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J. Mar. Sci. Eng., Volume 7, Issue 8 (August 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Reproducing air compressibility effects in model scale OWC devices is challenging and therefore [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of the Soil Property Distribution Gradient on the Wave-Induced Response of a Non-Homogeneous Seabed
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(8), 281; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7080281 - 20 Aug 2019
Viewed by 347
Abstract
The seabed is usually non-homogeneous in the real marine environment, and its response to the dynamic wave loading is of great concern to coastal engineers. Previous studies on the simulation of a non-homogeneous seabed response have mostly adopted a vertically layered seabed, in [...] Read more.
The seabed is usually non-homogeneous in the real marine environment, and its response to the dynamic wave loading is of great concern to coastal engineers. Previous studies on the simulation of a non-homogeneous seabed response have mostly adopted a vertically layered seabed, in which homogeneous soil properties are assumed in the governing equations for one specified layer. This neglects the distribution gradient terms of soil property, thus leading to an inaccurate evaluation of the dynamic response of a non-homogeneous seabed. In this study, a numerical model for a wave-induced 3D non-homogeneous seabed response is developed, and the effects of the soil property distribution gradient on the wave-induced response of a non-homogeneous seabed are numerically investigated. The numerical model is validated, and the results of the present simulation agree well with those of previous studies. The validated model is applied to simulate an ideal two-dimensional (2D) vertical non-homogeneous seabed. The model is further applied to model the practical wave-induced dynamic response of a three-dimensional (3D) non-homogeneous seabed around a mono-pile. The difference in pore pressure and soil effective stresses due to the soil distribution gradient is investigated. The effects of the soil distribution gradient on liquefaction are also examined. Results of this numerical study indicate that (1) pore pressure decreases while soil effective stresses increase (the maximum difference of the effective stresses can reach 68.9 % p 0 ) with a non-homogeneous seabed if the distribution gradient terms of soil properties are neglected; (2) the effect of the soil property distribution gradient terms on the pore pressure becomes more significant at the upper seabed, while this effect on the soil effective stresses is enhanced at the lower seabed; (3) the effect of the soil distribution gradient on the seabed response is greatly affected by the wave reflection and diffraction around the pile foundation; and (4) the soil distribution gradient terms can be neglected in the evaluation of seabed liquefaction depth in engineering practice. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Life Cycle Performance Assessment Tool Development and Application with a Focus on Maintenance Aspects
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(8), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7080280 - 19 Aug 2019
Viewed by 342
Abstract
Ships are among the most complex systems in the world. The always increasing interest in environmental aspects, the evolution of technologies and the introduction of new rule constraints in the maritime field have compelled the innovation of the ship design approach. At an [...] Read more.
Ships are among the most complex systems in the world. The always increasing interest in environmental aspects, the evolution of technologies and the introduction of new rule constraints in the maritime field have compelled the innovation of the ship design approach. At an early design stage, there is the need to compare different design solutions, also in terms of environmental performance, building and operative costs over the whole ship life cycle. In this context, the Life Cycle Performance Assessment (LCPA) tool allows an integrated design approach merging the evaluation of both costs and environmental performances on a comparative basis, among different design solutions. Starting from the first tool release, this work aims to focus on the maintenance of the propulsion system, developing a flexible calculation method for maintenance costs prediction, based on the ship operational profiles and the selected technical solution. After the improvement, the whole LCPA tool has been applied on a research vessel to evaluate, among different propulsion layout solutions, the one with the more advantageous performance in terms of costs during the whole vessel operating life. The identification of the best design solution is strictly dependent on the selection criterion and the point of view of the interested parties using the LCPA tool, e.g., the shipbuilder or the ship-owner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ship Lifecycle)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Analysis on Dynamic Responses of an Electrical Platform for an Offshore Wind Farm under Earthquake Load
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(8), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7080279 - 18 Aug 2019
Viewed by 456
Abstract
Offshore wind power is gradually developing to more open sea. Considering the economy of power transmission, it will be an inevitable choice to adopt the extra-large electrical platform. The offshore electrical platform is easily affected by sudden extreme loads such as earthquake and [...] Read more.
Offshore wind power is gradually developing to more open sea. Considering the economy of power transmission, it will be an inevitable choice to adopt the extra-large electrical platform. The offshore electrical platform is easily affected by sudden extreme loads such as earthquake and high current loads. With a large volume of electrical equipment arranged on the deck, the offshore electrical platform is characterized as a top-heavy structure in the offshore wind farm. The dynamic effect of the structure will aggravate the vibration problem of the structure. In this paper, a physical model test was carried out to study the dynamic characteristics of the electrical platform of a 10,000-ton offshore converter station under seismic load. The acceleration response, displacement response and stress response of the offshore electrical platform under the typical direction of seismic action were obtained. The effect of the dry–wet environment, mode of seismic excitation, whipping effect and weak positions of electrical platform structure were analyzed. It was determined that the average damping ratio of the first-order mode of the electrical platform was 5.73% and 8.68% with and without water, respectively. The bidirectional seismic excitation was more dangerous to the structure than unidirectional excitation. The peak acceleration along the height of the platform showed a typical whipping effect. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Trajectory-Based Approach to Multi-Session Underwater Visual SLAM Using Global Image Signatures
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(8), 278; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7080278 - 17 Aug 2019
Viewed by 470
Abstract
This paper presents a multi-session monocular Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) approach focused on underwater environments. The system is composed of three main blocks: a visual odometer, a loop detector, and an optimizer. Single session loop closings are found by means of feature [...] Read more.
