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J. Clin. Med., Volume 9, Issue 1 (January 2020) – 287 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Microvascular obstruction (MVO) following successful restoration of epicardial vessel flow is a [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY) in Portugal: Novel GCK, HNFA1 and HNFA4 Mutations
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(1), 288; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010288 - 20 Jan 2020
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Abstract
Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a frequently misdiagnosed type of diabetes, which is characterized by early onset, autosomal dominant inheritance, and absence of insulin dependence. The most frequent subtypes are due to mutations of the GCK (MODY 2), HNF1A (MODY 3), [...] Read more.
Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a frequently misdiagnosed type of diabetes, which is characterized by early onset, autosomal dominant inheritance, and absence of insulin dependence. The most frequent subtypes are due to mutations of the GCK (MODY 2), HNF1A (MODY 3), and HNF4A (MODY 1) genes. We undertook the first multicenter genetic study of MODY in the Portuguese population. The GCK, HNF1A, and HNF4A genes were sequenced in 46 unrelated patients that had at least two of the three classical clinical criteria for MODY (age at diagnosis, family history, and clinical presentation). The functional consequences of the mutations were predicted by bioinformatics analysis. Mutations were identified in 23 (50%) families. Twelve families had mutations in the GCK gene, eight in the HNF1A gene, and three in the HNF4A gene. These included seven novel mutations (GCK c.494T>C, GCK c.563C>G, HNF1A c.1623G>A, HNF1A c.1729C>G, HNF4A c.68delG, HNF4A c.422G>C, HNF4A c.602A>C). Mutation-positive patients were younger at the time of diagnosis when compared to mutation-negative patients (14.3 vs. 23.0 years, p = 0.011). This study further expands the spectrum of known mutations associated with MODY, and may contribute to a better understanding of this type of diabetes and a more personalized clinical management of affected individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Endocrinology & Metabolism)
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of JCM in 2019
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(1), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010287 - 20 Jan 2020
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Abstract
Rigorous peer-review is the corner-stone of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
Open AccessReview
Genetic and Epigenetic Biomarkers of Immune Checkpoint Blockade Response
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(1), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010286 - 20 Jan 2020
Viewed by 577
Abstract
Checkpoint inhibitor therapy constitutes a promising cancer treatment strategy that targets the immune checkpoints to re-activate silenced T cell cytotoxicity. In recent pivotal trials, immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) demonstrated durable responses and acceptable toxicity, resulting in the regulatory approval of 8 checkpoint inhibitors [...] Read more.
Checkpoint inhibitor therapy constitutes a promising cancer treatment strategy that targets the immune checkpoints to re-activate silenced T cell cytotoxicity. In recent pivotal trials, immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) demonstrated durable responses and acceptable toxicity, resulting in the regulatory approval of 8 checkpoint inhibitors to date for 15 cancer indications. However, up to ~85% of patients present with innate or acquired resistance to ICB, limiting its clinical utility. Current response biomarker candidates, including DNA mutation and neoantigen load, immune profiles, as well as programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, are only weak predictors of ICB response. Thus, identification of novel, more predictive biomarkers that could identify patients who would benefit from ICB constitutes one of the most important areas of immunotherapy research. Aberrant DNA methylation (5mC) and hydroxymethylation (5hmC) were discovered in multiple cancers, and dynamic changes of the epigenomic landscape have been identified during T cell differentiation and activation. While their role in cancer immunosuppression remains to be elucidated, recent evidence suggests that 5mC and 5hmC may serve as prognostic and predictive biomarkers of ICB-sensitive cancers. In this review, we describe the role of epigenetic phenomena in tumor immunoediting and other immune evasion related processes, provide a comprehensive update of the current status of ICB-response biomarkers, and highlight promising epigenomic biomarker candidates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances and Challenges in Pharmacogenomics)
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Open AccessArticle
Performance of FRAX in Predicting Fractures in US Postmenopausal Women with Varied Race and Genetic Profiles
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(1), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010285 - 20 Jan 2020
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Abstract
Background: Whether the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) performed differently in estimating the 10-year fracture probability in women of different genetic profiling and race remained unclear. Methods: The genomic data in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) study was analyzed (n = 23,981). [...] Read more.
Background: Whether the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) performed differently in estimating the 10-year fracture probability in women of different genetic profiling and race remained unclear. Methods: The genomic data in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) study was analyzed (n = 23,981). The genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated from 14 fracture-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for each participant. FRAX without bone mineral density (BMD) was used to estimate fracture probability. Results: FRAX significantly overestimated the risk of major osteoporotic fracture (MOF) in the WHI study. The most significant overestimation was observed in women with low GRS (predicted/observed ratio (POR): 1.61, 95% CI: 1.45–1.79) specifically Asian women (POR: 3.5, 95% CI 2.48–4.81) and in African American women (POR: 2.59, 95% CI: 2.33–2.87). Compared to the low GRS group, the 10-year probability of MOF adjusted for the FRAX score was 21% and 30% higher in the median GRS group and high GRS group, respectively. Asian, African American, and Hispanic women respectively had a 78%, 76%, and 56% lower hazard than Caucasian women after the FRAX score was adjusted. The results were similar for hip fractures. Conclusions: Our study suggested the FRAX performance varies significantly by both genetic profile and race in postmenopausal women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Orthopedics)
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Open AccessArticle
Porphyromonas Gingivalis Load is Balanced by 0.20% Chlorhexidine Gel. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled, Microbiological and Immunohistochemical Human Study
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(1), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010284 - 20 Jan 2020
Viewed by 247
Abstract
Microbial contamination could compromise the stability of dental implants increasing the risk of inflammatory reactions in the surrounding soft tissues. In this human, randomized, double-blind, clinical study, the presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis on the healing abutment and the inflammatory infiltrate surrounding peri-implant soft [...] Read more.
Microbial contamination could compromise the stability of dental implants increasing the risk of inflammatory reactions in the surrounding soft tissues. In this human, randomized, double-blind, clinical study, the presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis on the healing abutment and the inflammatory infiltrate surrounding peri-implant soft tissues were investigated. Experiments were done in order to clarify the effect of 0.20% chlorhexidine (CHX) versus placebo, applied during each rehabilitation stage. Thirty patients (15 per group) were included. The load of adhering P. gingivalis on the healing screw were quantified by quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) Taq-Man. Immunohistochemical analysis was carried out on the gingival biopsy. Moreover, clinical data were recorded. Analysis of variance and the Holm–Sidak test was used to evaluate differences between groups. The results showed a significant low presence of P. gingivalis load in healing abutments belonging to the 0.20% CHX group. Overall, the differences in terms of P. gingivalis DNA copy number between two groups were statistically significant (p < 0.01). All implants showed very low plaque and bleeding scores, but the placebo group appeared to have the highest expression of inflammation markers for T Lymphocytes, B Lymphocytes and macrophages Cluster definitions (CD3, CD20 and CD68). The use of 0.20% CHX could be recommended in all clinical procedures as it reduces significantly P. gingivalis load and host inflammatory response around implants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Implants in Development Osteointegration)
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Open AccessArticle
Differential Diagnosis of Malignant Lymphadenopathy Using Flow Cytometry on Fine Needle Aspirate: Report on 269 Cases
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(1), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010283 - 20 Jan 2020
Viewed by 269
Abstract
Introduction: Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is frequently the first noninvasive test used for the diagnostic workup of lymphadenopathy. There have been many studies showing its usefulness, especially in conjunction with other techniques for the diagnosis of lymphoma, but it remains inferior to histological [...] Read more.
