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Antioxidants, Volume 10, Issue 9 (September 2021) – 173 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Sepsis, an exaggerated immune response upon infection, annually kills more than 10 million people. The major causative agent is bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and one of its first targets is the endothelium, the inner lining of all blood vessels, which reacts with activation and apoptosis. We have previously shown that an N-terminal peptide of the apurinic/apyrimidinic endodeoxyribonuclease 1 (APEX1) can inhibit apoptosis of endothelial cells (EC). In the current work, we demonstrate that expression of the endoplasmic reticulum resident selenoprotein T (SELENOT) is upregulated by LPS exclusively in EC expressing the APEX1 peptide. Moreover, SELENOT overexpression protects EC against LPS-induced activation and apoptosis. Thus, the APEX1 peptide or SELENOT could provide new therapeutic approaches in the treatment of sepsis. View this paper.
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Article
Alpha-Ketoglutarate: A Potential Inner Mitochondrial and Cytosolic Protector against Peroxynitrite and Peroxynitrite-Induced Nitration?
Antioxidants 2021, 10(9), 1501; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10091501 - 21 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1032
Abstract
The generation of peroxynitrite (ONOO) is associated with several diseases, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, neurodegeneration, cancer, inflammation, and sepsis. Alpha-ketoglutarate (αKG) is a known potential highly antioxidative agent for radical oxidative species such as peroxides. The question arises as to whether αKG [...] Read more.
The generation of peroxynitrite (ONOO) is associated with several diseases, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, neurodegeneration, cancer, inflammation, and sepsis. Alpha-ketoglutarate (αKG) is a known potential highly antioxidative agent for radical oxidative species such as peroxides. The question arises as to whether αKG is also a potential scavenger of ONOO and a potential protector against ONOO-mediated nitration of proteins. NMR studies of 1 mM αKG in 100 mM phosphate-buffered saline at pH 7.4 and pH 6.0 were carried out in the presence or absence of a final concentration of 2 mM ONOO. An ONOO–luminol-induced chemiluminescence reaction was used to measure the scavenging function of several concentrations of αKG; quantification of αKG was performed via spectrophotometric enzymatic assay of αKG in the absence or presence of 0, 1, or 2 mM ONOO. The nitration of tyrosine residues on proteins was measured on ONOO-treated bovine serum albumin (BSA) in the presence or absence of 0–24 mM αKG by an ELISA technique using a specific anti-IgG against nitro-tyrosine. The addition of ONOO to αKG led to the formation of succinic acid and nitrite at pH 7.0, but not at pH 6.0, as αKG was stable against ONOO. The absorbance of enzymatically estimated αKG at the time point of 30 min was significantly lower in favour of ONOO (1 mM: 0.21 ± 0.03, 2 mM: 0.12 ± 0.05 vs. 0 mM: 0.32 ± 0.02; p < 0.001). The luminol technique showed an inverse logarithmic correlation of the ONOO and αKG concentrations (y = −2 × 105 ln(x) + 1 × 106; r2 = 0.99). The usage of 4 mM αKG showed a significant reduction by nearly half in the chemiluminescence signal (284,456 ± 29,293 cps, p < 0.001) compared to the control (474,401 ± 18,259); for 20 and 200 mM αKG, there were further reductions to 163,546 ± 26,196 cps (p < 0.001) and 12,658 ± 1928 cps (p < 0.001). Nitrated tyrosine residues were estimated using the ELISA technique. A negative linear correlation was obtained by estimating nitrated tyrosine residues in the presence of αKG (r2 = 0.94): a reduction by half of nitrated tyrosine was estimated using 12 mM αKG compared to the control (326.1 ± 39.6 nmol vs. 844.5 ± 128.4 nmol; p < 0.001). Full article
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Review
Structural Studies of Aliphatic Glucosinolate Chain-Elongation Enzymes
Antioxidants 2021, 10(9), 1500; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10091500 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 943
Abstract
Plants evolved specialized metabolic pathways through gene duplication and functional divergence of enzymes involved in primary metabolism. The results of this process are varied pathways that produce an array of natural products useful to both plants and humans. In plants, glucosinolates are a [...] Read more.