This paper presents a multi-session monocular Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) approach focused on underwater environments. The system is composed of three main blocks: a visual odometer, a loop detector, and an optimizer. Single session loop closings are found by means of feature matching and Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC) within a search region. Multi-session loop closings are found by comparing hash-based global image signatures. The optimizer refines the trajectories and joins the different maps. Map joining preserves the trajectory structure by adding a single link between the joined sessions, making it possible to aggregate or disaggregate sessions whenever is necessary. All the optimization processes can be delayed until a certain number of loops has been found in order to reduce the computational cost. Experiments conducted in real subsea scenarios show the quality and robustness of this proposal. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Risk Causal Analysis of Traffic-Intensive Waters Based on Infectious Disease Dynamics
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(8), 277; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7080277 - 16 Aug 2019
Viewed by 418
Abstract
Accidents occur frequently in traffic-intensive waters, which restrict the safe and rapid development of the shipping industry. Due to the suddenness, randomness, and uncertainty of accidents in traffic-intensive waters, the probability of the risk factors causing traffic accidents is usually high. Thus, properly [...] Read more.
Accidents occur frequently in traffic-intensive waters, which restrict the safe and rapid development of the shipping industry. Due to the suddenness, randomness, and uncertainty of accidents in traffic-intensive waters, the probability of the risk factors causing traffic accidents is usually high. Thus, properly analyzing those key risk factors is of great significance to improve the safety of shipping. Based on the analysis of influencing factors of ship navigational risks in traffic-intensive waters, this paper proposes a cloud model to excavate the factors affecting navigational risk, which could accurately screen out the key risk factors. Furthermore, the risk causal model of ship navigation in traffic-intensive waters is constructed by using the infectious disease dynamics method in order to model the key risk causal transmission process. Moreover, an empirical study of the Yangtze River estuary is conducted to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed models. The research results show that the cloud model is useful in screening the key risk factors, and the constructed causal model of ship navigational risks in traffic-intensive waters is able to provide accurate analysis of the transmission process of key risk factors, which can be used to reduce the navigational risk of ships in traffic-intensive waters. This research provides both theoretical basis and practical reference for regulators in the risk management and control of ships in traffic-intensive waters. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
On the Information Advantage of Sidescan Sonar Three-Frequency Colour over Greyscale Imagery
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(8), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7080276 - 16 Aug 2019
Viewed by 467
Abstract
A prototype three-frequency (114, 256, and 410 kHz) colour sidescan sonar system, built by Kongsberg Underwater Mapping Ltd. (Great Yarmouth, UK), was previously described, and preliminary results presented, in Tamsett, McIlvenny, and Watts. The prototype system has subsequently been modified, and in 2017, [...] Read more.
A prototype three-frequency (114, 256, and 410 kHz) colour sidescan sonar system, built by Kongsberg Underwater Mapping Ltd. (Great Yarmouth, UK), was previously described, and preliminary results presented, in Tamsett, McIlvenny, and Watts. The prototype system has subsequently been modified, and in 2017, new data were acquired in a resurvey of the Inner Sound of the Pentland Firth, North Scotland. An image texture characterisation and image classification exercise demonstrates considerably greater discrimination between different seabed classes in a three-frequency colour sonar image of the seabed, than in a multi-frequency colour image reduced to greyscale display, or in a single-frequency greyscale image, with readily twice the number of classes of seabed discriminated between, in the colour image. The information advantage of colour acoustic imagery over greyscale acoustic imagery is analogous to the information advantage of colour television images over black-and-white television images. A three-frequency colour sonar image contains a theoretical maximum of a factor of 3 times the information in a corresponding greyscale image, for independent seabed responses at the three frequencies. Estimates of the average information per pixel (information entropy) in the colour image, and in corresponding greyscale images, reveal an actual information advantage of colour sonar imagery over greyscale, to be in practice approximately a factor of 2.5, empirically confirming the greater information based utility of three-frequency colour sonar over greyscale sonar. Reference: Tamsett, D.; McIlvenny, J.; Watts, A. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2016, 4(26). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geological Oceanography)
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Open AccessArticle
Detection and Characterization of Meteotsunamis in the Gulf of Genoa
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(8), 275; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7080275 - 15 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 440
Abstract
A long-term time series of high-frequency sampled sea-level data collected in the port of Genoa were analyzed to detect the occurrence of meteotsunami events and to characterize them. Time-frequency analysis showed well-developed energy peaks on a 26–30 minute band, which are an almost [...] Read more.
A long-term time series of high-frequency sampled sea-level data collected in the port of Genoa were analyzed to detect the occurrence of meteotsunami events and to characterize them. Time-frequency analysis showed well-developed energy peaks on a 26–30 minute band, which are an almost permanent feature in the analyzed signal. The amplitude of these waves is generally few centimeters but, in some cases, they can reach values comparable or even greater than the local tidal elevation. In the perspective of sea-level rise, their assessment can be relevant for sound coastal work planning and port management. Events having the highest energy were selected for detailed analysis and the main features were identified and characterized by means of wavelet transform. The most important one occurred on 14 October 2016, when the oscillations, generated by an abrupt jump in the atmospheric pressure, achieved a maximum wave height of 50 cm and lasted for about three hours. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Sea Level Impacts of Human Activities)
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Open AccessArticle
Community Perceptions of Tourism Impacts on Coastal Protected Areas
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(8), 274; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7080274 - 14 Aug 2019
Viewed by 392
Abstract
The Dominican Republic is one of the countries with the highest growing number of tourists in coastal protected areas. The objective of this study was to examine the perceived impact of tourism on three coastal national parks, involving all the sectors related to [...] Read more.