Introduction: Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is frequently the first noninvasive test used for the diagnostic workup of lymphadenopathy. There have been many studies showing its usefulness, especially in conjunction with other techniques for the diagnosis of lymphoma, but it remains inferior to histological examination. The data regarding this subject have mostly been reported mostly from first-world countries, but are scarce for emerging economies. Thus, the current study assesses the agreement between fine needle aspiration flow cytometry (FNA FC) and histology in the aforementioned region. Material and Methods: We conducted a retrospective study including the FNA FC adenopathy diagnoses made between January 2011 and December 2016 at the Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. Additional variables included were the histological diagnosis, sex and age of the included patients. Results: In the descriptive part of the current study, 269 FNA FC samples were included. The most frequent diagnoses made on these were represented by B-cell lymphoma, reactive adenopathy, no abnormality detected (NAD), and non-hematological malignancy. In the analytical part of the current study, there were 115 cases included that had both valid FNA FC and histological diagnoses. It could be observed that FNA FC can correctly diagnose B-cell lymphoma in most cases, but it is a poor diagnostic tool especially for Hodgkin lymphoma in this setting as only a four-color flow cytometer was available for diagnosis. Moreover, FNA FC diagnosis of reactive adenopathy and of no abnormalities detected was shown to frequently hide a malignant disease. Conclusion: In countries with scarce resources, FNA FC represents a useful diagnostic tool in the case of B-cell lymphoma, but may misdiagnose reactive adenopathy. Thus, FNA FC should be used in a case-specific manner, in addition to as a screening tool, with the knowledge that in cases with a high clinical suspicion of lymphoma, histological diagnosis is a necessity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hematology)
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Open AccessReview
Genetics of Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Candidate Gene Studies
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(1), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010282 - 20 Jan 2020
Viewed by 294
Abstract
Degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) is estimated to be the most common cause of adult spinal cord impairment. Evidence that is suggestive of a genetic basis to DCM has been increasing over the last decade. A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, [...] Read more.
Degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) is estimated to be the most common cause of adult spinal cord impairment. Evidence that is suggestive of a genetic basis to DCM has been increasing over the last decade. A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, and HuGENet databases from their origin up to 14th December 2019 to evaluate the role of single genes in DCM in its onset, clinical phenotype, and response to surgical intervention. The initial search yielded 914 articles, with 39 articles being identified as eligible after screening. We distinguish between those contributing to spinal column deterioration and those contributing to spinal cord deterioration in assessing the evidence of genetic contributions to DCM. Evidence regarding a total of 28 candidate genes was identified. Of these, 22 were found to have an effect on the radiological onset of spinal column disease, while 12 genes had an effect on clinical onset of spinal cord disease. Polymorphisms of eight genes were found to have an effect on the radiological severity of DCM, while three genes had an effect on clinical severity. Polymorphisms of six genes were found to have an effect on clinical response to surgery in spinal cord disease. There are clear genetic effects on the development of spinal pathology, the central nervous system (CNS) response to bony pathology, the severity of both bony and cord pathology, and the subsequent response to surgical intervention. Work to disentangle the mechanisms by which the genes that are reviewed here exert their effects, as well as improved quality of evidence across diverse populations is required for further investigating the genetic contribution to DCM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy and the Aging Spine)
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Open AccessArticle
Serum Exosomal MicroRNA, miR-10b-5p, as a Potential Diagnostic Biomarker for Early-Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(1), 281; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010281 - 20 Jan 2020
Viewed by 328
Abstract
Exosomal microRNAs (exo-miRs) have been promising cancer biomarkers. MiRs in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell-derived exosomes (HEX) were analyzed to identify reliable serum biomarkers for HCC. To detect overexpressed miRs in HEX, extracted exosomal small RNAs from human HCC cell lines and normal hepatocytes [...] Read more.
Exosomal microRNAs (exo-miRs) have been promising cancer biomarkers. MiRs in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell-derived exosomes (HEX) were analyzed to identify reliable serum biomarkers for HCC. To detect overexpressed miRs in HEX, extracted exosomal small RNAs from human HCC cell lines and normal hepatocytes were sequenced and analyzed. Clinical significance of the overexpressed miRs in HEX was evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) on serum samples of a validation cohort consisting of 28 healthy individuals, 60 with chronic liver disease, and 90 with HCC. We found 49 significantly overexpressed miRs in HEX compared to a normal hepatocyte. Among them, miR-10b-5p, miR-18a-5p, miR-215-5p, and miR-940 were overexpressed in HCC tissues and also associated with prognosis of HCC in the analysis of a public omics database. qRT-PCR analysis of the four serum exo-miRs in the validation cohort revealed serum exo-miR-10b-5p as a promising biomarker for early-stage HCC with 0.934 area under the curve (AUC) (sensitivity, 90.7%; specificity, 75.0%; cutoff value, 1.8-fold). Overexpression of serum exo-miR-215-5p was found to be significantly associated with poor disease-free survival in patients with HCC. Serum exo-miR-10b-5p is a potential biomarker for early-stage HCC, while serum exo-miR-215-5p can be used as prognostic biomarker for HCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastroenterology & Hepatopancreatobiliary Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Pain Catastrophising Predicts Alcohol Hangover Severity and Symptoms
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(1), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010280 - 20 Jan 2020
Viewed by 223
Abstract
Alcohol hangover is a cause of considerable social and economic burden. Identification of predictors of alcohol hangover severity have the potential to contribute to reductions in costs associated with both absenteeism/presenteeism and health care. Pain catastrophising (PC) is the tendency to ruminate and [...] Read more.