Plants evolved specialized metabolic pathways through gene duplication and functional divergence of enzymes involved in primary metabolism. The results of this process are varied pathways that produce an array of natural products useful to both plants and humans. In plants, glucosinolates are a diverse class of natural products. Glucosinolate function stems from their hydrolysis products, which are responsible for the strong flavors of Brassicales plants, such as mustard, and serve as plant defense molecules by repelling insects, fighting fungal infections, and discouraging herbivory. Additionally, certain hydrolysis products such as isothiocyanates can potentially serve as cancer prevention agents in humans. The breadth of glucosinolate function is a result of its great structural diversity, which comes from the use of aliphatic, aromatic and indole amino acids as precursors and elongation of some side chains by up to nine carbons, which, after the formation of the core glucosinolate structure, can undergo further chemical modifications. Aliphatic methionine-derived glucosinolates are the most abundant form of these compounds. Although both elongation and chemical modification of amino acid side chains are important for aliphatic glucosinolate diversity, its elongation process has not been well described at the molecular level. Here, we summarize new insights on the iterative chain-elongation enzymes methylthioalkylmalate synthase (MAMS) and isopropylmalate dehydrogenase (IPMDH). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant and Human Sulfur Biology)
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Review
Employment of Flake Ice Systems Including Natural Preservative Compounds for the Quality Enhancement of Chilled Seafood—A Review
Antioxidants 2021, 10(9), 1499; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10091499 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 772
Abstract
Marine species deteriorate rapidly post-mortem as a consequence of a variety of biochemical and microbial breakdown mechanisms. Due to the increasing demand for high-quality fresh seafood, different strategies are now available to retard spoilage for as long as possible. The present study provides [...] Read more.
Marine species deteriorate rapidly post-mortem as a consequence of a variety of biochemical and microbial breakdown mechanisms. Due to the increasing demand for high-quality fresh seafood, different strategies are now available to retard spoilage for as long as possible. The present study provides an overview of a recently proposed strategy based on the addition of natural compounds to marine species. In this strategy, different kinds of natural preservative compounds are included in the flake-ice medium that is commonly used for chilled storage. Natural sources tested for this purpose include low-molecular-weight organic acids and different kinds of extracts of plants, macroalgae, and by-products resulting from marine species commercialization. The preservative action of such treatments is analyzed according to the effect on different deteriorative mechanisms (i.e., lipid hydrolysis, oxidation, and microbial activity development), as well as on the resulting sensory acceptability and shelf-life time. The basic objective of this review is to provide an overview concerning the positive effect that the presence in an icing system of natural preserving compounds may have on the quality of chilled marine species. Furthermore, various potential avenues are proposed to develop the practical and commercial employment of this technological strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Antioxidants for Food Improvement)
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Article
Sulfane Sulfur Regulates LasR-Mediated Quorum Sensing and Virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1
Antioxidants 2021, 10(9), 1498; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10091498 - 21 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1096
Abstract
Sulfane sulfur, such as inorganic and organic polysulfide (HSn and RSn, n > 2), is a common cellular component, produced either from hydrogen sulfide oxidation or cysteine metabolism. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, LasR is a quorum sensing master [...] Read more.
Sulfane sulfur, such as inorganic and organic polysulfide (HSn and RSn, n > 2), is a common cellular component, produced either from hydrogen sulfide oxidation or cysteine metabolism. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, LasR is a quorum sensing master regulator. After binding its autoinducer, LasR binds to its target DNA to activate the transcription of a suite of genes, including virulence factors. Herein, we report that the production of hydrogen sulfide and sulfane sulfur were positively correlated in P. aeruginosa PAO1, and sulfane sulfur was able to modify LasR, which generated Cys188 persulfide and trisulfide and produced a pentasulfur link between Cys201 and Cys203. The modifications did not affect LasR binding to its target DNA site, but made it several-fold more effective than unmodified LasR in activating transcription in both in vitro and in vivo assays. On the contrary, H2O2 inactivates LasR via producing a disulfide bond between Cys201 and Cys203. P. aeruginosa PAO1 had a high cellular sulfane sulfur and high LasR activity in the mid log phase and early stationary phase, but a low sulfane sulfur and low LasR activity in the declination phase. Thus, sulfane sulfur is a new signaling factor in the bacterium, adding another level of control over LasR-mediated quorum sensing and turning down the activity in old cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrogen Sulfide in Biology)
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Article
Role of Oxidative Stress in the Senescence Pattern of Auditory Cells in Age-Related Hearing Loss
Antioxidants 2021, 10(9), 1497; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10091497 - 21 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 914
Abstract
Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) is an increasing and gradual sensorineural hearing dysfunction. Oxidative stress is an essential factor in developing ARHL; additionally, premature senescence of auditory cells induced by oxidative stress can produce hearing loss. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) represents [...] Read more.
Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) is an increasing and gradual sensorineural hearing dysfunction. Oxidative stress is an essential factor in developing ARHL; additionally, premature senescence of auditory cells induced by oxidative stress can produce hearing loss. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) represents a method commonly used to generate cellular senescence in vitro. The objective of the present paper is to study H2O2-induced senescence patterns in three auditory cell lines (House Ear Institute-Organ of Corti 1, HEI-OC1; organ of Corti, OC-k3, and stria vascularis, SV-k1 cells) to elucidate the intrinsic mechanisms responsible for ARHL. The auditory cells were exposed to H2O2 at different concentrations and times. The results obtained show different responses of the hearing cells concerning cell growth, β-galactosidase activity, morphological changes, mitochondrial activation, levels of oxidative stress, and other markers of cell damage (Forkhead box O3a, FoxO3a, and 8-oxoguanine, 8-oxoG). Comparison between the responses of these auditory cells to H2O2 is a helpful method to evaluate the molecular mechanisms responsible for these auditory cells’ senescence. Furthermore, this in vitro model could help develop anti-senescent therapeutic strategies for the treatment of AHRL. Full article
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Review
Management of Feline Hyperthyroidism and the Need to Prevent Oxidative Stress: What Can We Learn from Human Research?
