Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

J. Clin. Med., Volume 4, Issue 7 (July 2015) , Pages 1348-1535

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-10
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
Renal Replacement Therapy: Purifying Efficiency of Automated Peritoneal Dialysis in Diabetic versus Non-Diabetic Patients
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(7), 1518-1535; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4071518
Received: 3 April 2015 / Revised: 14 July 2015 / Accepted: 14 July 2015 / Published: 22 July 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2256 | PDF Full-text (199 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: In order to reduce the cardiovascular risk, morbidity and mortality of peritoneal dialysis (PD), a minimal level of small-solute clearances as well as a sodium and water balance are needed. The peritoneal dialysis solutions used in combination have reduced the complications and [...] Read more.
Background: In order to reduce the cardiovascular risk, morbidity and mortality of peritoneal dialysis (PD), a minimal level of small-solute clearances as well as a sodium and water balance are needed. The peritoneal dialysis solutions used in combination have reduced the complications and allow for a long-time function of the peritoneal membrane, and the preservation of residual renal function (RRF) in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) is crucial for the maintenance of life quality and long-term survival. This retrospective cohort study reviews our experience in automatic peritoneal dialysis (APD) patients, with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) secondary to diabetic nephropathy (DN) in comparison to non-diabetic nephropathy (NDN), using different PD solutions in combination. Design: Fifty-two patients, 29 diabetic and 23 non-diabetic, were included. The follow-up period was 24 months, thus serving as their own control. Results: The fraction of renal urea clearance (Kt) relative to distribution volume (V) (or total body water) (Kt/V), or creatinine clearance relative to the total Kt/V or creatinine clearance (CrCl) decreases according to loss of RRF. The loss of the slope of RRF is more pronounced in DN than in NDN patients, especially at baseline time interval to 12 months (loss of 0.29 mL/month vs. 0.13 mL/month, respectively), and is attenuated in the range from 12 to 24 months (loss of 0.13 mL/month vs. 0.09 mL/month, respectively). Diabetic patients also experienced a greater decrease in urine output compared to non-diabetic, starting from a higher baseline urine output. The net water balance was adequate in both groups during the follow up period. Regarding the balance sodium, no inter-group differences in sodium excretion over follow up period was observed. In addition, the removal of sodium in the urine output decreases with loss of renal function. The average concentration of glucose increase in the cycler in both groups (DN: baseline 1.44 ± 0.22, 12 months 1.63 ± 0.39, 24 months 1.73 ± 0.47; NDN: baseline 1.59 ± 0.40, 12 months 1.76 ± 0.47, 24 months 1.80 ± 0.46), in order to maintain the net water balance. The daytime dwell contribution, the fraction of day and the renal fraction of studies parameters provide sustained benefit in the follow-up time, above 30%. Conclusions: The wet day and residual renal function are determinants in the achievement of the objective dose of dialysis, as well as in the water and sodium balance. The cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) does not seem to influence the cleansing effectiveness of the technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Nephropathy)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Urinary MicroRNA Profiling Predicts the Development of Microalbuminuria in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(7), 1498-1517; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4071498
Received: 1 July 2015 / Revised: 6 July 2015 / Accepted: 14 July 2015 / Published: 17 July 2015
Cited by 38 | Viewed by 2681 | PDF Full-text (653 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Microalbuminuria provides the earliest clinical marker of diabetic nephropathy among patients with Type 1 diabetes, yet it lacks sensitivity and specificity for early histological manifestations of disease. In recent years microRNAs have emerged as potential mediators in the pathogenesis of diabetes complications, suggesting [...] Read more.
Microalbuminuria provides the earliest clinical marker of diabetic nephropathy among patients with Type 1 diabetes, yet it lacks sensitivity and specificity for early histological manifestations of disease. In recent years microRNAs have emerged as potential mediators in the pathogenesis of diabetes complications, suggesting a possible role in the diagnosis of early stage disease. We used quantiative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to evaluate the expression profile of 723 unique microRNAs in the normoalbuminuric urine of patients who did not develop nephropathy (n = 10) relative to patients who subsequently developed microalbuminuria (n = 17). Eighteen microRNAs were strongly associated with the subsequent development of microalbuminuria, while 15 microRNAs exhibited gender-related differences in expression. The predicted targets of these microRNAs map to biological pathways known to be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of diabetic renal disease. A microRNA signature (miR-105-3p, miR-1972, miR-28-3p, miR-30b-3p, miR-363-3p, miR-424-5p, miR-486-5p, miR-495, miR-548o-3p and for women miR-192-5p, miR-720) achieved high internal validity (cross-validated misclassification rate of 11.1%) for the future development of microalbuminuria in this dataset. Weighting microRNA measurements by their number of kidney-relevant targets improved the prognostic performance of the miRNA signature (cross-validated misclassification rate of 7.4%). Future studies are needed to corroborate these early observations in larger cohorts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Nephropathy)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Hypopituitarism in Traumatic Brain Injury—A Critical Note
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(7), 1480-1497; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4071480
Received: 29 April 2015 / Revised: 25 June 2015 / Accepted: 30 June 2015 / Published: 14 July 2015
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2605 | PDF Full-text (312 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
While hypopituitarism after traumatic brain injury (TBI) was previously considered rare, it is now thought to be a major cause of treatable morbidity among TBI survivors. Consequently, recommendations for assessment of pituitary function and replacement in TBI were recently introduced. Given the high [...] Read more.