Alcohol hangover is a cause of considerable social and economic burden. Identification of predictors of alcohol hangover severity have the potential to contribute to reductions in costs associated with both absenteeism/presenteeism and health care. Pain catastrophising (PC) is the tendency to ruminate and describe a pain experience in more exaggerated terms. The current study examines the possibility that this cognitive coping strategy may influence experience of alcohol hangover. The aims of the current study were to (1) examine the relationship between hangover severity and PC, (2) explore and identify discreet factors within the Acute Hangover Scale (AHS) and (3) explore whether independent factors/dimensions of acute hangover are differentially predicted by PC. A retrospective survey (n = 86) was conducted in which participants completed the Acute Hangover Scale (AHS); the Pain Catastrophising Scale (PCS); a questionnaire pertaining to the amount of alcohol consumed; and a demographic information questionnaire. Regression analyses showed a significant relationship between PC and hangover severity scores and demonstrated that PC was, in fact, a stronger predictor of perceived hangover severity than estimated peak blood alcohol concentrations (eBACs). Factor analysis of the AHS scale, resulted in the identification of two distinct symptom dimensions; ‘Headache and thirst’, and ‘Gastric and cardiovascular’ symptoms. Regression analyses showed that both eBAC and PCS score were significantly associated with ‘Headache and thirst’. However, only PCS score was associated with ‘Gastric and cardiovascular’ symptoms. These novel findings implicate a role for cognitive coping strategies in self-reports of alcohol hangover severity, and may have implications for understanding behavioural response to hangover, as well as suggesting that hangover and PC may be important factors mediating the motivation to drink and/or abuse alcohol, with potential implications in addiction research. Furthermore, these findings suggest that distinct alcohol hangover symptoms may be associated with different mechanisms underlying the experience of alcohol hangover. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Alcohol Hangover: Causes, Consequences, and Treatment)
Open AccessArticle
Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs) Modulate the Inflammatory Character of Alveolar Macrophages from Sarcoidosis Patients
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(1), 278; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010278 - 19 Jan 2020
Viewed by 375
Abstract
Sarcoidosis is a devastating inflammatory disease affecting many organs, especially the lungs and lymph nodes. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) can “reprogram” various types of macrophages towards an anti-inflammatory phenotype. We wanted to determine whether alveolar macrophages from sarcoidosis subjects behave similarly [...] Read more.
Sarcoidosis is a devastating inflammatory disease affecting many organs, especially the lungs and lymph nodes. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) can “reprogram” various types of macrophages towards an anti-inflammatory phenotype. We wanted to determine whether alveolar macrophages from sarcoidosis subjects behave similarly by mounting an anti-inflammatory response when co-cultured with MSCs. Fifteen sarcoidosis and eight control subjects underwent bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Unselected BAL cells (70–94% macrophages) were isolated and cultured with and without MSCs from healthy adults. Following stimulation of the cultured cells with lipopolysaccharide, the medium was removed to measure interleukin 10 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (IL-10 and TNF-α). In two additional sarcoidosis subjects, flow cytometry was used to study intracellular cytokines and surface markers associated with alveolar macrophages to confirm the results. Unselected BAL cells from sarcoidosis subjects co-cultured with MSCs showed a reduction in TNF-α (pro-inflammatory M1) and an increase in IL-10 (anti-inflammatory M2) in 9 of 11 samples studied. Control subject samples showed few, if any, differences in cytokine production. Unselected BAL cells from two additional patients analyzed by flow cytometry confirmed a switch towards an anti-inflammatory state (i.e., M1 to M2) after co-culture with MSCs. These results suggest that, similarly to other macrophages, alveolar macrophages also respond to MSC contacts by changing towards an anti-inflammatory phenotype. Based on our results, we hypothesize that mesenchymal stromal cells applied to the airways might alleviate lung inflammation and decrease steroid need in patients with sarcoidosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Sarcoidosis: Challenges and Solutions)
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Open AccessArticle
Safety of Abatacept in Italian Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Interstitial Lung Disease: A Multicenter Retrospective Study
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(1), 277; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010277 - 19 Jan 2020
Viewed by 431
Abstract
Background: Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-related interstitial lung disease (ILD) is challenging, and many conventional and biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) have been associated with ILD development or progression. The aim of this multicentric retrospective study was to analyze the evolution of ILD [...] Read more.
Background: Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-related interstitial lung disease (ILD) is challenging, and many conventional and biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) have been associated with ILD development or progression. The aim of this multicentric retrospective study was to analyze the evolution of ILD in Italian RA-ILD patients treated with abatacept (ABA). Methods: All RA-ILD patients treated with ABA for at least six months were retrospectively evaluated. Serology, previous and concurrent therapies, chest high-resolution computer tomography (HRCT), forced vital capacity (FVC), and lung diffusion of carbon monoxide (CO, DLCO) were collected. Results: Forty-four patients were included; HRCT, FVC, and DLCO were analyzed at baseline, at one year, and at the end of follow-up. A remission or a low disease activity of RA was reached in 41/44 patients. Overall, FVC and DLCO remained stable or increased in 86.1% and 91.7% of patients, respectively, while HRCT was stable or improved in 81.4% of them. Previous and concurrent treatments, in particular, methotrexate, serology, age, sex, joint and lung disease duration were not associated with the outcome at univariate analysis. Conclusion: The management of RA-ILD patients remains a critical unmet medical need. Waiting for prospective controlled studies, ABA has shown a good safety profile in our cohort of Italian RA-ILD patients. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Expression Patterns of Circulating MicroRNAs in the Risk Stratification of Bicuspid Aortopathy
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(1), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010276 - 19 Jan 2020
Viewed by 257
Abstract
Objective: Aortic size-based criteria are of limited value in the prediction of aortic events, while most aortic events occur in patients with proximal aortic diameters < 50 mm. Serological biomarkers and especially circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have been proposed as an elegant tool to [...] Read more.
Objective: Aortic size-based criteria are of limited value in the prediction of aortic events, while most aortic events occur in patients with proximal aortic diameters < 50 mm. Serological biomarkers and especially circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have been proposed as an elegant tool to improve risk stratification in patients with different aortopathies. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the levels of circulating miRNAs in a surgical cohort of patients presenting with bicuspid aortic valve disease and distinct valvulo-aortic phenotypes. Methods: We prospectively examined a consecutive cohort of 145 patients referred for aortic valve surgery: (1) Sixty three patients (mean age 47 ± 11 years, 92% male) with bicuspid aortic valve regurgitation and root dilatation (BAV-AR), (2) thirty two patients (mean age 59 ± 11 years, 73% male) with bicuspid aortic valve stenosis (BAV-AS), and (3) fifty patients (mean age 56 ± 14 years, 55% male) with tricuspid aortic valve stenosis and normal aortic root diameters (TAV-AS) who underwent aortic valve+/-proximal aortic surgery at a single institution. MicroRNAs analysis included 11 miRNAs, all published previously in association with aortopathies. Endpoints of our study were (1) correlation between circulating miRNAs and aortic diameter and (2) comparison of circulating miRNAs in distinct valvulo-aortic phenotypes. Results: We found a significant inverse linear correlation between circulating miRNAs levels and proximal aortic diameter in the whole study cohort. The strongest correlation was found for miR-17 (r = −0.42, p < 0.001), miR-20a (r = −0.37, p < 0.001), and miR-106a (r = −0.32, p < 0.001). All miRNAs were significantly downregulated in BAV vs. TAV with normal aortic root dimensions Conclusions: Our data demonstrate a significant inverse correlation between circulating miRNAs levels and the maximal aortic diameter in BAV aortopathy. When comparing miRNAs expression patterns in BAV vs. TAV patients with normal aortic root dimensions, BAV patients showed significant downregulation of analyzed miRNAs as compared to their TAV counterparts. Further multicenter studies in larger cohorts are needed to further validate these results. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Epidemiology, Treatment, and Prevention of Nosocomial Bacterial Pneumonia
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(1), 275; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010275 - 19 Jan 2020
Viewed by 658
Abstract
Septicaemia likely results in high case-fatality rates in the present multidrug-resistant (MDR) era. Amongst them are hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), two frequent fatal septicaemic entities amongst hospitalised patients. We reviewed the PubMed database to identify the common organisms implicated in [...] Read more.