The Dominican Republic is one of the countries with the highest growing number of tourists in coastal protected areas. The objective of this study was to examine the perceived impact of tourism on three coastal national parks, involving all the sectors related to these protected areas and tourism. Workshops were carried out in the coastal protected areas studied. The results revealed the poor integration of local communities in the management plans, the lack of information on protected areas, and the poverty of the majority of the resident families despite income of tourism. The findings of this study highlighted the concept of a carrying capacity or threshold for tourism development. Lower to moderate levels of tourism development appeared beneficial, but as tourism development increased, perceptions of the community worsened. The results also confirmed that tourism contributes to environmental degradation, mainly due to contamination of rivers and coastlines, accumulation of waste, and over-exploitation of natural resources. A series of strategies is proposed to minimize this impact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Morphodynamics II)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Simulation of Vacuum Preloading for Reinforcing Soil inside Composite Bucket Foundation for Offshore Wind Turbines
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(8), 273; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7080273 - 14 Aug 2019
Viewed by 376
Abstract
The composite bucket foundation (CBF) with seven honeycomb subdivisions is a new foundation for offshore wind turbine structures. The bearing capacity of CBF can be improved by consolidation of soil inside the CBF, which is caused by the vacuum preloading method after installation. [...] Read more.
The composite bucket foundation (CBF) with seven honeycomb subdivisions is a new foundation for offshore wind turbine structures. The bearing capacity of CBF can be improved by consolidation of soil inside the CBF, which is caused by the vacuum preloading method after installation. A three-dimensional numerical model is established to simulate the consolidation process of soil for CBF with and without subdivisions in terms of vertical settlement, pore water pressure and void ratio of the soil. This analysis investigates the reinforcement effect of the two foundation types to assess the influence of the bulkheads. The results obtained show that there are obvious reinforcement effects for both foundation types. In the early stage of consolidation, vertical settlement is rapid, and this becomes stable with time. The depth at which the pore water pressure becomes negative is the depth showing the main reinforcement. Vacuum pressure decreases continuously with increase in soil depth and time. In addition, the excess pore water pressure in the soil dissipates, which turns into the soil effective stress. Bulkheads provide vertical drainage channels in the soil and shorten the seepage path, allowing the extraction of more pore water. This is conducive to the improvement of shallow soil, while also decreasing the extraction of pore water in deep soil and the region of the soil that can be reinforced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Trends in the Recent Evolution of Coastal Lagoons and Lakes in Galicia (NW Iberian Peninsula)
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(8), 272; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7080272 - 14 Aug 2019
Viewed by 387
Abstract
Coastal lagoons are habitats of great environmental value. However, they are currently subject to major threats, particularly due to increasing sea levels. This study aims to identify changes—both natural and induced by anthropic activity—and their impact on the recent evolution of three different [...] Read more.
Coastal lagoons are habitats of great environmental value. However, they are currently subject to major threats, particularly due to increasing sea levels. This study aims to identify changes—both natural and induced by anthropic activity—and their impact on the recent evolution of three different types of coastal lagoons in Galicia (Louro, Vixán, and Xuño). The application of information obtained through laser imaging detection and ranging (LiDAR) techniques suggests that the outer limits of the three lagoon systems have not experienced any relevant changes in the last 60 years (i.e., no occupation of the lagoon area has been identified). However, the internal configuration of these wetland areas has experienced some alterations. A generalized increase in the area occupied by macrophytic communities (Phragmites australis, Scirpus maritimus, Juncus maritimus, etc.) has been observed. Image interpretation by geographic information systems (GIS) and field surveys suggest that the area currently occupied by macrophytes experienced a 7% to 63% increase at the expense of the free water body. This loss of flooded area is consistent with the increase in sedimentation rates associated with the convergence of several causes, such as the abandonment of traditional macrophyte biomass harvesting and agricultural activities around the lagoons, the expansion of riparian forests, and sediment contributions by erosion due to recurrent forest fires within the drainage basins of each lagoon. Finally, water and sediment composition suggest that, of the three studied lagoons, two of them (Louro and Vixán) are included within the definition of “coastal lagoons” (habitat code 1150) by the Habitats Directive (Directive 92/43/EEC), while the Xuño lagoon should be considered a “natural eutrophic lake” (habitat code 3150). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Morphodynamics II)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of HF Radar Fields of Directional Wave Spectra Against In Situ Measurements at Multiple Locations
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(8), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7080271 - 14 Aug 2019
Viewed by 421
Abstract
The coastal zone hosts a great number of activities that require knowledge of the spatial characteristics of the wave field, which in coastal seas can be highly heterogeneous. Information of this type can be obtained from HF radars, which offer attractive performance characteristics [...] Read more.