While hypopituitarism after traumatic brain injury (TBI) was previously considered rare, it is now thought to be a major cause of treatable morbidity among TBI survivors. Consequently, recommendations for assessment of pituitary function and replacement in TBI were recently introduced. Given the high incidence of TBI with more than 100 pr. 100,000 inhabitants, TBI would be by far the most common cause of hypopituitarism if the recently reported prevalence rates hold true. The disproportion between this proposed incidence and the occasional cases of post-TBI hypopituitarism in clinical practice justifies reflection as to whether hypopituitarism has been unrecognized in TBI patients or whether diagnostic testing designed for high risk populations such as patients with obvious pituitary pathology has overestimated the true risk and thereby the disease burden of hypopituitarism in TBI. The findings on mainly isolated deficiencies in TBI patients, and particularly isolated growth hormone (GH) deficiency, raise the question of the potential impact of methodological confounding, determined by variable test-retest reproducibility, appropriateness of cut-off values, importance of BMI stratified cut-offs, assay heterogeneity, pre-test probability of hypopituitarism and lack of proper individual laboratory controls as reference population. In this review, current recommendations are discussed in light of recent available evidence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroendocrine Disturbances after Brain Damage)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Impaired Pituitary Axes Following Traumatic Brain Injury
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(7), 1463-1479; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4071463
Received: 19 May 2015 / Revised: 29 June 2015 / Accepted: 6 July 2015 / Published: 13 July 2015
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2009 | PDF Full-text (135 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pituitary dysfunction following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is significant and rarely considered by clinicians. This topic has received much more attention in the last decade. The incidence of post TBI anterior pituitary dysfunction is around 30% acutely, and declines to around 20% by [...] Read more.
Pituitary dysfunction following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is significant and rarely considered by clinicians. This topic has received much more attention in the last decade. The incidence of post TBI anterior pituitary dysfunction is around 30% acutely, and declines to around 20% by one year. Growth hormone and gonadotrophic hormones are the most common deficiencies seen after traumatic brain injury, but also the most likely to spontaneously recover. The majority of deficiencies present within the first year, but extreme delayed presentation has been reported. Information on posterior pituitary dysfunction is less reliable ranging from 3%–40% incidence but prospective data suggests a rate around 5%. The mechanism, risk factors, natural history, and long-term effect of treatment are poorly defined in the literature and limited by a lack of standardization. Post TBI pituitary dysfunction is an entity to recognize with significant clinical relevance. Secondary hypoadrenalism, hypothyroidism and central diabetes insipidus should be treated acutely while deficiencies in growth and gonadotrophic hormones should be initially observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroendocrine Disturbances after Brain Damage)
Open AccessReview
Diabetes Insipidus after Traumatic Brain Injury
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(7), 1448-1462; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4071448
Received: 14 April 2015 / Revised: 14 June 2015 / Accepted: 19 June 2015 / Published: 13 July 2015
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 6076 | PDF Full-text (195 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in many age groups. Neuroendocrine dysfunction has been recognized as a consequence of TBI and consists of both anterior and posterior pituitary insufficiency; water and electrolyte abnormalities (diabetes insipidus (DI) and [...] Read more.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in many age groups. Neuroendocrine dysfunction has been recognized as a consequence of TBI and consists of both anterior and posterior pituitary insufficiency; water and electrolyte abnormalities (diabetes insipidus (DI) and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH)) are amongst the most challenging sequelae. The acute head trauma can lead (directly or indirectly) to dysfunction of the hypothalamic neurons secreting antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or of the posterior pituitary gland causing post-traumatic DI (PTDI). PTDI is usually diagnosed in the first days after the trauma presenting with hypotonic polyuria. Frequently, the poor general status of most patients prevents adequate fluid intake to compensate the losses and severe dehydration and hypernatremia occur. Management consists of careful monitoring of fluid balance and hormonal replacement. PTDI is associated with high mortality, particularly when presenting very early following the injury. In many surviving patients, the PTDI is transient, lasting a few days to a few weeks and in a minority of cases, it is permanent requiring management similar to that offered to patients with non-traumatic central DI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroendocrine Disturbances after Brain Damage)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Mitochondrial Glutathione in Diabetic Nephropathy
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(7), 1428-1447; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4071428
Received: 21 May 2015 / Revised: 25 June 2015 / Accepted: 26 June 2015 / Published: 9 July 2015
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2517 | PDF Full-text (427 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although there are many etiologies for diabetic nephropathy (DN), one common characteristic of all cases involves mitochondrial oxidative stress and consequent bioenergetic dysfunction. As the predominant low-molecular-weight, intramitochondrial thiol reductant, the mitochondrial glutathione (mtGSH) pool plays important roles in how this organelle adapts [...] Read more.