Septicaemia likely results in high case-fatality rates in the present multidrug-resistant (MDR) era. Amongst them are hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), two frequent fatal septicaemic entities amongst hospitalised patients. We reviewed the PubMed database to identify the common organisms implicated in HAP/VAP, to explore the respective risk factors, and to find the appropriate antibiotic choice. Apart from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae spp., MDR or extensively drug-resistant (XDR)-Acinetobacter baumannii complex spp., followed by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Chryseobacterium indologenes, and Elizabethkingia meningoseptica are ranked as the top Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) implicated in HAP/VAP. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae notably emerged as an important concern in HAP/VAP. The above-mentioned pathogens have respective risk factors involved in their acquisition. In the present XDR era, tigecycline, colistin, and ceftazidime-avibactam are antibiotics effective against the Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase and oxacillinase producers amongst the Enterobacteriaceae isolates implicated in HAP/VAP. Antibiotic combination regimens are recommended in the treatment of MDR/XDR-P. aeruginosa or A. baumannii complex isolates. Some special patient populations need prolonged courses (>7-day) and/or a combination regimen of antibiotic therapy. Implementation of an antibiotic stewardship policy and the measures recommended by the United States (US) Institute for Healthcare were shown to decrease the incidence rates of HAP/VAP substantially. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Pneumonia)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Genomic Mapping Implicates LRRK2 for Intellectual Disability and Autism at 12q12, and HDHD1, as Well as PNPLA4, for X-Linked Intellectual Disability at Xp22.31
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(1), 274; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010274 - 19 Jan 2020
Viewed by 310
Abstract
We report a genomic and phenotypic delineation for two chromosome regions with candidate genes for syndromic intellectual disability at 12q12 and Xp22.31, segregating independently in one family with four affected members. Fine mapping of three affected members, along with six unreported small informative [...] Read more.
We report a genomic and phenotypic delineation for two chromosome regions with candidate genes for syndromic intellectual disability at 12q12 and Xp22.31, segregating independently in one family with four affected members. Fine mapping of three affected members, along with six unreported small informative CNVs, narrowed down the candidate chromosomal interval to one gene LRRK2 at 12q12. Expression studies revealed high levels of LRRK2 transcripts in the whole human brain, cerebral cortex and hippocampus. RT-qPCR assays revealed that LRRK2 transcripts were dramatically reduced in our microdeletion patient DGDP289A compared to his healthy grandfather with no deletion. The decreased expression of LRRK2 may affect protein–protein interactions between LRRK2 and its binding partners, of which eight have previously been linked to intellectual disability. These findings corroborate with a role for LRRK2 in cognitive development, and, thus, we propose that intellectual disability and autism, displayed in the 12q12 microdeletions, are likely caused by LRRK2. Using another affected member, DGDP289B, with a microdeletion at Xp22.31, in this family, we performed the genomic and clinical delineation with six published and nine unreported cases. We propose HDHD1 and PNPLA4 for X-linked intellectual disability in this region, since their high transcript levels in the human brain substantiate their role in intellectual functioning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics of Autism Spectrum Disorders)
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Open AccessReview
Mixed Neuroendocrine Non-Neuroendocrine Neoplasms: A Systematic Review of a Controversial and Underestimated Diagnosis
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(1), 273; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010273 - 19 Jan 2020
Viewed by 276
Abstract
Mixed neuroendocrine non-neuroendocrine neoplasms (MiNENs) represent a rare diagnosis of the gastro-entero-pancreatic tract. Evidence from the current literature regarding their epidemiology, biology, and management is of variable quality and conflicting. Based on available data, the MiNEN has an aggressive biological behaviour, mostly driven [...] Read more.
Mixed neuroendocrine non-neuroendocrine neoplasms (MiNENs) represent a rare diagnosis of the gastro-entero-pancreatic tract. Evidence from the current literature regarding their epidemiology, biology, and management is of variable quality and conflicting. Based on available data, the MiNEN has an aggressive biological behaviour, mostly driven by its (often high-grade) neuroendocrine component, and a dismal prognosis. In most cases, the non-neuroendocrine component is of adenocarcinoma histology. Due to limitations in diagnostic methods and poor awareness within the scientific community, the incidence of MiNENs may be underestimated. In the absence of data from clinical trials, MiNENs are commonly treated according to the standard of care for pure neuroendocrine carcinomas or adenocarcinomas from the same sites of origin, based on the assumption of a biological similarity to their pure counterparts. However, little is known about the molecular aberrations of MiNENs, and their pathogenesis remains controversial; molecular/genetic studies conducted so far point towards a common monoclonal origin of the two components. In addition, mutations in tumour-associated genes, including TP53, BRAF, and KRAS, and microsatellite instability have emerged as potential drivers of MiNENs. This systematic review (91 full manuscripts or abstracts in English language) summarises the current reported literature on clinical, pathological, survival, and molecular/genetic data on MiNENs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Diagnosis and Therapy of Neuroendocrine Neoplasms)
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Open AccessReview
Could IL-17A Be a Novel Therapeutic Target in Diabetic Nephropathy?
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(1), 272; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010272 - 19 Jan 2020
Viewed by 376
Abstract
Chronic kidney disease has become a major medical issue in recent years due to its high prevalence worldwide, its association with premature mortality, and its social and economic implications. A number of patients gradually progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), requiring then dialysis [...] Read more.
