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J. Clin. Med., Volume 13, Issue 11 (June-1 2024) – 338 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common acute cardiovascular condition. Within this review, we discuss the incidence, pathophysiology, and treatment options for patients with high-risk and massive pulmonary embolisms. In particular, we focus on the role of mechanical circulatory support devices and their possible therapeutic benefits in patients who are unresponsive to standard therapeutic options. Moreover, attention is given to device selection criteria, weaning protocols, and complication mitigation strategies. Finally, we underscore the necessity for more comprehensive studies to corroborate the benefits and safety of MCS devices in PE management. View this paper
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18 pages, 1818 KiB  
Review
Every Patent Foramen Ovale Should Be Closed
by Bernhard Meier
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(11), 3355; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13113355 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 463
Abstract
At present, the patent foramen ovale (PFO) does not receive the deserved medical attention. The PFO poses a serious threat to health and even the life of mankind. The first respective case report in the medical literature dates back to the 19th century. [...] Read more.
At present, the patent foramen ovale (PFO) does not receive the deserved medical attention. The PFO poses a serious threat to health and even the life of mankind. The first respective case report in the medical literature dates back to the 19th century. It led to death. The fact that a PFO is present in roughly 25% of people underscores its overall potential to cause harm. Yet at the same time, the sheer number discourages the medical community from screening for it and from treating it. About 5% of the population have particularly dangerous forms of PFOs. Such PFOs portray a high enough risk for clinical events, the likes of death, stroke, myocardial infarction, or ocular, visceral, and peripheral embolism, to justify screening for them. Highly significant health incidents being at stake, it appears obvious that PFO closure should be used for primary prevention. This is supported by the fact that closing a PFO is the simplest intervention in cardiology, with presumably the highest clinical yield. Being mainly a preventive measure, PFO closure represents a mechanical vaccination. When closing PFOs for one of the rarer therapeutic indications (migraine, platypnea orthodeoxia, etc.), patients automatically profit from the collateral benefit of getting, at the same time, mechanically vaccinated for life against paradoxical embolism. Vice versa, closing a PFO for the prevention of paradoxical embolism betters or cures migraine or exercise dyspnea not infrequently, thereby improving quality of life as a collateral benefit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Patent Foramen Ovale 2023: More Lights than Shadows)
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14 pages, 542 KiB  
Review
Recent Advancements in Minimally Invasive Surgery for Early Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Narrative Review
by Jibran Ahmad Khan, Ibrahem Albalkhi, Sarah Garatli and Marcello Migliore
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(11), 3354; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13113354 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 381
Abstract
Introduction: Lung cancer remains a global health concern, with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) comprising the majority of cases. Early detection of lung cancer has led to an increased number of cases identified in the earlier stages of NSCLC. This required the revaluation [...] Read more.
Introduction: Lung cancer remains a global health concern, with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) comprising the majority of cases. Early detection of lung cancer has led to an increased number of cases identified in the earlier stages of NSCLC. This required the revaluation of the NSCLC treatment approaches for early stage NSCLC. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive search using multiple databases to identify relevant studies on treatment modalities for early stage NSCLC. Inclusion criteria prioritized, but were not limited to, clinical trials and meta-analyses on surgical approaches to early stage NSCLC conducted from 2021 onwards. Discussion: Minimally invasive approaches, such as VATS and RATS, along with lung resection techniques, including sublobar resection, have emerged as treatments for early stage NSCLC. Ground-glass opacities (GGOs) have shown prognostic significance, especially when analyzing the consolidation/tumor ratio (CTR). There have also been updates on managing GGOs, including the non-surgical approaches, the extent of lung resection indicated, and the level of lymphadenectomy required. Conclusions: The management of early stage NSCLC requires a further assessment of treatment strategies. This includes understanding the required extent of surgical resection, interpreting the significance of GGOs (specifically GGOs with a high CTR), and evaluating the efficacy of alternative therapies. Customized treatment involving surgical and non-surgical interventions is essential for advancing patient care. Full article
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19 pages, 2537 KiB  
Article
Use of Real-World FHIR Data Combined with Context-Sensitive Decision Modeling to Guide Sentinel Biopsy in Melanoma
by Catharina Lena Beckmann, Georg Lodde, Jessica Swoboda, Elisabeth Livingstone and Britta Böckmann
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(11), 3353; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13113353 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 306
Abstract
Background: To support clinical decision-making at the point of care, the “best next step” based on Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) and actual accurate patient data must be provided. To do this, textual SOPs have to be transformed into operable clinical algorithms and [...] Read more.
Background: To support clinical decision-making at the point of care, the “best next step” based on Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) and actual accurate patient data must be provided. To do this, textual SOPs have to be transformed into operable clinical algorithms and linked to the data of the patient being treated. For this linkage, we need to know exactly which data are needed by clinicians at a certain decision point and whether these data are available. These data might be identical to the data used within the SOP or might integrate a broader view. To address these concerns, we examined if the data used by the SOP is also complete from the point of view of physicians for contextual decision-making. Methods: We selected a cohort of 67 patients with stage III melanoma who had undergone adjuvant treatment and mainly had an indication for a sentinel biopsy. First, we performed a step-by-step simulation of the patient treatment along our clinical algorithm, which is based on a hospital-specific SOP, to validate the algorithm with the given Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR)-based data of our cohort. Second, we presented three different decision situations within our algorithm to 10 dermatooncologists, focusing on the concrete patient data used at this decision point. The results were conducted, analyzed, and compared with those of the pure algorithmic simulation. Results: The treatment paths of patients with melanoma could be retrospectively simulated along the clinical algorithm using data from the patients’ electronic health records. The subsequent evaluation by dermatooncologists showed that the data used at the three decision points had a completeness between 84.6% and 100.0% compared with the data used by the SOP. At one decision point, data on “patient age (at primary diagnosis)” and “date of first diagnosis” were missing. Conclusions: The data needed for our decision points are available in the FHIR-based dataset. Furthermore, the data used at decision points by the SOP and hence the clinical algorithm are nearly complete compared with the data required by physicians in clinical practice. This is an important precondition for further research focusing on presenting decision points within a treatment process integrated with the patient data needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dermatology)
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10 pages, 1137 KiB  
Article
Left Ventricular Twist and the “Rigid Body Rotation” Pattern in Patients Treated with Anthracyclines or Anti-HER2
by Federico Guerra, Giulia Stronati, Alice Frangione, Edlira Rrapaj, Marco Flori, Michele Alfieri, Samuele Principi, Alessandro Barbarossa, Giuseppe Ciliberti and Antonio Dello Russo
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(11), 3352; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13113352 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 338
Abstract
Background: During the physiological cardiac cycle, the helix orientation of the muscle fibres induces the rotation of the apex relative to the base of the left ventricular (LV). In heart failure, LV torsion is impaired, and rotation at basal and apical levels occurs [...] Read more.
