained under both static and dynamic conditions, these cultures, in addition to a standard A549 static model, were challenged with 10 nm citrate coated silver NPs (AgNPs). This work identified a reshaping of the AgNP-cellular interface and differential biological responses following exposure. The presence of dynamic flow modified cellular morphology and reduced AgNP deposition by approximately 20% over the static exposure environments. Cellular toxicity and stress endpoints, including reactive oxygen species, heat shock protein 70, and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, were found to vary as a function of both cellular composition and flow conditions; with activated macrophages and fluid flow both mitigating the severity of AgNP-dependent bioeffects. This work highlights the possibility of enhanced in vitro systems to assess the safety of engineered NPs and demonstrates their effectiveness in elucidating novel NP-cellular interactions and toxicological profiles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nano-Bio Interactions: Nanosafety and Nanotoxicology)
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Review

Jump to: Research

35 pages, 1808 KiB  
Review
Lung Models to Evaluate Silver Nanoparticles’ Toxicity and Their Impact on Human Health
by Jesús Gabriel González-Vega, Juan Carlos García-Ramos, Rocio Alejandra Chavez-Santoscoy, Javier Emmanuel Castillo-Quiñones, María Evarista Arellano-Garcia and Yanis Toledano-Magaña
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(13), 2316; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12132316 - 5 Jul 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3810
Abstract
Nanomaterials (NMs) solve specific problems with remarkable results in several industrial and scientific areas. Among NMs, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been extensively employed as drug carriers, medical diagnostics, energy harvesting devices, sensors, lubricants, and bioremediation. Notably, they have shown excellent antimicrobial, anticancer, and [...] Read more.
Nanomaterials (NMs) solve specific problems with remarkable results in several industrial and scientific areas. Among NMs, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been extensively employed as drug carriers, medical diagnostics, energy harvesting devices, sensors, lubricants, and bioremediation. Notably, they have shown excellent antimicrobial, anticancer, and antiviral properties in the biomedical field. The literature analysis shows a selective cytotoxic effect on cancer cells compared to healthy cells, making its potential application in cancer treatment evident, increasing the need to study the potential risk of their use to environmental and human health. A large battery of toxicity models, both in vitro and in vivo, have been established to predict the harmful effects of incorporating AgNPs in these numerous areas or those produced due to involuntary exposure. However, these models often report contradictory results due to their lack of standardization, generating controversy and slowing the advances in nanotoxicology research, fundamentally by generalizing the biological response produced by the AgNP formulations. This review summarizes the last ten years’ reports concerning AgNPs’ toxicity in cellular respiratory system models (e.g., mono-culture models, co-cultures, 3D cultures, ex vivo and in vivo). In turn, more complex cellular models represent in a better way the physical and chemical barriers of the body; however, results should be used carefully so as not to be misleading. The main objective of this work is to highlight current models with the highest physiological relevance, identifying the opportunity areas of lung nanotoxicology and contributing to the establishment and strengthening of specific regulations regarding health and the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nano-Bio Interactions: Nanosafety and Nanotoxicology)
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24 pages, 3088 KiB  
Review
Reactive Oxygen Species Formed by Metal and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles in Physiological Media—A Review of Reactions of Importance to Nanotoxicity and Proposal for Categorization
by Amanda Kessler, Jonas Hedberg, Eva Blomberg and Inger Odnevall
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(11), 1922; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12111922 - 4 Jun 2022
Cited by 62 | Viewed by 4502
Abstract
Diffusely dispersed metal and metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) can adversely affect living organisms through various mechanisms and exposure routes. One mechanism behind their toxic potency is their ability to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) directly or indirectly to an extent that depends on [...] Read more.
Diffusely dispersed metal and metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) can adversely affect living organisms through various mechanisms and exposure routes. One mechanism behind their toxic potency is their ability to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) directly or indirectly to an extent that depends on the dose, metal speciation, and exposure route. This review provides an overview of the mechanisms of ROS formation associated with metal and metal oxide NPs and proposes a possible way forward for their future categorization. Metal and metal oxide NPs can form ROS via processes related to corrosion, photochemistry, and surface defects, as well as via Fenton, Fenton-like, and Haber–Weiss reactions. Regular ligands such as biomolecules can interact with metallic NP surfaces and influence their properties and thus their capabilities of generating ROS by changing characteristics such as surface charge, surface composition, dissolution behavior, and colloidal stability. Interactions between metallic NPs and cells and their organelles can indirectly induce ROS formation via different biological responses. H2O2 can also be generated by a cell due to inflammation, induced by interactions with metallic NPs or released metal species that can initiate Fenton(-like) and Haber–Weiss reactions forming various radicals. This review discusses these different pathways and, in addition, nano-specific aspects such as shifts in the band gaps of metal oxides and how these shifts at biologically relevant energies (similar to activation energies of biological reactions) can be linked to ROS production and indicate which radical species forms. The influences of kinetic aspects, interactions with biomolecules, solution chemistry (e.g., Cl and pH), and NP characteristics (e.g., size and surface defects) on ROS mechanisms and formation are discussed. Categorization via four tiers is suggested as a way forward to group metal and metal oxide NPs based on the ROS reaction pathways that they may undergo, an approach that does not include kinetics or environmental variations. The criteria for the four tiers are based on the ability of the metallic NPs to induce Fenton(-like) and Haber–Weiss reactions, corrode, and interact with biomolecules and their surface catalytic properties. The importance of considering kinetic data to improve the proposed categorization is highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nano-Bio Interactions: Nanosafety and Nanotoxicology)
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19 pages, 1412 KiB  
Review
Do Carbon Nanotubes and Asbestos Fibers Exhibit Common Toxicity Mechanisms?
by Suchi Smita Gupta, Krishna P. Singh, Shailendra Gupta, Maria Dusinska and Qamar Rahman
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(10), 1708; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12101708 - 17 May 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3008
Abstract
During the last two decades several nanoscale materials were engineered for industrial and medical applications. Among them carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are the most exploited nanomaterials with global production of around 1000 tons/year. Besides several commercial benefits of CNTs, the fiber-like structures and their [...] Read more.
During the last two decades several nanoscale materials were engineered for industrial and medical applications. Among them carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are the most exploited nanomaterials with global production of around 1000 tons/year. Besides several commercial benefits of CNTs, the fiber-like structures and their bio-persistency in lung tissues raise serious concerns about the possible adverse human health effects resembling those of asbestos fibers. In this review, we present a comparative analysis between CNTs and asbestos fibers using the following four parameters: (1) fibrous needle-like shape, (2) bio-persistent nature, (3) high surface to volume ratio and (4) capacity to adsorb toxicants/pollutants on the surface. We also compare mechanisms underlying the toxicity caused by certain diameters and lengths of CNTs and asbestos fibers using downstream pathways associated with altered gene expression data from both asbestos and CNT exposure. Our results suggest that indeed certain types of CNTs are emulating asbestos fiber as far as associated toxicity is concerned. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nano-Bio Interactions: Nanosafety and Nanotoxicology)
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