Antioxidants 2021, 10(9), 1496; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10091496 - 20 Sep 2021
Viewed by 1094
Abstract
Feline hyperthyroidism is a clinical syndrome related to an excessive production of thyroid hormones, and it is considered as a spontaneous animal model for human thyrotoxicosis. Many shared features between the feline and the human disease have been identified so far, including pathogenesis, [...] Read more.
Feline hyperthyroidism is a clinical syndrome related to an excessive production of thyroid hormones, and it is considered as a spontaneous animal model for human thyrotoxicosis. Many shared features between the feline and the human disease have been identified so far, including pathogenesis, clinical signs, and treatment options. Although methimazole is considered the first-choice drug in both species, several side effects have been described. Furthermore, methimazole could interfere with the oxidative status, already perturbated by the disease. It has been reported in humans that dietary management, mainly through antioxidant supplementation, could mitigate this oxidative burden. The purpose of the review is to describe current therapeutic options in the course of feline hyperthyroidism and to summarize the state of the art relationship between dietary antioxidants administration and the reduction of methimazole side-effects in humans to support the use of this approach also in cats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Chronic Diseases)
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Article
Genetic Polymorphisms, Gene–Gene Interactions and Neurologic Sequelae at Two Years Follow-Up in Newborns with Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy Treated with Hypothermia
Antioxidants 2021, 10(9), 1495; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10091495 - 20 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 837
Abstract
Inflammation and oxidative stress after hypoxic-ischemic brain injury may be modified by genetic variability in addition to therapeutic hypothermia. The aim of our study was to evaluate the association between the polymorphisms in genes of antioxidant and inflammatory pathways in newborns treated with [...] Read more.
Inflammation and oxidative stress after hypoxic-ischemic brain injury may be modified by genetic variability in addition to therapeutic hypothermia. The aim of our study was to evaluate the association between the polymorphisms in genes of antioxidant and inflammatory pathways in newborns treated with therapeutic hypothermia and the development of epilepsy or CP at two years follow-up. The DNA of 55 subjects was isolated from buccal swabs. Genotyping using competitive allele-specific PCR was performed for polymorphisms in antioxidant (SOD2 rs4880, CAT rs1001179, GPX1 rs1050450) and inflammatory (NLRP3 rs35829419, CARD8 rs2043211, IL1B rs1143623, IL1B rs16944, IL1B rs10716 76, TNF rs1800629) pathways. Polymorphic CARD8 rs2043211 T allele was less frequent in patients with epilepsy, but the association was not statistically significant. The interaction between CARD8 rs2043211 and IL1B rs16944 was associated with epilepsy after HIE: CARD8 rs2043211 was associated with lower epilepsy risk, but only in carriers of two normal IL1B rs16944 alleles (ORadj = 0.03 95% CI = 0.00–0.55; padj = 0.019). Additionally, IL1B rs16944 was associated with higher epilepsy risk only in carriers of at least one polymorphic CARD8 rs2043211 (ORadj = 13.33 95% CI = 1.07–166.37; padj = 0.044). Our results suggest that gene–gene interaction in inflammation pathways might contribute to the severity of brain injury in newborns with HIE treated with therapeutic hypothermia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress, Neuroinflammation and Neurodegeneration)
Article
Peroxisomal PEX7 Receptor Affects Cadmium-Induced ROS and Auxin Homeostasis in Arabidopsis Root System
Antioxidants 2021, 10(9), 1494; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10091494 - 20 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1087
Abstract
Peroxisomes are important in plant physiological functions and stress responses. Through the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS), and antioxidant defense enzymes, peroxisomes control cellular redox homeostasis. Peroxin (PEX) proteins, such as PEX7 and PEX5, recognize peroxisome targeting signals [...] Read more.