Background: During the physiological cardiac cycle, the helix orientation of the muscle fibres induces the rotation of the apex relative to the base of the left ventricular (LV). In heart failure, LV torsion is impaired, and rotation at basal and apical levels occurs in the same direction, a phenomenon called rigid body rotation (RBR). We aimed to evaluate whether the RBR pattern and GLS together could improve the diagnosis of cardiotoxicity in patients treated with anthracyclines and/or anti-HER2. Methods: With an observational, retrospective study involving 175 patients (mean age 55 ± 12 years, 94% females), we evaluated the development of cancer therapeutic–related cardiac dysfunction (CTRCD) defined according to ESC guidelines. We characterised LV dysfunction by echocardiographic standard and speckle-tracking (GLS and RBR pattern) measurements. Patients with a previous diagnosis of structural heart disease or atrial fibrillation were excluded. Results: At the time of enrolment, the chemotherapy regimen included trastuzumab (96%), pertuzumab (21%), and anthracyclines (13%). Twenty-two patients (12.5%) developed cardiotoxicity, and thirteen patients developed an RBR within 6 months of follow-up. In all cases, the RBR pattern was associated with cardiotoxicity (p < 0.001), reporting an optimal specificity but poor sensitivity at three and six months. However, the addition of the RBR pattern to the global longitudinal strain (GLS) ≥ −16% increased the odds ratio (OR) from 25.6 to 32.6 at three months and from 32.5 to 49.6 at six months rather than GLS alone. Conclusions: The RBR pattern improves the diagnostic accuracy of GLS for the detection of cardiotoxicity secondary to anthracyclines and anti-HER2-based treatments. Full article
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13 pages, 604 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Utility of Novel pH-Impedance Monitoring Parameters (PSPW Index and MNBI) in Pediatric Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Phenotypes—A Systematic Review
by Radu Samuel Pop, Dorin Farcău, Lăcrămioara Eliza Chiperi and Dan Lucian Dumitrașcu
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(11), 3351; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13113351 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 243
Abstract
Background/Objectives: Researchers have proposed two novel impedance-pH parameters, mean nocturnal baseline impedance (MNBI) and the post-reflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave (PSPW) index, to enhance the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and enable better predictions of the effectiveness of anti-reflux therapies. This systematic [...] Read more.
Background/Objectives: Researchers have proposed two novel impedance-pH parameters, mean nocturnal baseline impedance (MNBI) and the post-reflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave (PSPW) index, to enhance the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and enable better predictions of the effectiveness of anti-reflux therapies. This systematic review aims to synthesize the available evidence on the utility of the PSPW index and MNBI as diagnostic tools for pediatric GERD. Methods: A systematic search of studies reporting PSPW index and MNBI values in patients with GERD was performed in PubMed, Embase, Clarivate, Scopus, Cochrane and Google Scholar databases from their beginning until April 2024. The following terms were used: GERD, children, pediatric, PSPW and MNBI. Results: Eight studies were included, describing 479 patients ranging from 2 months to 17 years old over an 8-year period in 12 pediatric centers. Four studies demonstrated that children with pathological acid exposure have a significantly lower MNBI, with a good discriminatory ability to diagnose GERD. The PSPW index showed lower values in patients with reflux hypersensitivity (RH) compared to those with functional heartburn (FH). Conclusions: Patients with pathological acid exposure tend to exhibit lower MNBI and PSPW index values compared to those with normal acid exposure. MNBI and the PSPW index show promise as diagnostic tools in distinguishing between different GERD phenotypes. Further research is needed to establish standardized diagnostic criteria and optimize the clinical applicability in GERD diagnosis and management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Pediatrics)
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9 pages, 933 KiB  
Article
Ex Vivo Histological Analysis of Corneas with Manually Implanted Intracorneal Stromal Ring Segments
by Noa Kapelushnik, Liliana Werner, Nadav Levinger, Samuel Levinger and Irina S. Barequet
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(11), 3350; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13113350 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 246
Abstract
Backgrond: Intracorneal ring segments (ICRSs) are utilized to correct refractive changes impacting visual acuity, commonly implanted via femtosecond laser but can also inserted manually. Corneal deposits alongside the ICRS channels are seen commonly. Methods: This study explores the histological characteristics of corneal deposits [...] Read more.
Backgrond: Intracorneal ring segments (ICRSs) are utilized to correct refractive changes impacting visual acuity, commonly implanted via femtosecond laser but can also inserted manually. Corneal deposits alongside the ICRS channels are seen commonly. Methods: This study explores the histological characteristics of corneal deposits following manual ICRS implantation, comparing them to previously published articles describing femtosecond laser-assisted cases. Results: This is a retrospective analysis of three cases involving manual ICRS implantation, accumulation of whitish deposits and later explanation of the corneas due to penetrating keratoplasty (PKP). Patient demographics, ocular history, and surgical details were collected. Histological analysis employed Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) and Masson’s trichrome staining. Whitish deposits along ICRS tracts were observed in all cases, with minimal fibroblastic transformation of keratocytes adjacent to the segments. Comparing these cases of manual to femtosecond laser-assisted ICRS implantation, in most cases, similar deposits were identified, indicating the deposits’ association with the stromal tissue reaction to the ring segment and not to the surgical technique. Conclusions: This study contributes insights into the histopathology of manually implanted ICRS, emphasizing the shared nature of deposits in both insertion methods. The findings highlight the link between deposits and the stromal tissue reaction to the ring segment, irrespective of the insertion technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corneal Diseases: Diagnosis, Management and Treatment)
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10 pages, 1195 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Initial Learning Curve for Robotic-Assisted Total Knee Arthroplasty Using the ROSA® Knee System
by Inmaculada Neira, Rafael Llopis, Luis Cuadrado, David Fernández, Enrique Villanueva, Néstor Nuño and Francisco Forriol
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(11), 3349; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13113349 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 445
Abstract
Background/Objectives: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a frequent procedure in orthopedic surgery. Advances in TKA include the development of robotic-assisted systems. Training in raTKA entails a learning curve to achieve proficiency comparable to conventional manual TKA (maTKA). Methods: We conducted a prospective study [...] Read more.
Background/Objectives: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a frequent procedure in orthopedic surgery. Advances in TKA include the development of robotic-assisted systems. Training in raTKA entails a learning curve to achieve proficiency comparable to conventional manual TKA (maTKA). Methods: We conducted a prospective study of the learning curve in raTKA using the Robotic Surgical Assistant (ROSA) Knee System. The study included 180 patients (90 raTKAs; 90 maTKAs) and three surgeons (one with >15 years of experience in maTKA). The cumulative sum control chart method (CUSUM) was used to define the transition from the learning phase to the mastered phase in raTKA. Results: The learning curves were 43 cases (experienced surgeons) and 61 cases (all surgeons). Mean operative times for both phases in raTKA were longer than in maTKA (p < 0.001). In raTKA, operative times in the learning phase were longer compared to those in the mastered phase (p < 0.001). Operative times in the learning and mastered phases for all surgeons in raTKA were significantly longer compared to those in maTKA (p < 0.001); however, operative times of the experienced surgeon in the mastered phase of raTKA and in maTKA showed no differences. Conclusions: The learning curve in raTKA is dependent upon the surgeon’s previous experience in maTKA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Knee Arthroplasty Surgery: Management and Future Opportunities)
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13 pages, 7424 KiB  
Article
All-on-4 Hybrid with Extra-Long Transnasal Implants: Descriptions of the Technique and Short-Term Outcomes in Three Cases
by Mariana Nunes, Miguel de Araújo Nobre and Vanderlim Camargo
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(11), 3348; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13113348 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 344
Abstract
Background/Objectives: There is a need for alternative approaches to full-arch rehabilitation of atrophic maxillae. The aim of this short case series was to describe the technique and assess the short term-outcomes of atrophic maxillae rehabilitation using transnasal implants in conjunction with zygomatic [...] Read more.