The coastal zone hosts a great number of activities that require knowledge of the spatial characteristics of the wave field, which in coastal seas can be highly heterogeneous. Information of this type can be obtained from HF radars, which offer attractive performance characteristics in terms of temporal and spatial resolution. This paper presents the validation of radar-derived fields of directional wave spectra. These were retrieved from measurements collected with an HF radar system specifically deployed for wave measurement, using an established inversion algorithm. Overall, the algorithm reported accurate estimates of directional spectra, whose main distinctive characteristic was that the spectral energy was typically spread over a slightly broader range of frequencies and directions than in their in situ-measured counterparts. Two errors commonly reported in previous studies, namely the overestimation of wave heights and noise related to short measurement periods, were not observed in our results. The maximum wave height recorded by two in situ devices differed by 30 cm on average from the radar-measured values, and with the exception of the wave spreading, the standard deviations of the radar wave parameters were between 3% and 20% of those obtained with the in situ datasets, indicating the two were similarly grouped around their means. At present, the main drawback of the method is the high quality signal required to perform the inversion. This is in part responsible for a reduced data return, which did not exceed 55% at any grid cell over the eight-month period studied here. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radar Technology for Coastal Areas and Open Sea Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle
Simulation of the Behavior of a Ship Hull under Grounding: Effect of Applied Element Size on Structural Crashworthiness
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(8), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7080270 - 14 Aug 2019
Viewed by 383
Abstract
This work models the effect of an impact phenomenon—namely the interaction between seabed rock and a ship during its operations—on the ship structure. The collision between a tanker vessel with a conical rock is simulated, a scenario that is similar to the famous [...] Read more.
This work models the effect of an impact phenomenon—namely the interaction between seabed rock and a ship during its operations—on the ship structure. The collision between a tanker vessel with a conical rock is simulated, a scenario that is similar to the famous grounding of the Exxon Valdez oil tanker. The study uses finite element analysis to simulate numerical parameters that are related to structural response and the contours of the ship hull under impact loading. The traditional element-length-to-thickness (ELT) ratio of 10 is recommended in this work. ELT ratios in the range of 11 to 13 are shown to produce similar results in terms of internal energy, contact force, and structural acceleration. Additionally, the analysis time is reduced by approximately 20% for the recommended ELT ratio. This result is very helpful for researchers using finite element analysis to simulate ship accidents, since the mesh size or length of complex structures is used to maintain the efficiency and accuracy of the simulation results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Study on the Optimal Wave Energy Absorption Power of a Float in Waves
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(8), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7080269 - 13 Aug 2019
Viewed by 426
Abstract
The utilization of ocean renewable energy, especially wave energy, is of great significance in ocean engineering. In this study, a three-dimensional numerical wave tank was established to simulate the wave-float interaction based on the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations and the Realizable K-Epsilon Two-Layer turbulence [...] Read more.
The utilization of ocean renewable energy, especially wave energy, is of great significance in ocean engineering. In this study, a three-dimensional numerical wave tank was established to simulate the wave-float interaction based on the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations and the Realizable K-Epsilon Two-Layer turbulence model was applied. Firstly, convergence studies with respect to the mesh and time step were carried out and confirmed by the published analytical and numerical data. Then, the resonance condition of a particular float was solved by both numerical and analytical methods. The numerical and the analytical results are mutually verified in good agreements, which verify the reliability of the analytical process. Furthermore, a wave energy converter (WEC) consisting of a single float without damping constant was adopted, and its hydrodynamic performance in different wave conditions was investigated. It was found that the damping factor can affect the motion response of the float and the wave force it receives. Under a certain wavelength condition, the WEC resonates with the wave, at which the wave force on the float, displacement of the float and other parameters reach a maximum value. Finally, the influence of linear damping constant on the power take-off (PTO) was studied. The results show that the damping factor does not affect the wave number turning point of the optimal damping constant. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modelling Air Compressibility in OWC Devices with Deformable Air Chambers
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(8), 268; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7080268 - 11 Aug 2019
Viewed by 571
Abstract
Air compressibility effects play an important role in large-scale Oscillating Water Column (OWC) wave energy converters. Air compressibility is however not scalable with Froude similarity law. An existing scaling method enables correctly reproducing the air compressibility at the model scale, but its implementation [...] Read more.
Air compressibility effects play an important role in large-scale Oscillating Water Column (OWC) wave energy converters. Air compressibility is however not scalable with Froude similarity law. An existing scaling method enables correctly reproducing the air compressibility at the model scale, but its implementation is effortful and becomes cumbersome for floating devices and tests at relatively large scales (1/15th–1/2th). Air compressibility is therefore commonly ignored in model-scale tank testing of conventional OWC devices, which can lead to substantially unrealistic results on the device performance relative to the full-scale device. In the case of the Tupperwave device, which is a closed circuit OWC device, correctly modelling air compressibility during tank testing is however essential because the device relies on air compressibility to work. In this paper, a new method for modelling air compressibility at the model scale is presented. The method uses variable volume chambers, which mimic air compressibility by storing energy under the form of strain energy. This method reduces the difficulties of implementation and enhances the application of the existing method to larger scales. Various applications to this method are identified and described, including the presentation of a novel OWC concept. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ocean Wave Energy Conversion)
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Open AccessArticle
Application of Shielding Coils in Underwater Wireless Power Transfer Systems
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(8), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7080267 - 10 Aug 2019
Viewed by 433
Abstract
Underwater wireless power transfer (WPT) technology can enhance the endurance of the autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV). WPT that based on electromagnetic theory will generate eddy current loss (ECL) in seawater. In this paper, we make use of shielding coils to weaken the electromagnetic [...] Read more.
