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Multi-Organ Involvement in COVID-19: Beyond Pulmonary Manifestations

Department of Virology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh 160012, India
Faculty of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Shoolini University of Biotechnology and Management Sciences, Solan 173229, India
Department of Biological Engineering, College of Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea
Centre for Advanced Research, Faculty of Medicine, King George’s Medical University, Lucknow 226003, India
Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, RUHS College of Dental Sciences (Government Dental College), RUHS University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan 302016, India
Department of Medical Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749, Korea
Department of Engineering, University of Campania ‘Luigi Vanitelli’, Real Casa dell’ Annunziata, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa, Italy
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jihad Mallat
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(3), 446;
Received: 16 December 2020 / Revised: 18 January 2021 / Accepted: 20 January 2021 / Published: 24 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pulmonary and Critical Care Practice in the Pandemic of COVID-19)
Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19), due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become an on-going global health emergency affecting over 94 million cases with more than 2 million deaths globally. Primarily identified as atypical pneumonia, it has developed into severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a multi-organ dysfunction with associated fatality. Ever since its emergence, COVID-19 with its plethora of clinical presentations has signalled its dynamic nature and versatility of the disease process. Being a disease with droplet transmission has now assumed the proportion of a suspected airborne nature which, once proved, poses a Herculean task to control. Because of the wide distribution of the human angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (hACE2) receptors, known for its transmission, we envisage its multiorgan spread and extensive disease distribution. Thus, an extensive review of the extrapulmonary organotropism of SARS-CoV-2 with organ-specific pathophysiology and associated manifestations like dermatological complications, myocardial dysfunction, gastrointestinal symptoms, neurologic illnesses, hepatic and renal injury is needed urgently. The plausible mechanism of site-specific viral invasion is also discussed to give a comprehensive understanding of disease complexity, to help us to focus on research priorities and therapeutic strategies to counter the disease progression. A note on the latest advancements in vaccine research will enlighten the scientific world and equip it for better preparedness. View Full-Text
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; ACE-2; neurological; hepatic; dermatological; pathogenesis; therapeutics; vaccines SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; ACE-2; neurological; hepatic; dermatological; pathogenesis; therapeutics; vaccines
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MDPI and ACS Style

Thakur, V.; Ratho, R.K.; Kumar, P.; Bhatia, S.K.; Bora, I.; Mohi, G.K.; Saxena, S.K.; Devi, M.; Yadav, D.; Mehariya, S. Multi-Organ Involvement in COVID-19: Beyond Pulmonary Manifestations. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 446.

AMA Style

Thakur V, Ratho RK, Kumar P, Bhatia SK, Bora I, Mohi GK, Saxena SK, Devi M, Yadav D, Mehariya S. Multi-Organ Involvement in COVID-19: Beyond Pulmonary Manifestations. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(3):446.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Thakur, Vikram, Radha K. Ratho, Pradeep Kumar, Shashi K. Bhatia, Ishani Bora, Gursimran K. Mohi, Shailendra K. Saxena, Manju Devi, Dhananjay Yadav, and Sanjeet Mehariya. 2021. "Multi-Organ Involvement in COVID-19: Beyond Pulmonary Manifestations" Journal of Clinical Medicine 10, no. 3: 446.

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