Background/Objectives: There is a need for alternative approaches to full-arch rehabilitation of atrophic maxillae. The aim of this short case series was to describe the technique and assess the short term-outcomes of atrophic maxillae rehabilitation using transnasal implants in conjunction with zygomatic implants. Methods: Three female patients (average age: 62 years) presenting comorbidities and atrophic maxillae preventing the insertion of standard maxillary anchored implants received a full-arch fixed prosthesis supported by transnasal implants together with zygomatic implants, using the ad modum all-on-4 concept. Patients were followed during the functional osseointegration period. Primary outcome measures were prosthetic and implant survival based on function. Secondary outcome measures were complication parameters (biological and mechanical), plaque and bleeding levels, and probing pocket depths > 4 mm. Results: No implant failures were registered, and all prostheses remained in function. The only complication was a fracture of a provisional crown that was resolved. Plaque and bleeding scores were mild during the follow-up period. Conclusions: The present manuscript describes the use of extra-long transnasal implants in combination with zygomatic implants in immediate function for full-arch fixed prosthetic rehabilitation of atrophic maxillae, with the objective of promoting more research into this relatively recent technique. More studies are needed to validate the technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery)
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11 pages, 1924 KiB  
Article
From Detection to Decision: How STIR Sequence MRI Influences Treatment Strategies for Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures
by Réka Viola, Siran Aslan, Mohammad Walid Al-Smadi, Dávid Süvegh and Árpád Viola
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(11), 3347; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13113347 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 271
Abstract
Background/Objectives: Osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVFs) significantly impair quality of life. This study evaluates the impact of STIR sequence MR imaging on clinical decision-making for treating OVFs, mainly focusing on how MRI findings influence treatment modifications compared to those based solely on CT scans. [...] Read more.
Background/Objectives: Osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVFs) significantly impair quality of life. This study evaluates the impact of STIR sequence MR imaging on clinical decision-making for treating OVFs, mainly focusing on how MRI findings influence treatment modifications compared to those based solely on CT scans. Methods: This retrospective analysis reviewed cases from the Manninger Jenő National Traumatology Institute over ten years, where patients with suspected OVFs underwent CT and STIR sequence MR imaging. The study examined changes in treatment plans initiated by MRI findings. The diagnostic effectiveness of MRI was compared against CT in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and the ability to influence clinical treatment paths. Results: MRI detected 1.65 times more fractures than CT scans. MRI influenced treatment adjustments in 67% of cases, leading to significant changes from conservative–conservative, conservative–surgery, and surgery–surgery based on fracture characterizations provided by MRI. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that integrating STIR sequence MR imaging into the diagnostic pathway for OVFs significantly enhances the accuracy of fracture detection and profoundly impacts treatment decisions. The ability of MRI to reveal specific fracture features that are not detectable by CT scans supports its importance in the clinical evaluation of OVFs, suggesting that MRI should be incorporated more into diagnostic protocols to improve patient management and outcomes. The findings advocate for further research to establish STIR MRI as a standard osteoporosis management tool and explore its long-term benefits in preventing secondary fractures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Treatment and Management of Orthopedic Trauma)
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10 pages, 1364 KiB  
Article
Hospitalizations for Acute Otitis and Sinusitis in Patients Living with HIV: A Retrospective Analysis of a Tertiary Center in Romania
by Vlad Ștefan Pleșca, Victor Daniel Miron, Adrian Gabriel Marinescu, Anca Cristina Drăgănescu, Anca Doina Pleșca, Oana Săndulescu, Cătălina Voiosu, Răzvan Hainăroșie and Anca Streinu-Cercel
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(11), 3346; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13113346 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 272
Abstract
Background/Objectives: Acute or chronic ear, nose and throat (ENT) conditions in people living with HIV can lead to hospitalization and affect their quality of life. The aim of our study was to determine the frequency and characteristics of hospitalizations for acute sinusitis (AS) [...] Read more.
Background/Objectives: Acute or chronic ear, nose and throat (ENT) conditions in people living with HIV can lead to hospitalization and affect their quality of life. The aim of our study was to determine the frequency and characteristics of hospitalizations for acute sinusitis (AS) and acute otitis (AO) in people living with HIV. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis over the course of six years (from January 2018 to December 2023), assessing all hospitalizations for AS and/or AO occurring in patients living with HIV, at the largest infectious diseases hospital in Romania. Results: We identified a total of 179 cases, among which 149 cases (83.2%) were attributed to AS and 41 cases (22.9%) were due to AO. Among cases of AS, maxillary sinuses were most frequently involved (n = 140/149, 94.0%), and among cases of AO, acute congestive otitis media (n = 14, 34.1%) and acute purulent otitis media (n = 13, 31.7%) were the most common forms. The underlying HIV infection was classified as stage C3 in 57.5% of cases. In 19.6% of cases, it was possible to identify either the trigger or the etiological agent, and the most frequent bacterial pathogens were Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusions: In conclusion, this study highlights that hospitalizations due to acute sinus and ear involvement are not isolated events in people living with HIV. A prospective follow-up is needed to gain a deeper and more dynamic understanding of how ENT health is affected in people with HIV infection. Furthermore, promoting prevention through vaccination may reduce to a certain extent the burden of ENT infections in this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Aspects of Infectious Diseases)
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11 pages, 1100 KiB  
Article
Opening Side of Unilateral Open-Door Laminoplasty Does Not Impact Improvement in Arm Pain or Space Available for the Spinal Cord
by Robert K. Merrill, Tejas Subramanian, Tomoyuki Asada, Sumedha Singh, Amy Lu, Max Korsun, Omri Maayan, Izzet Akosman, James Dowdell, Russel C. Huang, Sravisht Iyer, Todd J. Albert, Francis Lovecchio and Han Jo Kim
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(11), 3345; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13113345 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 225
Abstract
Background/Objectives: There exists limited data guiding open-door laminoplasty. The objective of this study is to determine if open-door laminoplasty affects radiographic decompression or arm pain outcomes. Methods: Adult patients who underwent unilateral open-door laminoplasty cervical myelopathy were included. The side opened [...] Read more.
Background/Objectives: There exists limited data guiding open-door laminoplasty. The objective of this study is to determine if open-door laminoplasty affects radiographic decompression or arm pain outcomes. Methods: Adult patients who underwent unilateral open-door laminoplasty cervical myelopathy were included. The side opened was dependent on surgeon discretion. We recorded preoperative side of symptoms, side of radiographic compression, arm pain scores, and canal diameter. Patients with open-side ipsilateral or contralateral to dominant symptoms or compression were compared to determine any effect on arm pain outcomes or spinal canal diameter. If the symptoms were equal bilaterally, patients were neutral. Results: A total of 167 patients were included, with an average age of 64 ± 11 years and average follow-up time of 64.5 ± 72 weeks. The average preoperative arm pain visual analog score (VAS) was 2.13 ± 2.86, and the average arm VAS after 6 months was 1.52 ± 2.68. For dominant symptoms, the ipsilateral, contralateral, and neutral groups had a significant improvement in arm VAS at >6 months postoperatively. For dominant compression, the ipsilateral and contralateral groups had a significant improvement in both arm VASs and canal diameter at >6 months postoperatively. No differences were seen between groups for either. We observed a significant correlation between size of plate and change in canal diameter; however, no differences were noted for arm pain. Conclusions: Laminoplasty may be effective in addressing radicular arm pain by increasing the spinal canal’s diameter and space available for the cord. The laterality of open-door laminoplasty did not affect arm pain improvement or canal expansion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Orthopedics)
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12 pages, 541 KiB  
Systematic Review
Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty versus Non-Operative Treatment of Three-Part and Four-Part Proximal Humerus Fractures in the Elderly Patient: A Pooled Analysis and Systematic Review
by Thomas P. Bosch, Frank J. P. Beeres, Steven Ferree, Inger B. Schipper, Roland S. Camenzind, Ruben J. Hoepelman, Björn-Christian Link, Ingmar F. Rompen, Reto Babst and Bryan J. M. van de Wall
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(11), 3344; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13113344 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 368
Abstract
Background: The treatment of complex proximal humerus fractures in elderly patients is not yet fully elucidated. Of all treatment options, reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) and non-operative treatment (NOT) appear to provide the best results. Evidence to guide the choice between the two [...] Read more.