Chronic kidney disease has become a major medical issue in recent years due to its high prevalence worldwide, its association with premature mortality, and its social and economic implications. A number of patients gradually progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), requiring then dialysis and kidney transplantation. Currently, approximately 40% of patients with diabetes develop kidney disease, making it the most prevalent cause of ESRD. Thus, more effective therapies for diabetic nephropathy are needed. In preclinical studies of diabetes, anti-inflammatory therapeutic strategies have been used to protect the kidneys. Recent evidence supports that immune cells play an active role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Th17 immune cells and their effector cytokine IL-17A have recently emerged as promising targets in several clinical conditions, including renal diseases. Here, we review current knowledge regarding the involvement of Th17/IL-17A in the genesis of diabetic renal injury, as well as the rationale behind targeting IL-17A as an additional therapy in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Nephropathy: Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Highly Sensitive Detection of IDH2 Mutations in Acute Myeloid Leukemia
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(1), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010271 - 19 Jan 2020
Viewed by 277
Abstract
Background: Acute myeloid leukemia is a heterogeneous hematological disease, characterized by karyotypic and molecular alterations. Mutations in IDH2 have a role in diagnosis and as a minimal residue disease marker. Often the variant allele frequency during follow up is less than 20%, which [...] Read more.
Background: Acute myeloid leukemia is a heterogeneous hematological disease, characterized by karyotypic and molecular alterations. Mutations in IDH2 have a role in diagnosis and as a minimal residue disease marker. Often the variant allele frequency during follow up is less than 20%, which represents the limit of detection of Sanger sequencing. Therefore, the development of sensitive methodologies to identify IDH2 mutations might help to monitor patients’ response to therapy. We compared three different methods to identify and monitor IDH2 mutations in patients’ specimens. Methods: Performances of PNA-PCR clamping, droplet digital PCR and Sanger for IDH2 status identification were evaluated and compared in 96 DNA patients’ specimens. Results: In contrast with Sanger sequencing, our results highlighted the concordance between PNA clamping and digital PCR. Furthermore, PNA-PCR clamping was able to detect more mutated DNA with respect to Sanger sequencing that showed several false negatives independently from the allelic frequency. Conclusions: We found that PNA-PCR clamping and digital PCR identified IDH2 mutations in DNA samples with comparable results in a percentage significantly higher compared to Sanger sequencing. PNA-PCR clamping can be used even in laboratories not equipped for sophisticated analyses, decreasing cost and time for IDH2 characterization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Acute Myeloid Leukemia)
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Open AccessArticle
The Radical Scavenger NZ-419 Suppresses Intestinal Polyp Development in Apc-Mutant Mice
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(1), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010270 - 18 Jan 2020
Viewed by 286
Abstract
Colorectal cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death worldwide, and it is important to establish effective methods for preventing colorectal cancer. One effective prevention strategy could be the use of antioxidants. However, the role of the direct antioxidative function of antioxidants [...] Read more.
Colorectal cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death worldwide, and it is important to establish effective methods for preventing colorectal cancer. One effective prevention strategy could be the use of antioxidants. However, the role of the direct antioxidative function of antioxidants against carcinogenesis has not been clarified. Thus, we aimed to determine whether the direct removal of reactive oxygen species by a hydroxyl radical scavenger, NZ-419, could inhibit colorectal carcinogenesis. NZ-419 is a creatinine metabolite that has been shown to be safe and to inhibit the progression of chronic kidney disease in rats, and it is now under clinical development. In the present study, we demonstrated that NZ-419 eliminated reactive oxygen species production in HCT116 cells after H2O2 stimulation and suppressed H2O2-induced Nrf2 promoter transcriptional activity. The administration of 500 ppm NZ-419 to Apc-mutant Min mice for 8 weeks resulted in a decrease in the number of polyps in the middle segment of the small intestine to 62.4% of the value in the untreated control (p < 0.05 vs. control group). As expected, NZ-419 treatment affected the levels of reactive carbonyl species, which are oxidative stress markers in the serum of Min mice. Suppression of the mRNA levels of the proliferation-associated factor c-Myc was observed in intestinal polyps of Min mice after NZ-419 treatment, with a weak suppression of epithelial cell proliferation assessed by proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining in the intestinal polyps. This study demonstrated that NZ-419 suppress the development of intestinal polyps in Min mice, suggesting the utility of radical scavenger/antioxidants as a cancer chemopreventive agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer Chemoprevention)
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Open AccessArticle
Split-Liver Ex Situ Machine Perfusion: A Novel Technique for Studying Organ Preservation and Therapeutic Interventions
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(1), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010269 - 18 Jan 2020
Viewed by 268
Abstract
Ex situ machine perfusion is a promising technology to help improve organ viability prior to transplantation. However, preclinical studies using discarded human livers to evaluate therapeutic interventions and optimize perfusion conditions are limited by significant graft heterogeneity. In order to improve the efficacy [...] Read more.
Ex situ machine perfusion is a promising technology to help improve organ viability prior to transplantation. However, preclinical studies using discarded human livers to evaluate therapeutic interventions and optimize perfusion conditions are limited by significant graft heterogeneity. In order to improve the efficacy and reproducibility of future studies, a split-liver perfusion model was developed to allow simultaneous perfusion of left and right lobes, allowing one lobe to serve as a control for the other. Eleven discarded livers were surgically split, and both lobes perfused simultaneously on separate perfusion devices for 3 h at subnormothermic temperatures. Lobar perfusion parameters were also compared with whole livers undergoing perfusion. Similar to whole-liver perfusions, each lobe in the split-liver model exhibited a progressive decrease in arterial resistance and lactate levels throughout perfusion, which were not significantly different between right and left lobes. Split liver lobes also demonstrated comparable energy charge ratios. Ex situ split-liver perfusion is a novel experimental model that allows each graft to act as its own control. This model is particularly well suited for preclinical studies by avoiding the need for large numbers of enrolled livers necessary due to the heterogenous nature of discarded human liver research. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Serum Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein in Late-Stage Osteoarthritis: Association with Clinical Features, Renal Function, and Cardiovascular Biomarkers
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(1), 268; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010268 - 18 Jan 2020
Viewed by 368
Abstract
This study aimed to assess associations between serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (sCOMP) and phenotypic characteristics in late-stage hip and knee Osteoarthritis (OA) as well as its correlation with further serum markers of possible comorbidities in the Ulm Osteoarthritis Study. Moreover, the prognostic [...] Read more.