Peroxisomes are important in plant physiological functions and stress responses. Through the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS), and antioxidant defense enzymes, peroxisomes control cellular redox homeostasis. Peroxin (PEX) proteins, such as PEX7 and PEX5, recognize peroxisome targeting signals (PTS1/PTS2) important for transporting proteins from cytosol to peroxisomal matrix. pex7-1 mutant displays reduced PTS2 protein import and altered peroxisomal metabolism. In this research we analyzed the role of PEX7 in the Arabidopsis thaliana root system exposed to 30 or 60 μM CdSO4. Cd uptake and translocation, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) levels, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) levels and catalase activity were analyzed in pex7-1 mutant primary and lateral roots in comparison with the wild type (wt). The peroxisomal defect due to PEX7 mutation did not reduce Cd-uptake but reduced its translocation to the shoot and the root cell peroxisomal signal detected by 8-(4-Nitrophenyl) Bodipy (N-BODIPY) probe. The trend of nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite in pex7-1 roots, exposed/not exposed to Cd, was as in wt, with the higher Cd-concentration inducing higher levels of these RNS. By contrast, PEX7 mutation caused changes in Cd-induced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide anion (O2●−) levels in the roots, delaying ROS-scavenging. Results show that PEX7 is involved in counteracting Cd toxicity in Arabidopsis root system by controlling ROS metabolism and affecting auxin levels. These results add further information to the important role of peroxisomes in plant responses to Cd. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolic Networks and Signaling by ROS, RNS and RSS in Higher Plants)
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Article
Lycopene Protects Intestinal Epithelium from Deoxynivalenol-Induced Oxidative Damage via Regulating Keap1/Nrf2 Signaling
Antioxidants 2021, 10(9), 1493; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10091493 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1339
Abstract
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a threatening mycotoxin primarily present in the agricultural environment, especially in food commodities and animal forages, and exerts significant global health hazards. Lycopene (LYC) is a potent antioxidant carotenoid mainly present in tomatoes and other fruits with enormous health benefits. [...] Read more.
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a threatening mycotoxin primarily present in the agricultural environment, especially in food commodities and animal forages, and exerts significant global health hazards. Lycopene (LYC) is a potent antioxidant carotenoid mainly present in tomatoes and other fruits with enormous health benefits. The present study was designed to ascertain whether LYC could protect DON-induced intestinal epithelium oxidative injury by regulating Keap1/Nrf2 signaling in the intestine of mice. A total of forty-eight mice were randomly distributed into four groups (n = 12), Control (CON), 10 mg/kg BW LYC, 3 mg/kg BW DON, and 3 mg/kg DON + 10 mg/kg LYC BW (DON + LYC). The experimental groups were treated by intragastric administration for 11 days. Our results showed that LYC significantly increased average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and repaired intestinal injury and barrier dysfunction, as evident by increased trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and decreased diamine oxidase (DAO) activity, as well as up-regulated tight junction proteins (occludin, claudin-1) under DON exposure. Furthermore, LYC treatment stabilized the functions of intestinal epithelial cells (Lgr5, PCNA, MUC2, LYZ, and Villin) under DON exposure. Additionally, LYC alleviated DON-induced oxidative stress by reducing ROS and MDA accumulation and enhancing the activity of antioxidant enzymes (CAT, T-SOD, T-AOC, and GSH-Px), which was linked with the activation of Nrf2 signaling and degradation of Keap1 expression. Conclusively, our findings demonstrated that LYC protects intestinal epithelium from oxidative injury by modulating the Keap1/Nrf2 signaling pathway under DON exposure. These novel findings could lead to future research into the therapeutic use of LYC to protect the DON-induced harmful effects in humans and/or animals. Full article
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Article
Fisetin Protects HaCaT Human Keratinocytes from Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5)-Induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis by Inhibiting the Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response
Antioxidants 2021, 10(9), 1492; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10091492 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1018
Abstract
Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) originates from the combustion of coal and is found in the exhaust of fumes of diesel vehicles. PM2.5 readily penetrates the skin via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, causing skin senescence, inflammatory skin diseases, DNA damage, and [...] Read more.
Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) originates from the combustion of coal and is found in the exhaust of fumes of diesel vehicles. PM2.5 readily penetrates the skin via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, causing skin senescence, inflammatory skin diseases, DNA damage, and carcinogenesis. In this study, we investigated whether fisetin, a bioactive flavonoid, prevents PM2.5-induced apoptosis in HaCaT human keratinocytes. The results demonstrated that fisetin significantly downregulated PM2.5-induced apoptosis at concentrations below 10 μM. Fisetin strongly inhibited the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins. The PM2.5-induced apoptosis was associated with the induction of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, mediated via the protein kinase R-like ER kinase (PERK)–eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α)–activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4)–CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein (CHOP) axis. Additionally, the cytosolic Ca2+ levels were markedly increased following exposure to PM2.5. However, fisetin inhibited the expression of ER stress-related proteins, including 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), phospho-eIF2α, ATF4, and CHOP, and reduced the cytosolic Ca2+ levels. These data suggest that fisetin inhibits PM2.5-induced apoptosis by inhibiting the ER stress response and production of ROS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Chemopreventive Activity of Natural Compounds)
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Review
NRF2 in Viral Infection
Antioxidants 2021, 10(9), 1491; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10091491 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 992
Abstract
The transcription factor NRF2 is central to redox homeostasis in animal cells and is a well-known driver of chemoresistance in many types of cancer. Recently, new roles have been ascribed to NRF2 which include regulation of antiviral interferon responses and inflammation. In addition, [...] Read more.