Background: The treatment of complex proximal humerus fractures in elderly patients is not yet fully elucidated. Of all treatment options, reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) and non-operative treatment (NOT) appear to provide the best results. Evidence to guide the choice between the two is sparse. Therefore, this review provides an overview of the available evidence on RSA versus NOT. Methods: Studies comparing complex proximal humerus fractures in patients aged >65 years treated either with RSA or NOT were included for systematic review and direct comparison via pooled analysis of patient-rated outcome and range of motion. Indirect comparison of case series and non-comparative studies on either treatment was performed separately. Results: Three comparative studies including 77 patients treated with RSA and 81 treated non-operatively were analysed. The RSA group scored better for both the Constant–Murley score (mean difference 6 points) and DASH score (mean difference 8 points). No differences were detected in ASES, PENN score, pain scores, or range of motion between treatment groups. The most common complications for RSA were infection (3%), nerve injury (2%), and dislocation (2%). Reoperation was required in 5%. In the NOT group, common complications included malunion (42%), osteonecrosis (25%), and non-union (3%); no reoperation was required. Patient satisfaction was equal in both groups. Conclusions: The functional outcomes and range of motion after RSA seemed satisfactory and potentially superior to NOT in elderly patients. Patient satisfaction was comparable despite a high malunion and osteonecrosis rate in the non-operative treatment group, which did not require re-interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geriatric Fracture: Current Treatment and Future Options)
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13 pages, 1609 KiB  
Article
Rethinking Strategies for Multi-Metastatic Patients: A Comprehensive Retrospective Analysis on Open Posterior Fusion Versus Percutaneous Osteosynthesis in the Treatment of Vertebral Metastases
by Laura Scaramuzzo, Andrea Perna, Calogero Velluto, Maria Ilaria Borruto, Franco Lucio Gorgoglione and Luca Proietti
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(11), 3343; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13113343 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 251
Abstract
Background: Managing vertebral metastases (VM) is still challenging in oncology, necessitating the use of effective surgical strategies to preserve patient quality of life (QoL). Traditional open posterior fusion (OPF) and percutaneous osteosynthesis (PO) are well-documented approaches, but their comparative efficacy remains debated. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: Managing vertebral metastases (VM) is still challenging in oncology, necessitating the use of effective surgical strategies to preserve patient quality of life (QoL). Traditional open posterior fusion (OPF) and percutaneous osteosynthesis (PO) are well-documented approaches, but their comparative efficacy remains debated. Methods: This retrospective study compared short-term outcomes (6–12 months) between OPF and PO in 78 cancer patients with spinal metastases. This comprehensive evaluation included functional, clinical, and radiographic parameters. Statistical analysis utilized PRISM software (version 10), with significance set at p < 0.05. Results: PO demonstrated advantages over OPF, including shorter surgical durations, reduced blood loss, and hospital stay, along with lower perioperative complication rates. Patient quality of life and functional outcomes favored PO, particularly at the 6-month mark. The mortality rates at one year were significantly lower in the PO group. Conclusions: Minimally invasive techniques offer promising benefits in VM management, optimizing patient outcomes and QoL. Despite limitations, this study advocates for the adoption of minimally invasive approaches to enhance the care of multi-metastatic patients with symptomatic VM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in the Management of Pathological Fractures)
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11 pages, 930 KiB  
Article
Is the Advent of New Surgical Procedures Changing the Baseline Features of Patients Undergoing First-Time Glaucoma Surgery?
by Alessandro Palma, Giuseppe Covello, Chiara Posarelli, Maria Novella Maglionico, Luca Agnifili and Michele Figus
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(11), 3342; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13113342 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 222
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to determine if the rise in new surgical procedures for glaucoma is changing the baseline features of patients. Methods: In this retrospective study, we reviewed the baseline features of patients undergoing their first glaucoma [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was to determine if the rise in new surgical procedures for glaucoma is changing the baseline features of patients. Methods: In this retrospective study, we reviewed the baseline features of patients undergoing their first glaucoma surgery in 2011 and 2021, collecting data regarding intraocular pressure (IOP), visual field (VF) parameters, stage of disease, and the type of surgery. Results: In the study, 455 patients were included in the analysis. From these, 230 eyes had glaucoma surgery performed in 2011 (Group A) and 225 eyes in 2021 (Group B). When considering the baseline features, Group A was older than Group B (72.7 ± 10.7 and 70 ± 12.4 years; p = 0.02, respectively), and showed a significantly more advanced VF mean defect (−16.4 ± 8.8 and −13.8 ± 8.7 dB; p < 0.01, respectively) and a higher IOP (25.9 ± 6.6 and 24.9 ± 7.8 mmHg; p = 0.02, respectively). Overall, severe VF damage at the time of surgery was more frequent in Group A (74.3%) than in Group B (60.8%) (p < 0.01). The overall number of traditional glaucoma surgeries was 211 in 2011, reducing to 94 ten years later, with similar severe pre-operative VF defects. In 2021, minimally invasive bleb surgery (MIBS) represented 58% of all surgeries. Conclusions: In the last ten years, patients receiving glaucoma surgery for the first time were younger, had less severe disease, and a more contained IOP. The baseline feature modifications were probably related to the diffusion of new procedures, especially MIBS, which allowed for treating patients at an earlier stage, reserving traditional procedures for advanced cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Glaucoma Surgery: 2nd Edition)
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14 pages, 597 KiB  
Systematic Review
Long-Term Evaluation of Tooth Transplantation: An Umbrella Review
by Mohamed Jaber, Prathibha Prasad, Mohammad Akeil, Abdulrahman Moufti, Almustafa Al-Sammarraie and Chuaeib Charaf Eddin
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(11), 3341; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13113341 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 436
Abstract
Aim/Objective: This umbrella review of systematic reviews aims to summarize the available data regarding both success and survival rates of tooth autotransplantation, in addition to analyzing the risk factors that are connected to those rates. Methods: This umbrella review was performed according [...] Read more.
Aim/Objective: This umbrella review of systematic reviews aims to summarize the available data regarding both success and survival rates of tooth autotransplantation, in addition to analyzing the risk factors that are connected to those rates. Methods: This umbrella review was performed according to the evaluation of various meta-analyses and systematic reviews following AMSTAR2 guidelines. A systematic search of literature on PubMed, Scopus, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database. Six systematic reviews were included. Explicit inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. It is registered in PROSPERO under the registration number (CRD-42023415623). Results: The studies reviewed were written from 2014 to 2018, which extracted the information from various studies spanning from 1968 to 2014. According to the selected studies regarding autotransplanted teeth in humans, they showed the following: A survival rate overall of 87.39% and a success rate overall of 90.29%. These factors were the most common in relation to the success of the autotransplanted teeth: age, gender, and stage of root development. On the other hand, common unfavorable results linked to the transplanted teeth in these studies were failure, ankylosis, and internal root resorption, followed by extraction and hypermobility. Conclusions: The wide body of evidence gathered illustrates that autotransplantation is an operation that dispenses high rates of survival and success. Furthermore, risk factors like root development stage, recipient site, and donor tooth type established a remarkable association with the negative outcomes of the procedure. For successful tooth autotransplantation, patient selection is crucial. Younger patients and those with donor teeth at an optimal stage of root development typically experience better outcomes. Preoperative planning should include comprehensive evaluations and advanced imaging techniques to accurately assess both the donor tooth and the recipient site. Nonetheless, on account of heterogeneity and the quality of the studies included in this investigation, caution should be taken when interpreting the mentioned results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Challenges in Oral Surgery)
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13 pages, 851 KiB  
Article
Anxiety, Depression, and Quality of Sleep Vary in Their Correlation to Postoperative Outcomes of Rotator Cuff Repair: A Prospective Study
by Umile Giuseppe Longo, Martina Marino, Vincenzo Candela, Alessandra Greco, Ilaria Piergentili, Claudia Arias, Alessandro de Sire and Pieter D’Hooghe
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(11), 3340; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13113340 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 300
Abstract
Background/Objectives: Recent studies imply that psychological factors and sleep quality play a role in the outcomes of surgical procedures, including in orthopedic surgery. The aim of the present study is to evaluate possible correlations between preoperative depression, anxiety, and quality of sleep and [...] Read more.