Underwater wireless power transfer (WPT) technology can enhance the endurance of the autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV). WPT that based on electromagnetic theory will generate eddy current loss (ECL) in seawater. In this paper, we make use of shielding coils to weaken the electromagnetic field (EMF) in seawater, which can reduce ECL and improve the transfer efficiency. Simplified circuit models were proposed to provide an intuitive and comprehensive analysis of the transfer efficiency and the finite element analysis (FEA) was used to simulate the distribution of EMF. We learn that the system with shielding coils performs better when the operating frequency is relatively high by comparing the power transfer efficiency of the underwater WPT systems with and without the shielding, and its maximum efficiency is higher than the system without shielding. The effect of the shielding coils has the similar influence when compared with the metallic plate. While considering the efficiency and weight of coils, the results show that the shielding coils can be used in the underwater WPT system to improve the power transfer efficiency. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Non-Hydrostatic Modeling of Waves Generated by Landslides with Different Mobility
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(8), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7080266 - 10 Aug 2019
Viewed by 394
Abstract
Tsunamis are generated when landslides transfer momentum to water, and these waves are major hazards in the mountainous coastal areas of lakes, reservoir, and fjords. In this study, the influence of slide mobility on wave generation is investigated using new: (i) experimental observations; [...] Read more.
Tsunamis are generated when landslides transfer momentum to water, and these waves are major hazards in the mountainous coastal areas of lakes, reservoir, and fjords. In this study, the influence of slide mobility on wave generation is investigated using new: (i) experimental observations; (ii) theoretical relationships; and (iii) non-hydrostatic numerical predictions of the water surface and flow velocity evolution. This is accomplished by comparing landslides with low and high mobility and computing the momentum flux from landslides to water based on data collected in laboratory experiments. These slides have different materials, different impact velocities, different submarine runout distances, and generate very different waves. The waves evolve differently along the length of the waves’ flume, and the experimental results are in close agreement with high-resolution phase-resolving simulations. In this short communication, we describe new research on landslide generated waves conducted at Queen’s University, Canada, and presented at Coastlab18 in Santander, Spain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from Coastlab18 Conference)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Phytoplankton Growth Phase on Settling Properties of Marine Aggregates
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(8), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7080265 - 10 Aug 2019
Viewed by 445
Abstract
Marine snow aggregates often dominate carbon export from the surface layer to the deep ocean. Therefore, understanding the formation and properties of aggregates is essential to the study of the biological pump. Previous studies have observed a relationship between phytoplankton growth phase and [...] Read more.
Marine snow aggregates often dominate carbon export from the surface layer to the deep ocean. Therefore, understanding the formation and properties of aggregates is essential to the study of the biological pump. Previous studies have observed a relationship between phytoplankton growth phase and the production of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP), the sticky particles secreted by phytoplankton that act as the glue during aggregate formation. In this experimental study, we aim to determine the effect of phytoplankton growth phase on properties related to aggregate settling. Cultures of the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii were grown to four different growth phases and incubated in rotating cylindrical tanks to form aggregates. Aggregate excess density and delayed settling time through a sharp density gradient were quantified for the aggregates that were formed, and relative TEP concentration was measured for cultures before aggregate formation. Compared to the first growth phase, later phytoplankton growth phases were found to have higher relative TEP concentration and aggregates with lower excess densities and longer delayed settling times. These findings may suggest that, although particle concentrations are higher at later stages of phytoplankton blooms, aggregates may be less dense and sink slower, thus affecting carbon export. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Snow and Elemental Cycles in the Ocean)
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Open AccessArticle
Strength Performance of an Eccentric Jacket Substructure
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(8), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7080264 - 10 Aug 2019
Viewed by 393
Abstract
An eccentric jacket substructure is comprised of circular hollow section tubular joints with complete overlap of braces. The joint is formed with the lap brace overlapping the diagonal through the brace joining the chord face. In this study, the jacket substructure is subjected [...] Read more.
An eccentric jacket substructure is comprised of circular hollow section tubular joints with complete overlap of braces. The joint is formed with the lap brace overlapping the diagonal through the brace joining the chord face. In this study, the jacket substructure is subjected to a static vertical load due to self-weight and facilities, and four horizontal loads to simulate the environmental loads applied at four different horizontal angles. The maximum stresses at each level of the eccentric jacket are found lower than that of the traditional jacket. For the eccentric jacket substructure, the high stress critical area is mostly located at the short segment of the diagonal through brace joining the chord face. From the parametric study, the ultimate strength of the joint with the complete overlap of braces of the eccentric jacket reduces with increasing the gap size-to-through brace diameter ratio, ξ. With the short segment of the through-brace joining the chord face, the high-stress area is transferred from the joint intersection of the chord and the braces to the lap brace and the diagonal through-brace. It could; therefore, be concluded, based on the strength performance, that the eccentric jacket performed better with maximum stresses and high-stress critical areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computer-Aided Marine Structures’ Design)
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Open AccessArticle
Floating State of a One-Step Integrated Transportation Vessel with Two Composite Bucket Foundations and Offshore Wind Turbines
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(8), 263; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7080263 - 09 Aug 2019
Viewed by 397
Abstract
Offshore wind power is an important of source renewable energy. As a new technology, the one-step integrated transportation and installation technology of offshore wind power has broader application prospects. In order to ensure stability during the towing process, it is necessary to study [...] Read more.