The transcription factor NRF2 is central to redox homeostasis in animal cells and is a well-known driver of chemoresistance in many types of cancer. Recently, new roles have been ascribed to NRF2 which include regulation of antiviral interferon responses and inflammation. In addition, NRF2 is emerging as an important factor in antiviral immunity through interferon-independent mechanisms. In the review, we give an overview of the scientific progress on the involvement and importance of NRF2 in the context of viral infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nrf2: A Critical Regulator of the Innate Immune Response)
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Systematic Review
Male Disadvantage in Oxidative Stress-Associated Complications of Prematurity: A Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression
Antioxidants 2021, 10(9), 1490; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10091490 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 892
Abstract
A widely accepted concept is that boys are more susceptible than girls to oxidative stress-related complications of prematurity, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), and periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). We aimed to quantify the effect size [...] Read more.
A widely accepted concept is that boys are more susceptible than girls to oxidative stress-related complications of prematurity, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), and periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). We aimed to quantify the effect size of this male disadvantage by performing a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies exploring the association between sex and complications of prematurity. Risk ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs were calculated by a random-effects model. Of 1365 potentially relevant studies, 41 met the inclusion criteria (625,680 infants). Male sex was associated with decreased risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, fetal distress, and C-section, but increased risk of low Apgar score, intubation at birth, respiratory distress, surfactant use, pneumothorax, postnatal steroids, late onset sepsis, any NEC, NEC > stage 1 (RR 1.12, CI 1.06–1.18), any IVH, severe IVH (RR 1.28, CI 1.22–1.34), severe IVH or PVL, any BPD, moderate/severe BPD (RR 1.23, CI 1.18–1.27), severe ROP (RR 1.14, CI 1.07–1.22), and mortality (RR 1.23, CI 1.16–1.30). In conclusion, preterm boys have higher clinical instability and greater need for invasive interventions than preterm girls. This leads to a male disadvantage in mortality and short-term complications of prematurity. Full article
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Article
Transcriptomics Underlying Pulmonary Ozone Pathogenesis Regulated by Inflammatory Mediators in Mice
Antioxidants 2021, 10(9), 1489; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10091489 - 18 Sep 2021
Viewed by 664
Abstract
Ozone (O3) is the predominant oxidant air pollutant associated with airway inflammation, lung dysfunction, and the worsening of preexisting respiratory diseases. We previously demonstrated the injurious roles of pulmonary immune receptors, tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR), and toll-like receptor 4, as [...] Read more.
Ozone (O3) is the predominant oxidant air pollutant associated with airway inflammation, lung dysfunction, and the worsening of preexisting respiratory diseases. We previously demonstrated the injurious roles of pulmonary immune receptors, tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR), and toll-like receptor 4, as well as a transcription factor NF-κB, in response to O3 in mice. In the current study, we profiled time-dependent and TNFR- and NF-κB-regulated lung transcriptome changes by subacute O3 to illuminate the underlying molecular events and downstream targets. Mice lacking Tnfr1/Tnfr2 (Tnfr-/-) or Nfkb1 (Nfkb1-/-) were exposed to air or O3. Lung RNAs were prepared for cDNA microarray analyses, and downstream and upstream mechanisms were predicted by pathway analyses of the enriched genes. O3 significantly altered the genes involved in inflammation and redox (24 h), cholesterol biosynthesis and vaso-occlusion (48 h), and cell cycle and DNA repair (48–72 h). Transforming growth factor-β1 was a predicted upstream regulator. Lack of Tnfr suppressed the immune cell proliferation and lipid-related processes and heightened epithelial cell integrity, and Nfkb1 deficiency markedly suppressed lung cell cycle progress during O3 exposure. Common differentially regulated genes by TNFR and NF-κB1 (e.g., Casp8, Il6, and Edn1) were predicted to protect the lungs from cell death, connective tissue injury, and inflammation. Il6-deficient mice were susceptible to O3-induced protein hyperpermeability, indicating its defensive role, while Tnf-deficient mice were resistant to overall lung injury caused by O3. The results elucidated transcriptome dynamics and provided new insights into the molecular mechanisms regulated by TNFR and NF-κB1 in pulmonary subacute O3 pathogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Lung Diseases)
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Article
H2O2-Mediated Oxidative Stress Enhances Cystathionine γ-Lyase-Derived H2S Synthesis via a Sulfenic Acid Intermediate
Antioxidants 2021, 10(9), 1488; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10091488 - 18 Sep 2021
Viewed by 815
Abstract
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is generated mainly by cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) in the cardiovascular system, plays a pivotal role in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes. However, the regulatory mechanism of the CSE/H2S system is poorly [...] Read more.
