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Multi-Organ Involvement in COVID-19: Beyond Pulmonary Manifestations

1
Department of Virology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh 160012, India
2
Faculty of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Shoolini University of Biotechnology and Management Sciences, Solan 173229, India
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Department of Biological Engineering, College of Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea
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Centre for Advanced Research, Faculty of Medicine, King George’s Medical University, Lucknow 226003, India
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Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, RUHS College of Dental Sciences (Government Dental College), RUHS University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan 302016, India
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Department of Medical Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749, Korea
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Department of Engineering, University of Campania ‘Luigi Vanitelli’, Real Casa dell’ Annunziata, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jihad Mallat
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(3), 446; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10030446
Received: 16 December 2020 / Revised: 18 January 2021 / Accepted: 20 January 2021 / Published: 24 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pulmonary and Critical Care Practice in the Pandemic of COVID-19)
Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19), due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become an on-going global health emergency affecting over 94 million cases with more than 2 million deaths globally. Primarily identified as atypical pneumonia, it has developed into severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a multi-organ dysfunction with associated fatality. Ever since its emergence, COVID-19 with its plethora of clinical presentations has signalled its dynamic nature and versatility of the disease process. Being a disease with droplet transmission has now assumed the proportion of a suspected airborne nature which, once proved, poses a Herculean task to control. Because of the wide distribution of the human angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (hACE2) receptors, known for its transmission, we envisage its multiorgan spread and extensive disease distribution. Thus, an extensive review of the extrapulmonary organotropism of SARS-CoV-2 with organ-specific pathophysiology and associated manifestations like dermatological complications, myocardial dysfunction, gastrointestinal symptoms, neurologic illnesses, hepatic and renal injury is needed urgently. The plausible mechanism of site-specific viral invasion is also discussed to give a comprehensive understanding of disease complexity, to help us to focus on research priorities and therapeutic strategies to counter the disease progression. A note on the latest advancements in vaccine research will enlighten the scientific world and equip it for better preparedness. View Full-Text
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; ACE-2; neurological; hepatic; dermatological; pathogenesis; therapeutics; vaccines SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; ACE-2; neurological; hepatic; dermatological; pathogenesis; therapeutics; vaccines
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MDPI and ACS Style

Thakur, V.; Ratho, R.K.; Kumar, P.; Bhatia, S.K.; Bora, I.; Mohi, G.K.; Saxena, S.K.; Devi, M.; Yadav, D.; Mehariya, S. Multi-Organ Involvement in COVID-19: Beyond Pulmonary Manifestations. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 446. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10030446

AMA Style

Thakur V, Ratho RK, Kumar P, Bhatia SK, Bora I, Mohi GK, Saxena SK, Devi M, Yadav D, Mehariya S. Multi-Organ Involvement in COVID-19: Beyond Pulmonary Manifestations. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(3):446. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10030446

Chicago/Turabian Style

Thakur, Vikram, Radha K. Ratho, Pradeep Kumar, Shashi K. Bhatia, Ishani Bora, Gursimran K. Mohi, Shailendra K. Saxena, Manju Devi, Dhananjay Yadav, and Sanjeet Mehariya. 2021. "Multi-Organ Involvement in COVID-19: Beyond Pulmonary Manifestations" Journal of Clinical Medicine 10, no. 3: 446. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10030446

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