Background/Objectives: Recent studies imply that psychological factors and sleep quality play a role in the outcomes of surgical procedures, including in orthopedic surgery. The aim of the present study is to evaluate possible correlations between preoperative depression, anxiety, and quality of sleep and functional 6-month postoperative scores in patients having undergone rotator cuff repair (RCR). Methods: All patients included in the study performed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaires preoperatively and 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS), Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI), and PSQI questionnaires at the six-month postoperative follow-up. A total of 47 patients were included in the analysis. Results: Statistically significant differences between preoperative anxious and not-anxious groups were found in the postoperative SF-36 Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores and PSQI score. The correlation of the preoperative depression score to postoperative outcome measures revealed a strong positive correlation between the preoperative HADS-D score and the 6-month PCS, MCS, and OSS scores. The correlation of preoperative sleep quality to postoperative outcome measures revealed a strong positive correlation between the preoperative PSQI score and 6-month MCS score. Conclusions: Anxious patients had worse postoperative RCR outcomes. Depression may be influenced by factors related to RC pathology; however, there were no statistically significant correlations. Sleep quality generally improves postoperatively, and no significant association was found between bad preoperative sleepers and worse outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Orthopedics)
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15 pages, 1328 KiB  
Article
Outcomes of Revascularisation for Treating Lifestyle-Limiting Intermittent Claudication in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People and Non-Indigenous Patients from North Queensland: A Retrospective Cohort Study
by Shannon Wong, Shivshankar Thanigaimani, James Charles, Donald Whaleboat and Jonathan Golledge
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(11), 3339; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13113339 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 265
Abstract
Background: This retrospective analysis of an ongoing prospective cohort study aimed to assess the outcome of revascularisation for treating lifestyle-limiting intermittent claudication caused by peripheral artery disease (PAD) in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples and non-Indigenous North Queenslanders. Methods: Consenting patients with [...] Read more.
Background: This retrospective analysis of an ongoing prospective cohort study aimed to assess the outcome of revascularisation for treating lifestyle-limiting intermittent claudication caused by peripheral artery disease (PAD) in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples and non-Indigenous North Queenslanders. Methods: Consenting patients with PAD who underwent endovascular or open revascularisation procedures for treating lifestyle-limiting intermittent claudication were included. The primary outcome measure was major adverse limb events (MALEs), defined as major amputation or the requirement for repeat open or endovascular revascularisation. Results: Of the 378 included patients, 18 (4.8%) identified as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Peoples. During a mean follow-up (standard deviation) of 6.0 (3.9) years, the incidence of MALE was similar in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People and non-Indigenous Australians (absolute percentage: 50.0% vs. 40.6%, log rank p = 0.59). In both unadjusted and adjusted analyses, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples and non-Indigenous Australians had similar risks of MALE (unadjusted hazard ratio, HR, 1.20, 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.61, 2.36; adjusted HR 1.02, 95%CI 0.50, 2.06). Conclusions: This study suggests that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People are under-represented in the population of patients undergoing revascularisation to treat intermittent claudication. Due to small numbers it cannot be reliably concluded that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People and non-Indigenous Australians have similar rates of MALE. Full article
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10 pages, 496 KiB  
Article
Minimally Invasive Direct Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: Sixteen Years of Single-Center Experience
by Alexander Weymann, Lukman Amanov, Eleftherios Beltsios, Arian Arjomandi Rad, Marcin Szczechowicz, Ali Saad Merzah, Sadeq Ali-Hasan-Al-Saegh, Bastian Schmack, Issam Ismail, Aron-Frederik Popov, Arjang Ruhparwar and Alina Zubarevich
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(11), 3338; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13113338 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 317
Abstract
Background: Coronary artery disease is a major cause of death globally. Minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass (MIDCAB), using a small left anterior thoracotomy, aims to provide a less invasive alternative to traditional procedures, potentially improving patient outcomes with reduced recovery times. [...] Read more.
Background: Coronary artery disease is a major cause of death globally. Minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass (MIDCAB), using a small left anterior thoracotomy, aims to provide a less invasive alternative to traditional procedures, potentially improving patient outcomes with reduced recovery times. Methods: This retrospective, non-randomized study analyzed 310 patients who underwent MIDCAB between July 1999 and April 2022. Data were collected on demographics, clinical characteristics, operative and postoperative outcomes, and follow-up mortality and morbidity. Statistical analysis was conducted using IBM SPSS, with survival curves generated via the Kaplan–Meier method. Results: The cohort had a mean age of 63.3 ± 10.9 years, with 30.6% females. The majority of surgeries were elective (76.1%), with an average operating time of 129.7 ± 35.3 min. The median rate of intraoperative blood transfusions was 0.0 (CI 0.0–2.0) Units. The mean in-hospital stay was 8.7 ± 5.5 days, and the median ICU stay was just one day. Early postoperative complications were minimal, with a 0.64% in-hospital mortality rate. The 6-month and 1-year mortalities were 0.97%, with a 10-year survival rate of 94.3%. There were two cases of perioperative myocardial infarction and no instances of stroke or new onset dialysis. Conclusions: The MIDCAB approach demonstrates significant benefits in terms of patient recovery and long-term outcomes, offering a viable and effective alternative for patients suitable for less invasive procedures. Our results suggest that MIDCAB is a safe option with favorable survival rates, justifying its consideration in high-volume centers focused on minimally invasive techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Minimally Invasive Heart Surgery)
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15 pages, 3544 KiB  
Perspective
Leveraging Cancer Phenotypic Plasticity for Novel Treatment Strategies
by Sravani Ramisetty, Ayalur Raghu Subbalakshmi, Siddhika Pareek, Tamara Mirzapoiazova, Dana Do, Dhivya Prabhakar, Evan Pisick, Sagun Shrestha, Srisairam Achuthan, Supriyo Bhattacharya, Jyoti Malhotra, Atish Mohanty, Sharad S. Singhal, Ravi Salgia and Prakash Kulkarni
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(11), 3337; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13113337 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 368
Abstract
Cancer cells, like all other organisms, are adept at switching their phenotype to adjust to the changes in their environment. Thus, phenotypic plasticity is a quantitative trait that confers a fitness advantage to the cancer cell by altering its phenotype to suit environmental [...] Read more.