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is generated mainly by cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) in the cardiovascular system, plays a pivotal role in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes. However, the regulatory mechanism of the CSE/H2S system is poorly understood. Herein, we show that oxidation induces the disulfide bond formation between Cys252 and Cys255 in the CXXC motif, thus stimulating the H2S-producing activity of CSE. The activity of oxidized CSE is approximately 2.5 fold greater than that of the reduced enzyme. Molecular dynamics and molecular docking suggest that the disulfide bond formation induces the conformational change in the active site of CSE and consequently increases the affinity of the enzyme for the substrate L-cysteine. Mass spectrometry and mutagenesis studies further established that the residue Cys255 is crucial for oxidation sensing. Oxidative stress-mediated sulfenylation of Cys255 leads to a sulfenic acid intermediate that spontaneously forms an intramolecular disulfide bond with the vicinal thiol group of Cys252. Moreover, we demonstrate that exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and endogenous H2O2 triggered by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) promote cellular H2S production through the enhancement of CSE activity under oxidative stress conditions. By contrast, incubation with H2O2 or VEGF did not significantly enhance cellular H2S production in the presence of PEG-catalase, an enzymatic cell-permeable H2O2 scavenger with high H2O2 specificity. Taken together, we report a new posttranslational modification of CSE that provides a molecular mechanism for H2O2/H2S crosstalk in cells under oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cellular Redox Homeostasis)
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Article
Diosmetin Ameliorates Vascular Dysfunction and Remodeling by Modulation of Nrf2/HO-1 and p-JNK/p-NF-κB Expression in Hypertensive Rats
Antioxidants 2021, 10(9), 1487; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10091487 - 17 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1115
Abstract
Diosmetin is a citrus flavonoid that has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. This study examined the effect of diosmetin on blood pressure and vascular alterations and its underlying mechanisms in experimentally hypertensive rats. Male Sprague rats were administered Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester L-NAME [...] Read more.
Diosmetin is a citrus flavonoid that has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. This study examined the effect of diosmetin on blood pressure and vascular alterations and its underlying mechanisms in experimentally hypertensive rats. Male Sprague rats were administered Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester L-NAME for five weeks and were given diosmetin at doses of 20 or 40 mg/kg or captopril (5 mg/kg) for two weeks. Diosmetin alleviated hypertension, improved endothelial dysfunction, and suppressed the overactivity of sympathetic nerve-mediated vasoconstriction in aorta and mesentery hypertensive rats (p < 0.05). Increases in plasma and aortic tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and carotid superoxide generations and reductions of plasma superoxide dismutase, catalase, and nitric oxide in hypertensive rats were ameliorated by diosmetin (p < 0.05). Diosmetin increased the protein expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in hypertensive rats. Furthermore, diosmetin mitigated hypertrophy and collagen accumulation of the aortic wall in L-NAME rats. It exhibited an anti-inflammatory effect by reducing interleukin-6 (IL-6) accumulation and by overexpressing the phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinases (p-JNK) and the phospho-nuclear factor-kappaB (p-NF-κB) proteins in the aorta (p < 0.05). Captopril was a positive control substance and had similar effects to diosmetin. In summary, diosmetin reduced blood pressure and alleviated vascular abnormalities in L-NAME-treated rats. These effects might be related to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects as well as to the modulation of the expression of the Nrf2/HO1 and p-JNK/NF-κB proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavonoids and Chronic Diseases)
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Article
Glyoxal-Lysine Dimer, an Advanced Glycation End Product, Induces Oxidative Damage and Inflammatory Response by Interacting with RAGE
Antioxidants 2021, 10(9), 1486; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10091486 - 17 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 858
Abstract
The glyoxal-lysine dimer (GOLD), which is a glyoxal (GO)-derived advanced glycation end product (AGE), is produced by the glycation reaction. In this study, we evaluated the effect of GOLD on the oxidative damage and inflammatory response in SV40 MES 13 mesangial cells. GOLD [...] Read more.
The glyoxal-lysine dimer (GOLD), which is a glyoxal (GO)-derived advanced glycation end product (AGE), is produced by the glycation reaction. In this study, we evaluated the effect of GOLD on the oxidative damage and inflammatory response in SV40 MES 13 mesangial cells. GOLD significantly increased the linkage with the V-type immunoglobulin domain of RAGE, a specific receptor of AGE. We found that GOLD treatment increased RAGE expression and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in mesangial cells. GOLD remarkably regulated the protein and mRNA expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and glyoxalase 1 (GLO1). In addition, mitochondrial deterioration and inflammation occurred via GOLD-induced oxidative stress in mesangial cells. GOLD regulated the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and the release of proinflammatory cytokines associated with the inflammatory mechanism of mesangial cells. Furthermore, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses triggered by GOLD were suppressed through RAGE inhibition using RAGE siRNA. These results demonstrate that the interaction of GOLD and RAGE plays an important role in the function of mesangial cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Redox Biology of Glyoxalases)
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Article
An Ascorbate Bluetooth© Analyzer for Quality Control of Fresh-Cut Parsley Supply Chain
Antioxidants 2021, 10(9), 1485; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10091485 - 17 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 787
Abstract
This work provides companies in the fresh-cut produce sector with an Ascorbate Bluetooth© Analyzer (ABA), a screen-printed sensor-based device for ascorbic acid (AA) detection, for quality control all along the supply chain. The amperometric detection of AA on fresh and fresh-cut parsley, under [...] Read more.
