Special Issue "Oxidative Damage: The Role of Endogenous and Exogenous Antioxidant Systems"

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Antioxidant Enzyme Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Gianna Ferretti
Website
Guest Editor
Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche Specialistiche ed Odontostomatologiche Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy
Interests: lipid peroxidation; lipoprotein; biological membrane; antioxidants; reactive oxygen species; paraoxonase

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are produced by living organisms as a result of normal cellular metabolism. At low to moderate concentrations, they regulate cellular processes, but, at high concentrations, they can adversely modify cellulars lipids, proteins, and DNA. Free radicals and oxidative stress are associated chronic diseases in humans and are even thought to be involved in the ageing process. Human cells possess several mechanisms to protect against oxidative stress, including antioxidants, such as, uric acid, coenzyme Q, and glutathione, and enzymes (including catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase).

Diet is also important for oxidative stress in humans, as some foods contain antioxidants and other bioactive molecules that have antioxidant properties. These molecules can counteract oxidative stress and protect cellular macromolecules from damage. This Special Issue “Oxidative Damage: The Role of Endogenous and Exogenous Antioxidant Systems” welcomes the submission of manuscripts either describing original research or reviewing the scientific literature, examining the role of endogenous and exogenous antioxidants and the molecular mechanisms involved in their physiological roles.

Prof. Dr. Gianna Ferretti
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antioxidants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • antioxidant
  • oxidant
  • oxidative stress
  • reactive oxygen species
  • reactive nitrogen species