Cancer cells, like all other organisms, are adept at switching their phenotype to adjust to the changes in their environment. Thus, phenotypic plasticity is a quantitative trait that confers a fitness advantage to the cancer cell by altering its phenotype to suit environmental circumstances. Until recently, new traits, especially in cancer, were thought to arise due to genetic factors; however, it is now amply evident that such traits could also emerge non-genetically due to phenotypic plasticity. Furthermore, phenotypic plasticity of cancer cells contributes to phenotypic heterogeneity in the population, which is a major impediment in treating the disease. Finally, plasticity also impacts the group behavior of cancer cells, since competition and cooperation among multiple clonal groups within the population and the interactions they have with the tumor microenvironment also contribute to the evolution of drug resistance. Thus, understanding the mechanisms that cancer cells exploit to tailor their phenotypes at a systems level can aid the development of novel cancer therapeutics and treatment strategies. Here, we present our perspective on a team medicine-based approach to gain a deeper understanding of the phenomenon to develop new therapeutic strategies. Full article
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12 pages, 1081 KiB  
Article
Cardiac Adaptation in Power Athletes: Differential Impact of Judo and Weightlifting
by Giuseppe Di Gioia, Armando Ferrera, Viviana Maestrini, Sara Monosilio, Maria Rosaria Squeo, Erika Lemme, Antonio Nenna, Sofia Calaciura Clarich, Simone Crotta and Antonio Pelliccia
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(11), 3336; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13113336 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 277
Abstract
Background: According to the ESC guidelines, sport disciplines are classified in relation to the predominant component (skill, power, mixed and endurance), including a wide range of disciplines with different isometric/isotonic exercises and exercise-induced heart remodeling. The aim of our study was to evaluate [...] Read more.
Background: According to the ESC guidelines, sport disciplines are classified in relation to the predominant component (skill, power, mixed and endurance), including a wide range of disciplines with different isometric/isotonic exercises and exercise-induced heart remodeling. The aim of our study was to evaluate differences in morpho-functional cardiac adaptations in power athletes, comparing judokas with weightlifters. Methods: We enrolled 55 Olympic athletes (38 judokas, 17 weightlifters), aged 24.5 ± 3.8 years, 25 (45.4%) of whom were males, and they underwent a pre-participation evaluation, including a physical examination, ECG, transthoracic echocardiogram, and exercise stress test. Results: The judokas presented significant differences in cardiac adaptations, with larger left ventricle (LV) end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes indexed (LVEDVi, p = 0.002 and LVESVi, p = 0.004) and higher LVMass values indexed (p = 0.033), but similar LV wall thicknesses (p = 0.093) and LV ejection fractions (p = 0.981). Also, the left atrium (LA) dimension (p = 0.0002) and volume indexed (p < 0.0001) were higher in the judokas, as were the larger right ventricle (RV) areas. Finally, the judokas showed higher VO2max (p = 0.012), O2 pulse (p = 0.007), VE/O2 LT1 (p = 0.041) and VE/O2 LT2 (p = 0.036) values, with a lower resting heart rate (p = 0.031) and higher exercise capacity (p = 0.011). Conclusions: The judokas showed substantial differences in cardiac morpho-functional adaptations from the weightlifters, and, accordingly, judo should be more properly considered not a pure strength sport but more similar to mixed disciplines of the ESC classification. Full article
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13 pages, 1480 KiB  
Systematic Review
Risk Factors Contributing to Symptomatic Miniplate Removal following Orthognathic Surgery: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Mohamed Jaber, Nadin Abouseif, Mawada Hassan and Alaa Mohamed El-Ameen
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(11), 3335; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13113335 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 251
Abstract
Background/Objectives: The use of miniplates for stabilizing bones post orthognathic surgery has surged in popularity due to their efficacy in ensuring stability and hastening recovery. However, controversy exists regarding what should be done with these miniplates after surgery. Some surgeons advocate for [...] Read more.
Background/Objectives: The use of miniplates for stabilizing bones post orthognathic surgery has surged in popularity due to their efficacy in ensuring stability and hastening recovery. However, controversy exists regarding what should be done with these miniplates after surgery. Some surgeons advocate for their removal, while others suggest leaving them in place. This study sought to assess the frequency, causes, and potential risk factors linked with miniplate removal in orthognathic procedures. Methods: A thorough meta-analysis was conducted by scrutinizing studies from various databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Embase, and Scopus, focusing on publications spanning from 1989 to 2023. Results: Ten studies meeting the inclusion criteria, encompassing 1603 patients, were chosen for inclusion in the meta-analysis. The male-to-female ratio varied from 0.7:1 to 4:1. Overall, 5595 miniplates were inserted, with 294 (5.3%) being subsequently removed. Primary reasons for miniplate removal included infection (161 cases, 2.9%), exposure of miniplates (34 cases, 0.6%), and palpable plates (23 cases, 0.4%). Other indications comprised pain, patient preference, and temperature sensitivity. Less frequent causes for miniplate removal included sinusitis, secondary surgery, and dental pathology. The mean duration of miniplate removal was 5.5 months, with the majority (56.1%) being removed from the mandible rather than the maxilla. In conclusion, this meta-analysis underscores the importance of miniplate removal when hardware causes complications and physical discomfort. The primary reasons for removing miniplates were infection and plate exposure, with the mandible being the most common removal site. Conclusions: These findings emphasize the need for continued monitoring to assess the fate of miniplates in orthognathic surgery and provide valuable information for future clinical decision-making. Full article
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11 pages, 387 KiB  
Systematic Review
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Symptoms of Depression in Patients on Chronic Hemodialysis: A Systematic Review
by Maurizio Bossola, Ilaria Mariani, Manuela Antocicco, Gilda Pepe, Anna Petrosino and Enrico Di Stasio
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(11), 3334; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13113334 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 348
Abstract
Objective: The use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is common among hemodialysis patients who receive treatment for depression. However, studies on the efficacy of SSRIs in patients on chronic hemodialysis are few and have led to conflicting results. The present systematic review [...] Read more.
Objective: The use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is common among hemodialysis patients who receive treatment for depression. However, studies on the efficacy of SSRIs in patients on chronic hemodialysis are few and have led to conflicting results. The present systematic review aims to evaluate, in randomized, controlled studies (RCSs), the efficacy of SSRI administration in reducing symptoms of depression in patients on chronic hemodialysis when compared with placebo or psychological interventions. Method: Research was run on December 2023 in the following databases: Ovid MEDLINE (1985 to present); Ovid EMBASE (1985 to present); Cochrane Library (Wiley); and PubMed (1985 to present). The primary outcome was the frequency and severity of the symptoms of depression assessed through the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) or the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD). The secondary outcome was the prevalence of adverse events. Results: Seven studies totaling 433 patients were included. The number of patients in each individual study ranged from 13 to 120. The length of studies ranged from 8 weeks to 6 months. Heterogeneous data precluded informative meta-analysis. Three studies compared sertraline with a placebo. Of these, two demonstrated that sertraline was better than the placebo in reducing the symptoms of depression while one showed no statistically significant differences between sertraline and the placebo. One study, comparing fluoxetine with a placebo showed that the symptoms of depression did not differ significantly at 8 weeks. In another study, escitalopram administration led to a significantly greater reduction in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score compared to a placebo, as well as in the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale score. In one study, citalopram and psychological interventions were both effective in reducing the symptoms of depression and anxiety and, in another study, sertraline was modestly more effective than CBT at 12 weeks in reducing the symptoms of depression. Conclusions: SSRIs may be effective in reducing the symptoms of depression in patients on chronic hemodialysis. SSRI administration, at the dosage used in the studies included in the present systematic review, seems safe in most hemodialysis patients. However, the paucity of studies and the limited number of patients included in the trials may suggest that further randomized, controlled studies are needed to determine if SSRIs may be used routinely in daily clinical practice in such a population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nephrology & Urology)
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11 pages, 1185 KiB  
Article
Settlement Is at the End—Common Trauma Scores Require a Critical Reassessment Due to the Possible Dynamics of Traumatic Brain Injuries in Patients’ Clinical Course
by Jason-Alexander Hörauf, Mathias Woschek, Cora Rebecca Schindler, Rene Danilo Verboket, Thomas Lustenberger, Ingo Marzi and Philipp Störmann
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(11), 3333; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13113333 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 271
Abstract
Background: Scientific studies on severely injured patients commonly utilize the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and the Injury Severity Score (ISS) for injury assessment and to characterize trauma cohorts. However, due to potential deterioration (e.g., in the case of an increasing hemorrhage) during the [...] Read more.