Offshore wind power is an important of source renewable energy. As a new technology, the one-step integrated transportation and installation technology of offshore wind power has broader application prospects. In order to ensure stability during the towing process, it is necessary to study the behavior of the wind turbine transportation structure. The numerical model of the specialized transportation vessel was set up by MOSES software. An analysis in the frequency domain and time domain was conducted considering the effects of draft, speed, and wave height on the towing stability of the wind turbine transportation vessel. The results show that the one-step integrated transportation method can ensure stability of the wind turbine during the towing process. Reducing draft, increasing speed, and increasing wave height will reduce the towing stability of the wind turbine. In the practical towing process, the combination of various adverse situations will be avoided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Study on Extreme Hydrodynamic Loading on Pipelines Part 2: Induced Force Analysis
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(8), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7080262 - 09 Aug 2019
Viewed by 435
Abstract
Adequate design of pipelines used for oil, gas, water, and wastewater transmission is essential not only for their proper operation but particularly to avoid failure and the possible extreme consequences. This is even more drastic in nearshore environments, where pipelines are potentially exposed [...] Read more.
Adequate design of pipelines used for oil, gas, water, and wastewater transmission is essential not only for their proper operation but particularly to avoid failure and the possible extreme consequences. This is even more drastic in nearshore environments, where pipelines are potentially exposed to extreme hydrodynamic events, such as tsunami- or storm-surge-induced inundation. The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), in its ASCE7 Chapter 6 on Tsunami Loads and Effects which is the new standard for tsunami impacts and loading, specifically stresses the need to study loads on pipelines located in tsunami-prone areas. To address this issue, this study is the first of its kind to investigate loading on pipelines due to tsunami-like bores. A comprehensive program of physical model experiments was conducted in the Dam-Break Hydraulic Flume at the University of Ottawa, Canada. The tests simulated on-land tsunami flow inundation propagating over a coastal plain. This allowed to record and investigate the hydrodynamic forces exerted on the pipe due to the tsunami-like, dam-break waves. Different pipe configurations, as well as various flow conditions, were tested to investigate their influence on exerted forces and moments. The goal of this study was to propose, based on the results of this study, resistance and lift coefficients which could be used for the design of pipelines located in tsunami-prone areas. The values of the resistance and lift coefficients investigated were found to be in the range of 1 <   C R < 3.5 and 0.5 ≤   C L < 3 , respectively. To that end, the study provides an upper envelope of resistance and lift coefficients over a wide range of Froude numbers for design purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tsunami Science and Engineering II)
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling Analysis and Simulation of Viscous Hydrodynamic Model of Single-DOF Manipulator
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(8), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7080261 - 09 Aug 2019
Viewed by 382
Abstract
Hydrodynamic modeling is the basis of the precise control research of underwater manipulators. Viscous hydrodynamics, an important part of the hydrodynamic model, directly affects the accuracy of the dynamic model and the control model of the manipulator. Considering the limited research on viscous [...] Read more.
Hydrodynamic modeling is the basis of the precise control research of underwater manipulators. Viscous hydrodynamics, an important part of the hydrodynamic model, directly affects the accuracy of the dynamic model and the control model of the manipulator. Considering the limited research on viscous hydrodynamics of underwater manipulators and the difficulty in measuring viscous hydrodynamic coefficients, the viscous hydrodynamic model in the form of Taylor expansion is analyzed and established. Through carrying out simulation calculations, curve fitting and regression analysis, positional derivatives, rotational derivatives, and coupling derivatives in the viscous hydrodynamic model, are determined. This model provides a crucial theoretical foundation and reference data for subsequent related research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Marine Robotics Modelling, Simulation and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Validation of the Hazard and Vulnerability Analysis of Coastal Erosion in the Caribbean and Pacific Coast of Colombia
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(8), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7080260 - 09 Aug 2019
Viewed by 703
Abstract
A hazard and vulnerability assessment of coastal erosion is an essential first step for planning and decision-making, because it is part of risk management and its results are in the form of easily interpreted traffic-light maps. For the analysis of the assessment in [...] Read more.
A hazard and vulnerability assessment of coastal erosion is an essential first step for planning and decision-making, because it is part of risk management and its results are in the form of easily interpreted traffic-light maps. For the analysis of the assessment in this work, a methodology is proposed which considers three components for both hazard (magnitude, occurrence, and susceptibility) and vulnerability (exposure, fragility, and lack of resilience), through a semi-quantitative approximation, by applying relative indices to different variables. This methodology has been adapted to analyze hazards and vulnerability caused by coastal erosion combining physical and social aspects. For the validation of this methodology, Spratt Bight Beach (Colombian Caribbean) and La Bocana beach (Colombian Pacific) were selected in order to have contrasting regions and to validate the application of the method over a geographical range. One of the most significant outcomes of the assessment of the degree of hazard and vulnerability is that the rating may represent different combinations of factors. It is therefore important to study and interpret the components separately, allowing us to propose corrective and/or prospective focused interventions at local and regional levels. In terms of vulnerability, the assessment highlighted the importance of cultural ecology as a factor of resilience to coastal hazards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geological Oceanography)
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Open AccessArticle
Innovative Approaches for Geometric Uncertainty Quantification in an Operational Oil Spill Modeling System
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(8), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7080259 - 08 Aug 2019
Viewed by 451
Abstract
Reliable and rapid real-time prediction of likely oil transport paths is critical for decision-making from emergency response managers and timely clean-up after a spill. As high-resolution hydrodynamic models are slow, operational oil spill systems generally rely on relatively coarse-grid models to provide quick [...] Read more.