Although there are many etiologies for diabetic nephropathy (DN), one common characteristic of all cases involves mitochondrial oxidative stress and consequent bioenergetic dysfunction. As the predominant low-molecular-weight, intramitochondrial thiol reductant, the mitochondrial glutathione (mtGSH) pool plays important roles in how this organelle adapts to the chronic hyperglycemia and redox imbalances associated with DN. This review will summarize information about the processes by which this important GSH pool is regulated and how manipulation of these processes can affect mitochondrial and cellular function in the renal proximal tubule. Mitochondria in renal proximal tubular (PT) cells do not appear to synthesize GSH de novo but obtain it by transport from the cytoplasm. Two inner membrane organic anion carriers, the dicarboxylate carrier (DIC; Slc25a10) and 2-oxoglutarate carrier (OGC; Slc25a11) are responsible for this transport. Genetic modulation of DIC or OGC expression in vitro in PT cells from diabetic rats can alter mitochondrial function and susceptibility of renal PT cells to oxidants, with overexpression leading to reversion of bioenergetic conditions to a non-diabetic state and protection of cells from injury. These findings support the mtGSH carriers as potential therapeutic targets to correct the underlying metabolic disturbance in DN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Nephropathy)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Diabetic Nephropathy without Diabetes
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(7), 1403-1427; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4071403
Received: 1 April 2015 / Revised: 3 June 2015 / Accepted: 3 June 2015 / Published: 9 July 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2137 | PDF Full-text (480 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Diabetic nephropathy without diabetes (DNND), previously known as idiopathic nodular glomerulosclerosis, is an uncommon entity and thus rarely suspected; diagnosis is histological once diabetes is discarded. In this study we describe two new cases of DNND and review the literature. We analyzed all [...] Read more.
Diabetic nephropathy without diabetes (DNND), previously known as idiopathic nodular glomerulosclerosis, is an uncommon entity and thus rarely suspected; diagnosis is histological once diabetes is discarded. In this study we describe two new cases of DNND and review the literature. We analyzed all the individualized data of previous publications except one series of attached data. DNND appears to be favored by recognized cardiovascular risk factors. However, in contrast with diabetes, apparently no factor alone has been demonstrated to be sufficient to develop DNND. Other factors not considered as genetic and environmental factors could play a role or interact. The most plausible hypothesis for the occurrence of DNND would be a special form of atherosclerotic or metabolic glomerulopathy than can occur with or without diabetes. The clinical spectrum of cardiovascular risk factors and histological findings support this theory, with hypertension as one of the characteristic clinical features. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Nephropathy)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Long-Term Visual Outcomes for a Treat and Extend Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Regimen in Eyes with Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(7), 1380-1402; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4071380
Received: 5 April 2015 / Revised: 22 June 2015 / Accepted: 26 June 2015 / Published: 8 July 2015
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 2544 | PDF Full-text (714 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the advent of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy, clinicians are now focused on various treatment strategies to better control neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NVAMD), a leading cause of irreversible blindness. Herein, we retrospectively reviewed consecutive patients with treatment-naïve NVAMD initially classified [...] Read more.