Background: Scientific studies on severely injured patients commonly utilize the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and the Injury Severity Score (ISS) for injury assessment and to characterize trauma cohorts. However, due to potential deterioration (e.g., in the case of an increasing hemorrhage) during the clinical course, the assessment of injury severity in traumatic brain injury (TBI) can be challenging. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether and to what extent the worsening of TBI affects the AIS and ISS. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 80 polytrauma patients admitted to the trauma room of our level I trauma center with computed-tomography-confirmed TBI. The initial AIS, ISS, and Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) values were reevaluated after follow-up imaging. Results: A total of 37.5% of the patients showed a significant increase in AIShead (3.7 vs. 4.1; p = 0.002) and the ISS (22.9 vs. 26.7, p = 0.0497). These changes resulted in an eight percent reduction in their TRISS-predicted survival probability (74.82% vs. 66.25%, p = 0.1835). Conclusions: The dynamic nature of intracranial hemorrhage complicates accurate injury severity assessment using the AIS and ISS, necessitating consideration in clinical studies and registries to prevent systematic bias in patient selection and subsequent data analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Clinical Updates and Perspectives)
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9 pages, 574 KiB  
Article
Cardiac Evaluation before and after Oral Propranolol Treatment for Infantile Hemangiomas
by Ji Hee Kwak, Aram Yang, Hye Lim Jung, Hyun Ju Kim, Deok Soo Kim, Jung Yeon Shim and Jae Won Shim
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(11), 3332; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13113332 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 271
Abstract
Background: Most recent clinical practice guidelines addressing the management of infantile hemangiomas (IHs) recommend oral propranolol, a non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist, as first-line treatment. However, few reports have provided continuous follow-up data regarding cardiac evaluations. Methods: Sixty-four patients diagnosed with IHs and treated with [...] Read more.
Background: Most recent clinical practice guidelines addressing the management of infantile hemangiomas (IHs) recommend oral propranolol, a non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist, as first-line treatment. However, few reports have provided continuous follow-up data regarding cardiac evaluations. Methods: Sixty-four patients diagnosed with IHs and treated with oral propranolol before 2 years of age at the Department of Pediatrics, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital (Seoul, Republic of Korea), with regular examinations between 2017 and 2021, were included. Cardiac evaluations, including electrocardiography, Holter monitoring, chest X-ray, and echocardiography, were performed. Results: Sixty-four patients with IHs successfully underwent continuous follow-up cardiac evaluations. The median age at diagnosis was 2 weeks (1 day to 34.3 weeks). The median age at treatment initiation was 13.6 weeks (2.4–87.9 weeks), the mean longitudinal diameter of hemangioma at diagnosis was 2.8 ± 2.1 cm (0.3–12.0 cm), and the mean percentage of size decrease after 1 year of oral propranolol treatment was 71.8%. None of the 64 patients experienced severe adverse side effects during propranolol treatment. There was no statistically significant differences in echocardiographic function and electrocardiographic data after treatment. Conclusions: Propranolol treatment ≥6 months was effective and safe without significant cardiac toxicity in the treatment of patients with infantile hemangiomas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Pediatrics)
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8 pages, 1646 KiB  
Article
Flexor Tendon Continuity and Negative X-ray: The “Combo” Negative Features in Finger Subamputation
by Pierfrancesco Pugliese, Mariangela Vulpetti, Greta Tondini and Francesca Toia
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(11), 3331; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13113331 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 247
Abstract
Background: The subamputation of fingers with vascular compromise presents a surgical challenge. Although tissue continuity may be considered a favourable prognostic element, in our experience, we noticed that there is not always a direct correlation between soft tissue involvement, radiographic appearance and [...] Read more.
Background: The subamputation of fingers with vascular compromise presents a surgical challenge. Although tissue continuity may be considered a favourable prognostic element, in our experience, we noticed that there is not always a direct correlation between soft tissue involvement, radiographic appearance and final outcome. Methods: We included, in our study, all cases of vascular pedicle injury in which finger salvage was attempted with microsurgical revascularisation. Exclusion criteria were: integrity of both vascular pedicles, pedicle lesion without global circulatory compromise and patients treated immediately with amputation. Results: Between May 2018 and July 2023, 27 male patients with finger subamputation injuries were treated at our institution. In 11 cases of injured fingers, the only intact tissue was the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) or flexor pollicis longus (FPL). Our global failure rate was 49%; whereas, in the subgroup of the 11 cases with continuity of the FDP or FPL, the failure rate rose to 73% and when the fingers showed flexor tendon integrity and radiographs demonstrated minimal bone damage, revascularisation failure was observed in all cases (100%). Conclusions: The results of the study show that subamputations with devascularisation, clinically presented with the combination of flexor tendon as the only element of tissue continuity and dislocation or minimal bone/articular injury, have a worse prognosis because of their trauma mechanism. We propose to add them to the Kay-Adani Classification as a subset of the poorest prognostic injuries group (III), to help surgeons to make decisions about the management of subamputation finger injuries. Full article
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Article
Three Self-Adhesive Resin Cements and Their Influence on the Marginal Adaptation of Zirconia-Reinforced Lithium Silicate Single Crowns: An In Vitro Scanning Electron Microscope Evaluation
by Asaf Shely, Joseph Nissan, Diva Lugassy, Ofir Rosner, Eran Zenziper, Tharaa Egbaria and Gil Ben-Izhack
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(11), 3330; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13113330 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 373
Abstract
Background: In everyday dentistry, monolithic single crowns can be cemented with self-adhesive resin cements. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate how the marginal adaptation of full monolithic zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate (ZLS) single crowns is influenced by three different [...] Read more.
Background: In everyday dentistry, monolithic single crowns can be cemented with self-adhesive resin cements. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate how the marginal adaptation of full monolithic zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate (ZLS) single crowns is influenced by three different self-adhesive resin cements. Methods: Forty-five typodont teeth fully prepared for full monolithic crowns were divided into three groups (fifteen each) for the use of three different self-adhesive resin cements. A fourth control group (Temp-bond) was created by taking five teeth from each group before cementation with self-adhesive resin cements. All forty-five abutments were scanned using a Primescan intra-oral scanner (IOS), followed by computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) of zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate (ZLS) full crowns using a four-axis machine. Initially, the crowns of the control group were fixed to the abutments using Temp-bond, and the marginal gap was evaluated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). After removing the control group crowns from the abutments, fifteen crowns in each group were cemented using a different self-adhesive resin cement and observed under SEM for evaluation of the marginal gap. A Kolmogorov–Smirnov test was performed, indicating no normal distribution (p < 0.05), followed by Mann–Whitney tests (α = 0.05). Results: The total mean marginal gap of the temp-bond control group was significantly lower compared to all three groups of self-adhesive resin cement (p < 0.0005). The total mean marginal gap of the G-cem ONE group was significantly lower compared to the TheraCem group (p < 0.026) and RelyX U200 group (p < 0.008). The total mean marginal gap of the TheraCem group was significantly higher than the G-cem ONE group (p < 0.026) but showed no significant difference with the RelyX U200 group (p > 0.110). Conclusions: All four groups showed a clinically acceptable marginal gap (<120 microns). Although all three groups of self-adhesive resin cement showed a significant increase in the marginal gap compared to the temp-bond control group, they were within the limits of clinical acceptability. Regarding the marginal gap, in everyday dentistry, it is acceptable to use all three self-adhesive resin cements, although the G-cem ONE group exhibited the lowest marginal gap for ZLS single crowns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Patient-Centered Dental Care)
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14 pages, 1904 KiB  
Review
Advances and Challenges in Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery
by Timothy Y. Wang and Michael Y. Wang
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(11), 3329; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13113329 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 386
Abstract
Minimally invasive spine surgery continues to grow and develop. Over the past 50 years, there has been immense growth within this subspecialty of neurosurgery. A deep understanding of the historical context and future directions of this subspecialty is imperative to developing safe adoption [...] Read more.