This study aimed to assess associations between serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (sCOMP) and phenotypic characteristics in late-stage hip and knee Osteoarthritis (OA) as well as its correlation with further serum markers of possible comorbidities in the Ulm Osteoarthritis Study. Moreover, the prognostic relevance of preoperative sCOMP concentrations for short-term functionality and pain outcomes after hip or knee joint replacement was explored. Preoperative serum samples and detailed information about the health status (i.e., WOMAC scores, Hannover Functionality Status (FFbH)) of 754 OA patients undergoing total joint replacement were included. Spearman rank-correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression models were used to evaluate the relationships between sCOMP, other serum markers, and health outcomes. There was a significant positive association between sCOMP and markers of renal (cystatin C, creatinine, and eGFR) and cardiac (e.g., NT-proBNP) impairment. Since renal failure might cause accumulation of sCOMP, additional adjustment with eGFR was performed. Preoperative sCOMP levels in knee OA but not hip OA patients were positively associated with FFbH, WOMAC function sub-scale and total WOMAC scale as well as the post-operative WOMAC stiffness sub-scale six months after surgery. Our data clearly demonstrate an association between sCOMP and renal function as well as other confounding factors, which should be considered in future biomarker studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orthopaedics: Medicine and Mechanisms)
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Open AccessReview
The Vasoactive Mas Receptor in Essential Hypertension
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(1), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010267 - 18 Jan 2020
Viewed by 351
Abstract
The renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) has been studied extensively, and with the inclusion of novel components, it has become evident that the system is much more complex than originally anticipated. According to current knowledge, there are two main axes of the RAAS, which counteract [...] Read more.
The renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) has been studied extensively, and with the inclusion of novel components, it has become evident that the system is much more complex than originally anticipated. According to current knowledge, there are two main axes of the RAAS, which counteract each other in terms of vascular control: The classical vasoconstrictive axis, renin/angiotensin-converting enzyme/angiotensin II/angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R), and the opposing vasorelaxant axis, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2/angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas receptor (MasR). An abnormal activity within the system constitutes a hallmark in hypertension, which is a global health problem that predisposes cardiovascular and renal morbidities. In particular, essential hypertension predominates in the hypertensive population of more than 1.3 billion humans worldwide, and yet, the pathophysiology behind this multifactorial condition needs clarification. While commonly applied pharmacological strategies target the classical axis of the RAAS, discovery of the vasoprotective effects of the opposing, vasorelaxant axis has presented encouraging experimental evidence for a new potential direction in RAAS-targeted therapy based on the G protein-coupled MasR. In addition, the endogenous MasR agonist angiotensin-(1-7), peptide analogues, and related molecules have become the subject of recent studies within this field. Nevertheless, the clinical potential of MasR remains unclear due to indications of physiological-biased activities of the RAAS and interacting signaling pathways. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Exogenous Gonadotrophin Stimulation Induces Partial Maturation of Human Sertoli Cells in a Testicular Xenotransplantation Model for Fertility Preservation
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(1), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010266 - 18 Jan 2020
Viewed by 451
Abstract
The future fertility of prepubertal boys with cancer may be irreversibly compromised by chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Successful spermatogenesis has not been achieved following the xenotransplantation of prepubertal human testis tissue, which is likely due to the failure of somatic cell maturation and function. [...] Read more.
The future fertility of prepubertal boys with cancer may be irreversibly compromised by chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Successful spermatogenesis has not been achieved following the xenotransplantation of prepubertal human testis tissue, which is likely due to the failure of somatic cell maturation and function. We used a validated xenograft model to identify the factors required for Leydig and Sertoli cell development and function in immature human testis. Importantly, we compared the maturation status of Sertoli cells in xenografts with that of human testis tissues (n = 9, 1 year-adult). Human fetal testis (n = 6; 14–21 gestational weeks) tissue, which models many aspects of prepubertal testicular development, was transplanted subcutaneously into castrated immunocompromised mice for ~12 months. The mice received exogenous human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG; 20IU, 3×/week). In xenografts exposed continuously to hCG, we demonstrate the maintenance of Leydig cell steroidogenesis, the acquisition of features of Sertoli cell maturation (androgen receptor, lumen development), and the formation of the blood–testis barrier (connexin 43), none of which were present prior to the transplantation or in xenografts in which hCG was withdrawn after 7 months. These studies provide evidence that hCG plays a role in Sertoli cell maturation, which is relevant for future investigations, helping them generate functional gametes from immature testis tissue for clinical application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Approach to Male Infertility and Induction of Spermatogenesis)
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Open AccessArticle
Pregnancy Associated Plasma Protein-A as a Cardiovascular Risk Marker in Patients with Stable Coronary Heart Disease During 10 Years Follow-Up—A CLARICOR Trial Sub-Study
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(1), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010265 - 18 Jan 2020
Viewed by 182
Abstract
Elevated pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) is associated with mortality in acute coronary syndromes. Few studies have assessed PAPP-A in stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and results are conflicting. We assessed the 10-year prognostic relevance of PAPP-A levels in stable CAD. The CLARICOR [...] Read more.
Elevated pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) is associated with mortality in acute coronary syndromes. Few studies have assessed PAPP-A in stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and results are conflicting. We assessed the 10-year prognostic relevance of PAPP-A levels in stable CAD. The CLARICOR trial was a randomized controlled clinical trial including outpatients with stable CAD, randomized to clarithromycin versus placebo. The placebo group constituted our discovery cohort (n = 1.996) and the clarithromycin group the replication cohort (n = 1.975). The composite primary outcome was first occurrence of cardiovascular event or death. In the discovery cohort, incidence rates (IR) for the composite outcome were higher in those with elevated PAPP-A (IR 12.72, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 11.0–14.7 events/100 years) compared to lower PAPP-A (IR 8.78, 8.25–9.34), with comparable results in the replication cohort. Elevated PAPP-A was associated with increased risk of the composite outcome in both cohorts (discovery Hazard Ratio (HR) 1.45, 95% CI 1.24–1.70; replication HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.10–1.52). In models adjusted for established risk factors, these trends were attenuated. Elevated PAPP-A was associated with higher all-cause mortality in both cohorts. We conclude that elevated PAPP-A levels are associated with increased long-term mortality in stable CAD, but do not improve long-term prediction of death or cardiovascular events when added to established predictors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Biomarkers for Heart Disease)
Open AccessArticle
Expression of Taste Receptor 2 Subtypes in Human Testis and Sperm
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(1), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010264 - 18 Jan 2020
Viewed by 413
Abstract
Taste receptors (TASRs) are expressed not only in the oral cavity but also throughout the body, thus suggesting that they may play different roles in organ systems beyond the tongue. Recent studies showed the expression of several TASRs in mammalian testis and sperm, [...] Read more.