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Bladder Cancer Chemosensitivity Is Affected by Paraoxonase-2 Expression
Antioxidants 2020, 9(2), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9020175 - 20 Feb 2020
Abstract
The goal of the current study was to identify potential roles of paraoxonase-2 in bladder carcinogenesis. T24 bladder cancer cells were transfected with plasmids inducing paraoxonase-2 silencing or overexpression. Upon the selection of clones stably down- or upregulating paraoxonase-2, cell proliferation, migration, and [...] Read more.
The goal of the current study was to identify potential roles of paraoxonase-2 in bladder carcinogenesis. T24 bladder cancer cells were transfected with plasmids inducing paraoxonase-2 silencing or overexpression. Upon the selection of clones stably down- or upregulating paraoxonase-2, cell proliferation, migration, and the production of reactive oxygen species were evaluated, before and after treatment with cisplatin and gemcitabine, used alone or in combination. The activity levels of both caspase-3 and caspase-8 were also analyzed. shRNA-mediated gene silencing and the overexpression of paraoxonase-2 revealed that the enzyme was able to promote both the proliferation and migration of T24 cells. Moreover, the knockdown of paraoxonase-2 was significantly associated with a reduced cell viability of T24 cells treated with chemotherapeutic drugs and led to both an increase of reactive oxygen species production and caspase-3 and caspase-8 activation. Conversely, under treatment with anti-neoplastic compounds, a higher proliferative capacity was found in T24 cells overexpressing paraoxonase-2 compared with controls. In addition, upon enzyme upregulation, both the production of reactive oxygen species and activation of caspase-3 and caspase-8 were reduced. Although further analyses will be required to fully understand the involvement of paraoxonase-2 in bladder tumorigenesis and in mechanisms leading to the development of chemoresistance, the data reported in this study seem to demonstrate that the enzyme could exert a great impact on tumor progression and susceptibility to chemotherapy, thus suggesting paraoxonase-2 as a novel and interesting molecular target for effective bladder cancer treatment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Chrysin Reduces Oxidative Stress but Does Not Affect Polyol Pathway in the Lenses of Type 1 Diabetic Rats
Antioxidants 2020, 9(2), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9020160 - 16 Feb 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
Prolonged hyperglycemia is one of the main causes of reactive oxygen species and free radicals generation in diabetes which may affect various organs, including the eye. Oxidative damage to proteins and lipids in the eye lens could lead to cataract formation. To cope [...] Read more.
Prolonged hyperglycemia is one of the main causes of reactive oxygen species and free radicals generation in diabetes which may affect various organs, including the eye. Oxidative damage to proteins and lipids in the eye lens could lead to cataract formation. To cope with oxidative stress, the endogenous antioxidative system may be supported by the supplementation of exogenous antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chrysin, a natural flavonoid, on oxidative stress and polyol pathway-related markers in the lenses of streptozotocin-induced type 1 male diabetic rats. Chrysin at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg was administered by gavage for 28 days. This treatment resulted in a decrease in antioxidative enzymes activity and oxidative stress index. Moreover, chrysin administration elevated the reduced glutathione level in the lenses. A decrease in the markers linked to oxidative damage to proteins and lipids in the lenses was noted, especially after treatment with 50 mg/kg of chrysin. Neither of the chrysin doses affected glycemia-related markers in the serum or altered parameters related to the polyol pathway and advanced glycation end-products level in the lenses of diabetic rats. Upon obtaining results, it can be concluded that chrysin reveals antioxidative activity in the lenses but shows no antihyperglycemic or antiglycation properties. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant and Pro-Oxidant Properties of Carthamus Tinctorius, Hydroxy Safflor Yellow A, and Safflor Yellow A
Antioxidants 2020, 9(2), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9020119 - 29 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
(1) Carthamus Tinctorius L. (safflower) is extensively used in traditional herbal medicine. (2) The aim of this study was to investigate the bioactive properties of polyphenol extracts from flowers of Carthamus Tinctorius (CT) cultivated in Italy. We also evaluated the properties of [...] Read more.
(1) Carthamus Tinctorius L. (safflower) is extensively used in traditional herbal medicine. (2) The aim of this study was to investigate the bioactive properties of polyphenol extracts from flowers of Carthamus Tinctorius (CT) cultivated in Italy. We also evaluated the properties of two bioactive water-soluble flavonoid compounds, hydroxy safflor yellow A (HSYA) and safflor yellow A (SYA), contained in Carthamus Tinctorius petals. (3) The total polyphenol content was 3.5 ± 0.2 g gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g, flavonoids content was 330 ± 23 mg catechin equivalent (CE)/100 g in the flowers. The extract showed a high antioxidant activity evaluated by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assays. In addition, flower extract, SYA, and HSYA were able to reduce the susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein to copper-induced lipid peroxidation. In order to investigate the bioactive properties of flower extract, SYA, and HSYA we also studied their modulatory effect of oxidative stress on human dermal fibroblasts (HuDe) oxidized by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH). The CT extract at concentrations ranging from 0.01–20 μg GAE/mL of polyphenols, exerted a protective effect against t-BOOH triggered oxidative stress. At higher concentration the extract exerted a pro-oxidant effect. Similar results have been obtained using HSYA and SYA. (4) These results demonstrate a biphasic effect exerted by HSYA, SYA, and flower extracts on oxidative stress. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Crosstalk Between Adipokines and Paraoxonase 1: A New Potential Axis Linking Oxidative Stress and Inflammation
Antioxidants 2019, 8(8), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8080287 - 06 Aug 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated protein that endows its carrier with (lipo-)lactonase-dependent antioxidative features. Low levels of PON1 activity have been observed in association with obesity, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Considering the well-recognized atheroprotective role of [...] Read more.
Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated protein that endows its carrier with (lipo-)lactonase-dependent antioxidative features. Low levels of PON1 activity have been observed in association with obesity, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Considering the well-recognized atheroprotective role of PON1, exogenous/endogenous factors that might modulate its levels/activity are raising great interest. Since adipokines represent a molecular link between obesity and CVD, we here explored the possible impact of these substances on PON1 activity/expression. The levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, hepatocyte growth factor, resistin, leptin, and adiponectin were measured along with arylesterase, paraoxonase, and lactonase activities of PON1 in 107 postmenopausal women. Moreover, the direct effect of resistin on PON1 expression was evaluated in vitro. Multivariate analysis revealed that only resistin was significantly and inversely correlated with PON1-lactonase activities (r = −0.346, p < 0.001) regardless of confounding factors such as age or HDL-cholesterol. It is worth noting that no statistical link was found between adipokine and arylesterase or paraoxonase, the two promiscuous activities of PON1. Notably, resistin down-regulated PON1 expression occurred in hepatocellular carcinoma cultures. Our study suggests that resistin might be a negative modulator of PON1 expression and anti-oxidative activity. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Effect of Sterigmatocystin or Aflatoxin Contaminated Feed on Lipid Peroxidation and Glutathione Redox System and Expression of Glutathione Redox System Regulatory Genes in Broiler Chicken
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070201 - 28 Jun 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Authors studied the effect of sterigmatocystin from infected corn (STC), purified sterigmatocystin (PSTC), and aflatoxin B1 from infected corn (AFB1) on lipid peroxidation and glutathione redox parameters, including the expression of their encoding genes in a sub-chronic (14 days) trial. A [...] Read more.
Authors studied the effect of sterigmatocystin from infected corn (STC), purified sterigmatocystin (PSTC), and aflatoxin B1 from infected corn (AFB1) on lipid peroxidation and glutathione redox parameters, including the expression of their encoding genes in a sub-chronic (14 days) trial. A total of 144 three-week-old cockerels was divided into four experimental groups (n = 36 in each). Control feed was contaminated with STC or PSTC (1590 µg STC/kg or 1570.5 µg STC/kg feed), or with AFB1 (149.1 µg AFB1/kg feed). Six birds from each group were sampled at day 1, 2, 3, 7 and 14 of mycotoxin exposure. As parameters of lipid peroxidation, conjugated dienes (CD) and trienes (CT) were measured in the liver, while malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was determined in blood plasma, red blood cell hemolysate and liver. Reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity were determined in the same samples, and expression of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4), glutathione synthetase (GSS) and glutathione reductase (GSR) genes was measured by RT-PCR in the liver. STC, PSTC or AFB1 caused a slight, but not significant, increase in CD and CT levels; however, in the case of MDA, no increase was found in the liver. Glutathione redox system was activated in the liver by AFB1, but less markedly by STC/PSTC. PSTC and AFB1 resulted in a higher expression of GPX4, while GSS expression was down-regulated by AFB1 on day 1, but up-regulated by STC on day 2 and by both mycotoxins on day 7. However, on day 14, GSS expression was down-regulated by PSTC. Expression of GSR was low on day 1 in AFB1 and PSTC groups, but later it was up-regulated by AFB1. The observed changes regarding gene expression strengthen the hypothesis that the mild oxidative stress, caused by the applied STC doses, activates the glutathione redox system of broiler chickens. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Oxidative Imbalance and Kidney Damage in Cafeteria Diet-Induced Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome: Effect of Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction
Antioxidants 2019, 8(3), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8030066 - 16 Mar 2019
Cited by 12
Abstract
Obesity is a potent risk factor for kidney disease as it increases the possibility of developing diabetes and hypertension, and it has a direct impact on the development of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. In this study, we tested the effect [...] Read more.
Obesity is a potent risk factor for kidney disease as it increases the possibility of developing diabetes and hypertension, and it has a direct impact on the development of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. In this study, we tested the effect of bergamot polyphenolic fraction in a cafeteria with diet-fed rats, an excellent experimental model for studying human metabolic syndrome, as it is able to induce severe obesity with insulin resistance and high plasma triglyceride levels more efficiently than a traditional lard-based high-fat diet used in rodent models. We analyzed the plasmatic oxidative balance by photometric tests, and the expression of cytoplasmic antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase 1 and glutatione S-tranferasi P1) and apoptotic markers (Caspase 8 and 9) in kidney tissues by Western blot analysis. Our results clearly showed that the cafeteria diet induces a marked pro-oxidant effect: significant reduction of plasmatic antioxidant capacity; downregulation of cytoplasmic antioxidant enzymes expression; and activation of apoptotic pathways. All these hallmarks of redox disequilibrium were mitigated by treatment with polyphenolic fraction of bergamot, highlighting its antioxidant effect in the metabolic syndrome. Our data show that the link between obesity and renal damage could be represented by oxidative stress. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the AGE/sRAGE Axis in Patients with Multiple Myeloma
Antioxidants 2019, 8(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8030055 - 04 Mar 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Glycative stress influences tumor progression. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the advanced glycation end products/soluble receptor of advanced glycation end products (AGE/sRAGE) axis in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Blood samples were taken from 19 patients affected by MM [...] Read more.
Glycative stress influences tumor progression. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the advanced glycation end products/soluble receptor of advanced glycation end products (AGE/sRAGE) axis in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Blood samples were taken from 19 patients affected by MM and from 16 sex-matched and age-matched healthy subjects. AGE and sRAGE axis were dosed in patients with MM and matched with controls. AGEs were measured by spectrofluorimetric methods. Blood samples for the determination of sRAGE were analyzed by ELISA. AGE levels were significantly reduced in patients with respect to controls. Instead, sRAGE was significantly elevated in patients affected by MM compared to healthy subjects. Moreover, we showed that there was a statistically significant difference in sRAGE according to the heavy and light chain. IgA lambda had significantly higher sRAGE values than IgA kappa, IgG kappa, and IgG Lambda MM patients. From our data emerges the role of the sRAGE/AGE axis in MM. Since AGE is a positive regulator of the activity of RAGE, circulating sRAGE concentrations may reflect RAGE expression and may be raised in parallel with serum AGE concentrations as a counter-system against AGE-caused tissue damage. Serum concentrations of AGE and sRAGE could therefore become potential therapeutic targets. Full article
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