This work provides companies in the fresh-cut produce sector with an Ascorbate Bluetooth© Analyzer (ABA), a screen-printed sensor-based device for ascorbic acid (AA) detection, for quality control all along the supply chain. The amperometric detection of AA on fresh and fresh-cut parsley, under correct and incorrect storage temperature, allowed us to investigate the kinetics of AA decay in response to oxidative stress. The role of ascorbate oxidase (AOx) and ascorbate peroxidase (APx) was studied. ABA was used in situ by unskilled personnel. Treatments influenced AA decay kinetics, which were linear in fresh parsley, and non-linear in fresh-cut. Two hours at 28 °C immediately after chopping, the resilience of the fresh-cut parsley was reduced, even though the cold chain was restored. Two hours at −2 °C caused a rapid loss of AA until its complete decay after 72 h. Significant differences between treatments were observed in both the expression and activity of AOx and APx. ABA registered sudden changes of parsley AA following unpredicted variations of temperature during processing or transport. It was useful to remedy the effects of unexpected flaws in the cold chain, which can be proposed for quality preservation of different fresh-cut produce. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Antioxidants for Food Improvement)
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Article
Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor and Cysteine Redox Dynamics Underlie (Mal)adaptive Mechanisms to Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia in Kidney Cortex
Antioxidants 2021, 10(9), 1484; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10091484 - 17 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1028
Abstract
We hypothesized that an interplay between aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and cysteine-related thiolome at the kidney cortex underlies the mechanisms of (mal)adaptation to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), promoting arterial hypertension (HTN). Using a rat model of CIH-HTN, we investigated the impact of short-term [...] Read more.
We hypothesized that an interplay between aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and cysteine-related thiolome at the kidney cortex underlies the mechanisms of (mal)adaptation to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), promoting arterial hypertension (HTN). Using a rat model of CIH-HTN, we investigated the impact of short-term (1 and 7 days), mid-term (14 and 21 days, pre-HTN), and long-term intermittent hypoxia (IH) (up to 60 days, established HTN) on CYP1A1 protein level (a sensitive hallmark of AhR activation) and cysteine-related thiol pools. We found that acute and chronic IH had opposite effects on CYP1A1 and the thiolome. While short-term IH decreased CYP1A1 and increased protein-S-thiolation, long-term IH increased CYP1A1 and free oxidized cysteine. In addition, an in vitro administration of cystine, but not cysteine, to human endothelial cells increased Cyp1a1 expression, supporting cystine as a putative AhR activator. This study supports CYP1A1 as a biomarker of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity and oxidized pools of cysteine as risk indicator of OSA-HTN. This work contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the phenotype of OSA-HTN, mimicked by this model, which is in line with precision medicine challenges in OSA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physiology and Pathophysiology of Oxygen Sensitivity)
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Review
Melatonin: Regulation of Biomolecular Condensates in Neurodegenerative Disorders
Antioxidants 2021, 10(9), 1483; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10091483 - 17 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 18655
Abstract
Biomolecular condensates are membraneless organelles (MLOs) that form dynamic, chemically distinct subcellular compartments organizing macromolecules such as proteins, RNA, and DNA in unicellular prokaryotic bacteria and complex eukaryotic cells. Separated from surrounding environments, MLOs in the nucleoplasm, cytoplasm, and mitochondria assemble by liquid–liquid [...] Read more.
Biomolecular condensates are membraneless organelles (MLOs) that form dynamic, chemically distinct subcellular compartments organizing macromolecules such as proteins, RNA, and DNA in unicellular prokaryotic bacteria and complex eukaryotic cells. Separated from surrounding environments, MLOs in the nucleoplasm, cytoplasm, and mitochondria assemble by liquid–liquid phase separation (LLPS) into transient, non-static, liquid-like droplets that regulate essential molecular functions. LLPS is primarily controlled by post-translational modifications (PTMs) that fine-tune the balance between attractive and repulsive charge states and/or binding motifs of proteins. Aberrant phase separation due to dysregulated membrane lipid rafts and/or PTMs, as well as the absence of adequate hydrotropic small molecules such as ATP, or the presence of specific RNA proteins can cause pathological protein aggregation in neurodegenerative disorders. Melatonin may exert a dominant influence over phase separation in biomolecular condensates by optimizing membrane and MLO interdependent reactions through stabilizing lipid raft domains, reducing line tension, and maintaining negative membrane curvature and fluidity. As a potent antioxidant, melatonin protects cardiolipin and other membrane lipids from peroxidation cascades, supporting protein trafficking, signaling, ion channel activities, and ATPase functionality during condensate coacervation or dissolution. Melatonin may even control condensate LLPS through PTM and balance mRNA- and RNA-binding protein composition by regulating N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modifications. There is currently a lack of pharmaceuticals targeting neurodegenerative disorders via the regulation of phase separation. The potential of melatonin in the modulation of biomolecular condensate in the attenuation of aberrant condensate aggregation in neurodegenerative disorders is discussed in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Melatonin and Vitamin D in Diseases and Health)
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Article
Melatonin Enhances the Mitochondrial Functionality of Brown Adipose Tissue in Obese—Diabetic Rats
Antioxidants 2021, 10(9), 1482; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10091482 - 17 Sep 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1217
Abstract
Developing novel drugs/targets remains a major effort toward controlling obesity-related type 2 diabetes (diabesity). Melatonin controls obesity and improves glucose homeostasis in rodents, mainly via the thermogenic effects of increasing the amount of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and increases in mitochondrial mass, amount [...] Read more.