Taste receptors (TASRs) are expressed not only in the oral cavity but also throughout the body, thus suggesting that they may play different roles in organ systems beyond the tongue. Recent studies showed the expression of several TASRs in mammalian testis and sperm, indicating an involvement of these receptors in male gametogenesis and fertility. This notion is supported by an impaired reproductive phenotype of mouse carrying targeted deletion of taste receptor genes, as well as by a significant correlation between human semen parameters and specific polymorphisms of taste receptor genes. To better understand the biological and thus clinical significance of these receptors for human reproduction, we analyzed the expression of several members of the TAS2Rs family of bitter receptors in human testis and in ejaculated sperm before and after in vitro selection and capacitation. Our results provide evidence for the expression of TAS2R genes, with TAS2R14 being the most expressed bitter receptor subtype in both testis tissue and sperm cells, respectively. In addition, it was observed that in vitro capacitation significantly affects both the expression and the subcellular localization of these receptors in isolated spermatozoa. Interestingly, α-gustducin and α-transducin, two Gα subunits expressed in taste buds on the tongue, are also expressed in human spermatozoa; moreover, a subcellular redistribution of both G protein α-subunits to different sub-compartments of sperm was registered upon in vitro capacitation. Finally, we shed light on the possible downstream transduction pathway initiated upon taste receptor activation in the male reproductive system. Performing ultrasensitive droplets digital PCR assays to quantify RNA copy numbers of a distinct gene, we found a significant correlation between the expression of TAS2Rs and TRPM5 (r = 0.87), the cation channel involved in bitter but also sweet and umami taste transduction in taste buds on the tongue. Even if further studies are needed to clarify the precise functional role of taste receptors for successful reproduction, the presented findings significantly extend our knowledge of the biological role of TAS2Rs for human male fertility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Approach to Male Infertility and Induction of Spermatogenesis)
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Open AccessArticle
Ringer’s Lactate Prevents Early Organ Failure by Providing Extracellular Calcium
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(1), 263; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010263 - 18 Jan 2020
Viewed by 317
Abstract
Objective: Ringer’s lactate may improve early systemic inflammation during critical illnesses like severe acute pancreatitis, which are associated with hypocalcemia. Ringer’s lactate is buffered and contains lactate and calcium. We, thus analyzed extracellular calcium or lactate’s effects on the mechanisms, intermediary markers, and [...] Read more.
Objective: Ringer’s lactate may improve early systemic inflammation during critical illnesses like severe acute pancreatitis, which are associated with hypocalcemia. Ringer’s lactate is buffered and contains lactate and calcium. We, thus analyzed extracellular calcium or lactate’s effects on the mechanisms, intermediary markers, and organ failure in models mimicking human disease with nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) elevation. Methods: Meta-analyses and experimental studies were performed. Experimentally, extracellular calcium and lactate were compared in their interaction with linoleic acid (LA; a NEFA increased in human severe pancreatitis), and its subsequent effects on mitochondrial depolarization and cytosolic calcium signaling resulting in cell injury. In vivo, the effect of LA was studied on organ failure, along with the effect of calcium or lactate (pH 7.4) on severe acute pancreatitis-associated organ failure. A meta-analysis of human randomized control trials comparing Ringer’s lactate to normal saline was done, focusing on necrosis and organ failure. Results: Calcium reacted ionically with LA and reduced lipotoxic necrosis. In vivo, LA induced organ failure and hypocalcemia. During severe pancreatitis, calcium supplementation in saline pH 7.4, unlike lactate, prevented hypocalcemia, increased NEFA saponification, reduced circulating NEFA and C-reactive protein, reduced pancreatic necrosis adjacent to fat necrosis, and normalized shock (carotid pulse distension) and blood urea nitrogen elevation on day 1. This, however, did not prevent the later increase in serum NEFA which caused delayed organ failure. Meta-analysis showed Ringer’s lactate reduced necrosis, but not organ failure, compared with normal saline. Conclusion: Hypocalcemia occurs due to excess NEFA binding calcium during a critical illness. Ringer’s lactate’s early benefits in systemic inflammation are by the calcium it provides reacting ionically with NEFA. This, however, does not prevent later organ failure from sustained NEFA generation. Future studies comparing calcium supplemented saline resuscitation to Ringer’s lactate may provide insights to this pathophysiology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Emergency Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Le Fort I Maxillary Advancement and Clockwise Rotation on the Anteromedial Cheek Soft Tissue Change in Patients with Skeletal Class III Pattern and Midface Deficiency: A 3D Imaging-Based Prediction Study
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(1), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010262 - 18 Jan 2020
Viewed by 238
Abstract
Patients with a skeletal Class III deformity may present with a concave contour of the anteromedial cheek region. Le Fort I maxillary advancement and rotational movements correct the problem but information on the impact on the anteromedial cheek soft tissue change has been [...] Read more.
Patients with a skeletal Class III deformity may present with a concave contour of the anteromedial cheek region. Le Fort I maxillary advancement and rotational movements correct the problem but information on the impact on the anteromedial cheek soft tissue change has been insufficient to date. This three-dimensional (3D) imaging-assisted study assessed the effect of surgical maxillary advancement and clockwise rotational movements on the anteromedial cheek soft tissue change. Two-week preoperative and 6-month postoperative cone-beam computed tomography scans were obtained from 48 consecutive patients who received 3D-guided two-jaw orthognathic surgery for the correction of Class III malocclusion associated with a midface deficiency and concave facial profile. Postoperative 3D facial bone and soft tissue models were superimposed on the corresponding preoperative models. The region of interest at the anteromedial cheek area was defined. The 3D cheek volumetric change (mm3; postoperative minus preoperative models) and the preoperative surface area (mm2) were computed to estimate the average sagittal movement (mm). The 3D cheek mass position from orthognathic surgery-treated patients was compared with published 3D normative data. Surgical maxillary advancement (all p < 0.001) and maxillary rotation (all p < 0.006) had a significant effect on the 3D anteromedial cheek soft tissue change. In total, 78.9%, 78.8%, and 78.8% of the variation in the cheek soft tissue sagittal movement was explained by the variation in the maxillary advancement and rotation movements for the right, left, and total cheek regions, respectively. The multiple linear regression models defined ratio values (relationship) between the 3D cheek soft tissue sagittal movement and maxillary bone advancement and rotational movements of 0.627 and 0.070, respectively. Maxillary advancements of 3–4 mm and >4 mm resulted in a 3D cheek mass position (1.91 ± 0.53 mm and 2.36 ± 0.72 mm, respectively) similar (all p > 0.05) to the 3D norm value (2.15 ± 1.2 mm). This study showed that both Le Fort I maxillary advancement and rotational movements affect the anteromedial cheek soft tissue change, with the maxillary advancement movement presenting a larger effect on the cheek soft tissue movement than the maxillary rotational movement. These findings can be applied in future multidisciplinary-based decision-making processes for planning and executing orthognathic surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Stomatology)
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Open AccessReview
Glial Cells—The Strategic Targets in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Treatment
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(1), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010261 - 18 Jan 2020
Viewed by 448
Abstract
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurological disease, which is characterized by the degeneration of motor neurons in the motor cortex and the spinal cord and subsequently by muscle atrophy. To date, numerous gene mutations have been linked to both sporadic and [...] Read more.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurological disease, which is characterized by the degeneration of motor neurons in the motor cortex and the spinal cord and subsequently by muscle atrophy. To date, numerous gene mutations have been linked to both sporadic and familial ALS, but the effort of many experimental groups to develop a suitable therapy has not, as of yet, proven successful. The original focus was on the degenerating motor neurons, when researchers tried to understand the pathological mechanisms that cause their slow death. However, it was soon discovered that ALS is a complicated and diverse pathology, where not only neurons, but also other cell types, play a crucial role via the so-called non-cell autonomous effect, which strongly deteriorates neuronal conditions. Subsequently, variable glia-based in vitro and in vivo models of ALS were established and used for brand-new experimental and clinical approaches. Such a shift towards glia soon bore its fruit in the form of several clinical studies, which more or less successfully tried to ward the unfavourable prognosis of ALS progression off. In this review, we aimed to summarize current knowledge regarding the involvement of each glial cell type in the progression of ALS, currently available treatments, and to provide an overview of diverse clinical trials covering pharmacological approaches, gene, and cell therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glial Cells in Central Nervous System (CNS) Pathology and Repair)
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Open AccessArticle
Clinical Factors Associated with Adherence to the Follow-Up Examination after Positive Fecal Occult Blood Test in National Colorectal Cancer Screening
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(1), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010260 - 18 Jan 2020
Viewed by 250
Abstract
Background: The compliance with the follow-up examination after a positive fecal occult blood test (FOBT) is lower than expected. We aimed to evaluate the adherence rate to the follow-up examination in patients with a positive FOBT and to identify the clinical factors associated [...] Read more.