Reliable and rapid real-time prediction of likely oil transport paths is critical for decision-making from emergency response managers and timely clean-up after a spill. As high-resolution hydrodynamic models are slow, operational oil spill systems generally rely on relatively coarse-grid models to provide quick estimates of the near-future surface-water velocities and oil transport paths. However, the coarse grid resolution introduces model structural errors, which have been called “geometric uncertainty”. Presently, emergency response managers do not have readily-available methods for estimating how geometric uncertainty might affect predictions. This research develops new methods to quantify geometric uncertainty using fine- and coarse-grid models within a lagoonal estuary along the coast of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Using measures of geometric uncertainty, we propose and test a new data-driven uncertainty model along with a multi-model integration approach to quantify this uncertainty in an operational context. The data-driven uncertainty model is developed from a machine learning algorithm that provides a priori assessment of the prediction’s confidence degree. The multi-model integration generates ensemble predictions through comparison with limited fine-grid predictions. The two approaches provide explicit information on the expected scale of modeling errors induced by geometric uncertainty in a manner suitable for operational modeling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Coastal Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
An Investigation into the Health Risks Associated with the Noise and Vibrations on Board of a Boat—A Case Study on the Danube River
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(8), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7080258 - 07 Aug 2019
Viewed by 393
Abstract
This paper studies the noise and vibrations transmitted to the crew of a pusher with eight barges sailing upstream the Danube River, between Cernavoda and Drobeta, with a staff consisting of a captain, one coxswain, one mechanic and three sailors. The research was [...] Read more.
This paper studies the noise and vibrations transmitted to the crew of a pusher with eight barges sailing upstream the Danube River, between Cernavoda and Drobeta, with a staff consisting of a captain, one coxswain, one mechanic and three sailors. The research was conducted over a one-week period in August 2018. The navigation time was 24/24 h and the seafarers’ schedule was 4/8. Determinations were made on three different workers: Coxswain, mechanic and sailor. The meteorological parameters and the Danube river levels, the sound level and the transmitted vibrations, as well as the body temperature and blood pressure of the subjects were measured. The periods of activity and sleep were analyzed by means of an actigraph. Our research findings indicate that people worked overtime, slept less than necessary and, generally, did not observe the official program. The noise (LEP,d = 92 dB) and vibration levels (a total exposure A(8) = 4.1 m/s2) also contributed to the sleep disorder. Such effects were accompanied by increased body temperature and blood pressure. Synthesizing, it can be concluded that: The peak (acrophase) of the work capacity was from 9:00 to 11:00 and from 17:00 to 19:00, which represent the maximum efficiency periods. More specifically, the highest mental performances were recorded in the morning, while the maximum physical ones were to be seen in the afternoon. The minimum efficiency period was from 13:00 to 15:00. Decreases in the work capacity were identified at 23:00 (reasonably low level) and 3:00 (extremely low level). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Buried Depth of a Submarine Pipeline Based on Anchor Penetration
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(8), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7080257 - 06 Aug 2019
Viewed by 379
Abstract
Anchor penetration is an important issue involved in the study of submarine pipeline damage accidents. To explore the penetration of a ship’s anchor under certain conditions, this study investigated the motion and force of an anchor and formulated a calculation method for the [...] Read more.
Anchor penetration is an important issue involved in the study of submarine pipeline damage accidents. To explore the penetration of a ship’s anchor under certain conditions, this study investigated the motion and force of an anchor and formulated a calculation method for the bottoming speed of an anchor. Meanwhile, the depth of anchor penetration was calculated under different conditions according to bottoming speed through programming. Finally, the reliability of the calculation method for the penetration depth was verified by comparing the actual measurement and the numerical simulation. On the basis of the findings, the calculation results were further analyzed, and conclusions were derived regarding the relationship between anchor mass, the horizontal projected area of the anchor, the anchor height on the water surface, and water depth. The conclusions provide suggestions for the application of anchor penetration in terms of seabed depth with certain reference values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring of Coastal and Offshore Structures)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Wave Conditions and Particle Size on the Release of Oil from Oil-Contaminated Sediments in a Wave Tank
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(8), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7080256 - 06 Aug 2019
Viewed by 383
Abstract
The floating oil can drift to the coastal areas and interact with the shoreline substrates after oil spill accidents. This process is demonstrated to be the cause of the formation of oil-contaminated sediments, which has attracted much attention. However, no systematic study has [...] Read more.
The floating oil can drift to the coastal areas and interact with the shoreline substrates after oil spill accidents. This process is demonstrated to be the cause of the formation of oil-contaminated sediments, which has attracted much attention. However, no systematic study has concerned the desorption process of oil from oil-contaminated sediments when the coastal hydrodynamic conditions change. This work determines the effects of wave conditions and particle size on the release of oil from artificially prepared sediments in a wave tank. Nonlinear fitting results show that the oil release kinetic curves can be correctly estimated with the Lagrangian first-order (LFO) first-order equation. Under different test conditions. The oil concentration in the water increases rapidly within 6 h. However, the oil desorption is inhibited thereafter and the process of sorption occurs dominantly. Under higher wave energy, the process of desorption is significantly enhanced and more large oil droplets release from sediments. Under the same wave condition, small oil droplets firstly release from the sediments. Besides, more oil especially with a larger size can release from larger sediment while oil releases more quickly from smaller sediment. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Inversion of HF Radar Doppler Spectra Using a Neural Network
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(8), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7080255 - 06 Aug 2019
Viewed by 385
Abstract
For a number of decades, coastal HF radar has been used to remotely measure ocean surface parameters, including waves, at distances exceeding 100 km. The information, which has value in many ocean engineering applications, is obtained using the HF radar cross-section, which relates [...] Read more.