Minimally invasive spine surgery continues to grow and develop. Over the past 50 years, there has been immense growth within this subspecialty of neurosurgery. A deep understanding of the historical context and future directions of this subspecialty is imperative to developing safe adoption and targeted innovation. This review aims to describe the advancements, and challenges that we face today in minimally invasive spine surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances and Challenges in Spine Surgery)
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15 pages, 551 KiB  
Review
Heart Rate Recovery: Up to Date in Heart Failure—A Literature Review
by Andreea Cozgarea, Dragoș Cozma, Minodora Teodoru, Alexandra-Iulia Lazăr-Höcher, Liviu Cirin, Adelina-Andreea Faur-Grigori, Mihai-Andrei Lazăr, Simina Crișan, Dan Gaiță, Constantin-Tudor Luca and Cristina Văcărescu
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(11), 3328; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13113328 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 461
Abstract
The rising prevalence of cardiovascular disease underscores the growing significance of heart failure (HF). Pathophysiological insights into HF highlight the dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), characterized by sympathetic overactivity and diminished vagal tone, impacting cardiovascular function. Heart rate recovery (HRR), a [...] Read more.
The rising prevalence of cardiovascular disease underscores the growing significance of heart failure (HF). Pathophysiological insights into HF highlight the dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), characterized by sympathetic overactivity and diminished vagal tone, impacting cardiovascular function. Heart rate recovery (HRR), a metric measuring the heart’s ability to return to its baseline rate post-exertion, plays a crucial role in assessing cardiovascular health. Widely applied across various cardiovascular conditions including HF, coronary artery disease (CAD), and arterial hypertension (HTN), HRR quantifies the difference between peak and recovery heart rates. Given its association with elevated sympathetic tone and exercise, HRR provides valuable insights into the perspective of HF, beyond effort tolerance, reaching toward prognostic and mortality indicators. Incorporating HRR into cardiovascular evaluations enhances our understanding of autonomic regulation in HF, offering potential implications for prognostication and patient management. This review addresses the significance of HRR in HF assessment, analyzing recently conducted studies, and providing a foundation for further research and clinical application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Management of Patients with Heart Failure)
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7 pages, 790 KiB  
Communication
Practical Considerations of Remote Care in Thoracic Aortopathy in India
by Nimrat Grewal, Mohammed Idhrees, Bashi Velayudhan, Robert J. M. Klautz and Simran Grewal
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(11), 3327; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13113327 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 289
Abstract
Background: Thoracic aortopathy includes conditions like aortic aneurysms and dissections, posing significant management challenges. In India, care delivery is complicated by geographic vastness, financial constraints, and healthcare resource disparities. Telemedicine and digital health technologies offer promising solutions. Methods: A comprehensive review of literature [...] Read more.
Background: Thoracic aortopathy includes conditions like aortic aneurysms and dissections, posing significant management challenges. In India, care delivery is complicated by geographic vastness, financial constraints, and healthcare resource disparities. Telemedicine and digital health technologies offer promising solutions. Methods: A comprehensive review of literature and clinical experiences was conducted to explore the implementation of remote care strategies for thoracic aortopathy in India. The review included studies from 2000 to 2023 and insights from cardiothoracic specialists. Results: Remote care benefits include improved access to specialized expertise, enhanced patient engagement, and optimized resource utilization. Telemedicine enables consultations without travel, and remote monitoring facilitates early intervention. However, challenges like technology integration, digital literacy, patient engagement, privacy concerns, and regulatory compliance need addressing. Discussion: Telemedicine offers significant advantages but requires overcoming challenges to ensure effective, secure care. Careful planning for technology integration, patient education, robust privacy measures, and supportive regulatory policies are essential. Addressing these issues can bridge the healthcare access gap and improve outcomes in India’s diverse landscape. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiovascular Medicine and Cardiac Surgery)
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12 pages, 245 KiB  
Article
Risk Factors for Transient Hypoparathyroidism after Total Thyroidectomy: Insights from a Cohort Analysis
by Giuseppa Graceffa, Antonella Lopes, Giuseppina Orlando, Sergio Mazzola, Fabrizio Vassallo, Francesco Curione, Pierina Richiusa, Stefano Radellini, Giuseppina Melfa and Gregorio Scerrino
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(11), 3326; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13113326 - 5 Jun 2024
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Abstract
Background: Transient hypoparathyroidism (TH) is the main post-thyroidectomy complication, significantly impacting surgical outcomes, hospitalization length, and perceived perceived quality of life understood as mental and physical well-being. This study aims to identify possible associated risk factors. Methods: We analyzed 238 thyroidectomies (2020–2022), excluding [...] Read more.
Background: Transient hypoparathyroidism (TH) is the main post-thyroidectomy complication, significantly impacting surgical outcomes, hospitalization length, and perceived perceived quality of life understood as mental and physical well-being. This study aims to identify possible associated risk factors. Methods: We analyzed 238 thyroidectomies (2020–2022), excluding instances of partial surgery, primary hyperparathyroidism, neck irradiation history, and renal failure. The variables considered were as follows: demographics, histology, autoimmunity, thyroid function, pre- and postoperative Vitamin D levels (where available), type of surgery, number of incidentally removed parathyroid glands (IRP), and surgeons’ experience (>1000 thyroidectomies, <500, in training). Univariate analysis applied: χ2, Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables, and Student’s t-test for continuous variables. Subsequently, logistic multivariate analysis with stepwise selection was performed. Results: Univariate analysis did not yield statistically significant results for the considered variables. The ‘No Complications’ group displayed a mean age of 55 years, whereas the TH group showed a mean age of 51 (p-value = 0.055). We considered this result to be marginally significant. Subsequently, we constructed a multivariate logistic model. This model (AIC = 245.02) indicated that the absence of incidental parathyroidectomy was associated with the age class >55 years, presenting an odds ratio (OR) of 9.015 (p-value < 0.05). Simultaneously, the age class >55 years exhibited protective effects against TH, demonstrating an OR of 0.085 (p-value < 0.01). Similarly, the absence of incidental parathyroidectomy was found to be protective against TH, with an OR of 0.208 (p-value < 0.01). Conclusions: Multivariate analysis highlighted that having “No IRP” was protective against TH, while younger age was a risk factor. Surgeon experience does not seem to correlate with IRP or outcomes, assuming there is adequate tutoring and a case volume close to 500 to ensure good results. The effect of reimplantation has not been evident in transient hypoparathyroidism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Endocrinology & Metabolism)
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