Biofilm, a community of bacteria, is tolerant to antimicrobial agents and ubiquitous in chronic wounds. In a chronic DFU (Diabetic Foot Ulcers) clinical trial, the use of a human cryopreserved viable amniotic membrane (CVAM) resulted in a high rate of wound closure and reduction of wound-related infections. Our previous study demonstrated that CVAM possesses intrinsic antimicrobial activity against a spectrum of wound-associated bacteria under planktonic culture conditions. In this study, we evaluated the effect of CVAM and cryopreserved viable umbilical tissue (CVUT) on biofilm formation of S. aureus
and P. aeruginosa
, the two most prominent pathogens associated with chronic wounds. Firstly, we showed that, like CVAM, CVUT released antibacterial activity against multiple bacterial pathogens and the devitalization of CVUT reduced its antibacterial activity. The biofilm formation was then measured using a high throughput method and an ex vivo porcine dermal tissue model. We demonstrate that the formation of biofilm was significantly reduced in the presence of CVAM- or CVUT-derived conditioned media compared to control assay medium. The formation of P. aeruginosa
biofilm on CVAM-conditioned medium saturated porcine dermal tissues was reduced 97% compared with the biofilm formation on the control medium saturated dermal tissues. The formation of S. auerus
biofilm on CVUT-conditioned medium saturated dermal tissues was reduced 72% compared with the biofilm formation on the control tissues. This study is the first to show that human cryopreserved viable placental tissues release factors that inhibit biofilm formation. Our results provide an explanation for the in vivo observation of their ability to support wound healing.
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