With the advent of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy, clinicians are now focused on various treatment strategies to better control neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NVAMD), a leading cause of irreversible blindness. Herein, we retrospectively reviewed consecutive patients with treatment-naïve NVAMD initially classified based on fluorescein angiography (FA) alone or with an anatomic classification utilizing both FA and optical coherence tomography (OCT) and correlated long-term visual outcomes of these patients treated with an anti-VEGF Treat-and-Extend Regimen (TER) with baseline characteristics including neovascular phenotype. Overall, 185 patients (210 eyes) were followed over an average of 3.5 years (range 1–6.6) with a retention rate of 62.9%, and visual acuity significantly improved with a TER that required a mean number of 8.3 (±1.6) (± standard deviation) intravitreal anti-VEGF injections/year (range 4–13). The number of injections and the anatomic classification were independent predictors of visual acuity at 6 months, 1, 2, 3 and 4 years. Patients with Type 1 neovascularization had better visual outcomes and received more injections than the other neovascular subtypes. There were no serious adverse events. A TER provided sustained long-term visual gains. Eyes with Type 1 neovascularization had better visual outcomes than those with other neovascular subtypes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Age-Related Macular Disease)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Circulating MicroRNA Signature as a Biomarker for Prostate Cancer in a High Risk Group
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(7), 1369-1379; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4071369
Received: 12 April 2015 / Revised: 18 June 2015 / Accepted: 18 June 2015 / Published: 7 July 2015
Cited by 38 | Viewed by 2423 | PDF Full-text (169 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Introduction: Mi(cro)RNAs are small non-coding RNAs whose differential expression in tissue has been implicated in the development and progression of many malignancies, including prostate cancer. The discovery of miRNAs in the blood of patients with a variety of malignancies makes them an ideal, [...] Read more.
Introduction: Mi(cro)RNAs are small non-coding RNAs whose differential expression in tissue has been implicated in the development and progression of many malignancies, including prostate cancer. The discovery of miRNAs in the blood of patients with a variety of malignancies makes them an ideal, novel biomarker for prostate cancer diagnosis. The aim of this study was to identify a unique expression profile of circulating miRNAs in patients with prostate cancer attending a rapid access prostate assessment clinic. Methods: To conduct this study blood and tissue samples were collected from 102 patients (75 with biopsy confirmed cancer and 27 benign samples) following ethical approval and informed consent. These patients were attending a prostate assessment clinic. Samples were reverse-transcribed using stem-loop primers and expression levels of each of 12 candidate miRNAs were determined using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. miRNA expression levels were then correlated with clinicopathological data and subsequently analysed using qBasePlus software and Minitab. Results: Circulating miRNAs were detected and quantified in all subjects. The analysis of miRNA mean expression levels revealed that four miRNAs were significantly dysregulated, including let-7a (p = 0.005) which has known tumour suppressor characteristics, along with miR-141 (p = 0.01) which has oncogenic characteristics. In 20 patients undergoing a radical retropubic-prostatectomy, the expression levels of miR-141 returned to normal at day 10 post-operatively. A panel of four miRNAs could be used in combination to detect prostate cancer with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.783 and a PPV of 80%. Conclusion: These findings identify a unique expression profile of miRNA detectable in the blood of prostate cancer patients. This confirms their use as a novel, diagnostic biomarker for prostate cancer. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Diabetic Nephropathy and CKD—Analysis of Individual Patient Serum Creatinine Trajectories: A Forgotten Diagnostic Methodology for Diabetic CKD Prognostication and Prediction
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(7), 1348-1368; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4071348
Received: 1 March 2015 / Revised: 26 May 2015 / Accepted: 9 June 2015 / Published: 26 June 2015
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2454 | PDF Full-text (708 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Creatinine is produced in muscle metabolism as the end-product of creatine phosphate and is subsequently excreted principally by way of the kidneys, predominantly by glomerular filtration. Blood creatinine assays constitute the most common clinically relevant measure of renal function. The use of individual [...] Read more.
Creatinine is produced in muscle metabolism as the end-product of creatine phosphate and is subsequently excreted principally by way of the kidneys, predominantly by glomerular filtration. Blood creatinine assays constitute the most common clinically relevant measure of renal function. The use of individual patient-level real-time serum creatinine trajectories provides a very attractive and tantalizing methodology in nephrology practice. Topics covered in this review include acute kidney injury (AKI) with its multifarious rainbow spectrum of renal outcomes; the stimulating vicissitudes of the diverse patterns of chronic kidney disease (CKD) to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) progression, including the syndrome of rapid onset end stage renal disease (SORO-ESRD); the syndrome of late onset renal failure from angiotensin blockade (LORFFAB); and post-operative AKI linked with the role of intra-operative hypotension in patients with diabetes mellitus and suspected diabetic nephropathy with CKD. We conclude that the study of individual patient-level serum creatinine trajectories, albeit a neglected and forgotten diagnostic methodology for diabetic CKD prognostication and prediction, is a most useful diagnostic tool, both in the short-term and in the long-term practice of nephrology. The analysis of serum creatinine trajectories, both in real time and retrospectively, indeed provides supplementary superior diagnostic and prognostic insights in the management of the nephrology patient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Nephropathy)
Figures

Figure 1

J. Clin. Med. EISSN 2077-0383 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top