For a number of decades, coastal HF radar has been used to remotely measure ocean surface parameters, including waves, at distances exceeding 100 km. The information, which has value in many ocean engineering applications, is obtained using the HF radar cross-section, which relates the directional ocean spectrum to the received radar signal, through a nonlinear integral equation. The equation is impossible to solve analytically, for the ocean spectrum, and a number of numerical methods are currently used. In this study, a neural network is trained to infer the directional ocean spectrum from HF radar Doppler spectra. The neural network is trained and tested on simulated radar data and then validated with data collected off the coast of Cornwall, where there are two HF radars and a wave buoy to provide the sea-truth. Key ocean parameters are derived from the estimated directional spectra and then compared with the values measured by both the wave buoy and an existing inversion method. The results are encouraging; for example, the RMSE of the obtained mean wave direction decreases from 20.6° to 15.7°. The positive results show that neural networks may be a viable solution in certain situations, where existing methods struggle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radar Technology for Coastal Areas and Open Sea Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Highly Flexible and High-Resolution Deep-Towed Streamer
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(8), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7080254 - 02 Aug 2019
Viewed by 431
Abstract
We have developed new a deep-towed seismic streamer for sub-bottom profiling. To obtain a high-resolution seismic signal, this streamer can be operated at depths of up to 2000 m, and state-of-the-art technology is adopted with electronics circuits, that can withstand high pressures of [...] Read more.
We have developed new a deep-towed seismic streamer for sub-bottom profiling. To obtain a high-resolution seismic signal, this streamer can be operated at depths of up to 2000 m, and state-of-the-art technology is adopted with electronics circuits, that can withstand high pressures of up to 22 MPa. The streamer houses an ultra-low noise pre-amplifier, micro-processor, AD convertor, high precision clock, gain controller, and other circuitry in an oil-filled vessel. The high S/N ratio gives us high-resolution seismic images. The streamer comprises several catenated single modules and the recorded acoustic data are transmitted to the control computer with the Ethernet protocol. This makes the length of the streamer cable, and the number of hydrophones, flexible. For instance, we can use both single-channel and multi-channel streamers in the same system. Up to 24-channels can be catenated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
An Integrated Approach for the Assessment of Central Cooling Retrofit Using Variable Speed Drive Pump in Marine Applications
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(8), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7080253 - 01 Aug 2019
Viewed by 444
Abstract
The present study describes a model-based approach for the assessment of central cooling retrofit solutions using variable speed drive (VSD) seawater (SW) pumps in marine applications. There are two main innovative features of the proposed methodology. The effect of boundary conditions (fluid stream [...] Read more.
The present study describes a model-based approach for the assessment of central cooling retrofit solutions using variable speed drive (VSD) seawater (SW) pumps in marine applications. There are two main innovative features of the proposed methodology. The effect of boundary conditions (fluid stream temperatures and mass flow rates) on the performance of central SW/fresh water (FW) cooler is considered via a detailed heat exchanger simulation model. Additionally, the repercussion of the higher FW temperature on the main engine fuel consumption due to the incorporation of a VSD SW pump is examined. The proposed methodology is applied on a handy-size bulk carrier equipped with a shell and tube SW/FW central cooler and a two-stroke main diesel engine. Both the reduced power demand for the VSD pump and the increased brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) of the main engine due to the increased low temperature (LT)/FW temperature have been considered at each operating point examined. Predictions have shown that in all part-load operating cases examined the use of a VSD SW pump has a positive effect on the reduction of total fuel consumption, whereas at full engine load, there is a SW threshold temperature under which the operation with a VSD pump leads to slightly higher total fuel consumption. This study highlights the importance of using an integrated approach for the reliable assessment of central cooling retrofit solutions, which can lead to optimized control solutions of the VSD pump operation for maximizing a ship’s fuel savings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Mechanical Tests and Numerical Simulations for Mining Seafloor Massive Sulfides
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(8), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7080252 - 01 Aug 2019
Viewed by 507
Abstract
With the decrease of primary resources in recent years, deep seabed mineral resources, especially the massive sulfides, are of extensive research significance. In this paper, firstly, the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) test and triaxial compressive strength (TCS) test on the seafloor massive sulfides [...] Read more.
With the decrease of primary resources in recent years, deep seabed mineral resources, especially the massive sulfides, are of extensive research significance. In this paper, firstly, the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) test and triaxial compressive strength (TCS) test on the seafloor massive sulfides (SMS) samples from three different segments are conducted to obtain the key mechanical properties, including the cohesive force, internal friction angle, compressive strength, elastic modulus and Poisson’s ratio. Then, by leveraging the PFC3D code, the uniaxial and triaxial numerical simulations of SMS are performed. During this process, the micro properties in the simulation are altered through a calibration process until they match the macro properties of the SMS samples measured in the laboratory tests. Finally, the micro properties are applied to simulate the cutting process of single cutting pick and two adjacent cutting picks; meanwhile, the cutting force in the fragmentation process of SMS is monitored and collected. This research can provide some guidance for the mining simulation of SMS and effectively predicting the maximum force on the cutting pick. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Mineral Resource Mining)
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