Background: The compliance with the follow-up examination after a positive fecal occult blood test (FOBT) is lower than expected. We aimed to evaluate the adherence rate to the follow-up examination in patients with a positive FOBT and to identify the clinical factors associated with this adherence. Methods: The study population comprised adults aged ≥50 years who participated in the National Cancer Screening Program for colorectal cancer (CRC) in 2013. Compliance was defined as undergoing follow-up examination within 1 year of a positive FOBT. Results: From 214,131 individuals with a positive FOBT, 120,911 (56.5%) were in the compliance group and 93,220 (43.5%) were in the non-compliance group. On multivariate analysis, good compliance was associated with men (odds ratio (OR) = 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.09–1.15)), younger ages (70–79 years, OR = 2.19 (2.09–2.31); 60–69 years, OR = 3.29 (3.13–3.46); 50–59 years, OR = 3.57 (3.39–3.75) vs. >80 years), previous experience of CRC screening (a negative FOBT, OR = 1.18 (1.15–1.21); a positive FOBT, OR = 2.42 (2.31–2.54)), absent previous experience of colonoscopy or barium enema (OR = 2.06 (1.99–2.13)), higher economic income (quartile, 75%, OR = 1.14 (1.11–1.17); 100%, OR = 1.22 (1.19–1.25)), current smokers (OR = 1.12 (1.09–1.15)), alcohol intake (OR = 1.03 (1.01–1.05)), active physical activity (≥3 times/week, OR = 1.13 (1.11–1.15)), depression (OR = 1.11 (1.08–1.14)), and present comorbidities (Charlson Comorbidity Index, ≥1). Conclusion: This study identified clinical factors, namely, male, younger ages, prior experience of fecal test, absent history of colonoscopy or double-contrast barium enema (DCBE) within 5 years, and high socioeconomic status to be associated with good adherence to the follow-up examination after a positive FOBT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oncology)
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Open AccessArticle
Ipragliflozin Additively Ameliorates Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Controlled with Metformin and Pioglitazone: A 24-Week Randomized Controlled Trial
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(1), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010259 - 18 Jan 2020
Viewed by 325
Abstract
Despite the benefits of pioglitazone in the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), many treated patients continue to experience disease progression. We aimed to investigate the additive effect of ipragliflozin on NAFLD in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin and [...] Read more.
Despite the benefits of pioglitazone in the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), many treated patients continue to experience disease progression. We aimed to investigate the additive effect of ipragliflozin on NAFLD in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin and pioglitazone. In this 24-week randomized controlled trial, 44 patients with type 2 diabetes and comorbid NAFLD were either randomized to receive 50 mg/day of ipragliflozin as an add-on treatment (n = 29) or maintained on metformin and pioglitazone (n = 15). The fatty burden was assessed using the fatty liver index, NAFLD liver fat score, and controlled attenuation parameter (CAP). Changes in fat and muscle depots were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and abdominal computed tomography scans. The enrolled patients were relatively controlled (mean baseline glycated hemoglobin of 6.6% ± 0.6%) and centrally obese (mean waist circumference of 101.6 ± 10.9 cm). At week 24, patients in the ipragliflozin add-on group exhibited reduced hepatic fat content (fatty liver index: −9.8 ± 1.9, p = 0.002; NAFLD liver fat score: −0.5 ± 0.2, p = 0.049; CAP: −8.2 ± 7.8 dB/m2, p = 0.133). Ipragliflozin add-on therapy also reduced whole-body visceral fat and the ratio of visceral to subcutaneous fat (change in whole-body visceral fat: −69.6 ± 21.5 g; change in abdominal visceral fat: −26.2 ± 3.7 cm2; abdominal visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio: −0.15 ± 0.04; all p < 0.05). In conclusion, ipragliflozin treatment significantly ameliorates liver steatosis and reduces excessive fat in euglycemic patients with type 2 diabetes and NAFLD taking metformin and pioglitazone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathophysiology and Complications of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Proton Pump Inhibitor Use on Renal Function in Kidney Transplanted Patients
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(1), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010258 - 18 Jan 2020
Viewed by 270
Abstract
Recently, proton pump inhibitor (PPI) intake has been linked to acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of PPIs on renal function and rejection rate in kidney transplant patients. We performed a single [...] Read more.
Recently, proton pump inhibitor (PPI) intake has been linked to acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of PPIs on renal function and rejection rate in kidney transplant patients. We performed a single center, retrospective analysis of 455 patients who received a kidney transplant between May 2010 and July 2015. Median follow-up time was 3.3 years. PPI prescription was assessed in half-year intervals. Primary outcome parameters were the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), change in the eGFR, and >30% and >50% eGFR decline for different time periods (up to four years post-transplantation). Our secondary outcome parameter was occurrence of biopsy proven acute rejection (BPAR) in the first two years after transplantation. Except for >30% eGFR decline from half a year to two years post-transplantation (p = 0.044) and change in the eGFR, >30% and >50% eGFR decline showed no association with PPI intake in our patient cohort (p > 0.05). Similarly, by analyzing 158 rejection episodes, BPAR showed no correspondence with mean daily PPI intake. We conclude that prolonged PPI intake has no relevant adverse effect on kidney transplant function or rejection rates. Polypharmacy, however, remains a problem in renal transplant recipients and it is thus advisable to question the necessity of PPI prescriptions when clear indications are missing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Clinical Outcomes of Kidney Transplantation)
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