Developing novel drugs/targets remains a major effort toward controlling obesity-related type 2 diabetes (diabesity). Melatonin controls obesity and improves glucose homeostasis in rodents, mainly via the thermogenic effects of increasing the amount of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and increases in mitochondrial mass, amount of UCP1 protein, and thermogenic capacity. Importantly, mitochondria are widely known as a therapeutic target of melatonin; however, direct evidence of melatonin on the function of mitochondria from BAT and the mechanistic pathways underlying these effects remains lacking. This study investigated the effects of melatonin on mitochondrial functions in BAT of Zücker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, which are considered a model of obesity-related type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). At five weeks of age, Zücker lean (ZL) and ZDF rats were subdivided into two groups, consisting of control and treated with oral melatonin for six weeks. Mitochondria were isolated from BAT of animals from both groups, using subcellular fractionation techniques, followed by measurement of several mitochondrial parameters, including respiratory control ratio (RCR), phosphorylation coefficient (ADP/O ratio), ATP production, level of mitochondrial nitrites, superoxide dismutase activity, and alteration in the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). Interestingly, melatonin increased RCR in mitochondria from brown fat of both ZL and ZDF rats through the reduction of the proton leak component of respiration (state 4). In addition, melatonin improved the ADP/O ratio in obese rats and augmented ATP production in lean rats. Further, melatonin reduced mitochondrial nitrosative and oxidative status by decreasing nitrite levels and increasing superoxide dismutase activity in both groups, as well as inhibited mPTP in mitochondria isolated from brown fat. Taken together, the present data revealed that chronic oral administration of melatonin improved mitochondrial respiration in brown adipocytes, while decreasing oxidative and nitrosative stress and susceptibility of adipocytes to apoptosis in ZDF rats, suggesting a beneficial use in the treatment of diabesity. Further research regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of melatonin on diabesity is warranted. Full article
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Article
Genome-Wide Characterization of Glutathione Peroxidase (GPX) Gene Family in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) Revealed Their Role in Multiple Abiotic Stress Response and Hormone Signaling
Antioxidants 2021, 10(9), 1481; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10091481 - 17 Sep 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1602
Abstract
Plant glutathione peroxidases (GPXs) are the main enzymes in the antioxidant defense system that sustain H2O2 homeostasis and normalize plant reaction to abiotic stress conditions. To understand the major roles of the GPX gene family in rapeseed (Brassica napus [...] Read more.
Plant glutathione peroxidases (GPXs) are the main enzymes in the antioxidant defense system that sustain H2O2 homeostasis and normalize plant reaction to abiotic stress conditions. To understand the major roles of the GPX gene family in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), for the first time, a genome-wide study identified 25 BnGPX genes in the rapeseed genome. The phylogenetic analysis discovered that GPX genes were grouped into four major groups (Group I–Group IV) from rapeseed and three closely interrelated plant species. The universal investigation uncovered that the BnGPXs gene experienced segmental duplications and positive selection pressure. Gene structure and motifs examination recommended that most of the BnGPX genes demonstrated a comparatively well-maintained exon-intron and motifs arrangement within the identical group. Likewise, we recognized five hormones-, four stress-, and numerous light-reactive cis-elements in the promoters of BnGPXs. Five putative bna-miRNAs from two families were also prophesied, targeting six BnGPXs genes. Gene ontology annotation results proved the main role of BnGPXs in antioxidant defense systems, ROS, and response to stress stimulus. Several BnGPXs genes revealed boosted expression profiles in many developmental tissues/organs, i.e., root, seed, leaf, stem, flower, and silique. The qRT-PCR based expression profiling exhibited that two genes (BnGPX21 and BnGPX23) were suggestively up-regulated against different hormones (ABA, IAA, and MeJA) and abiotic stress (salinity, cold, waterlogging, and drought) treatments. In short, our discoveries provide a basis for additional functional studies on the BnGPX genes in future rapeseed breeding programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Mechanisms in Plants)
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Article
Ozone Treatment Is Insufficient to Inactivate SARS-CoV-2 Surrogate under Field Conditions
Antioxidants 2021, 10(9), 1480; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10091480 - 16 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1561
Abstract
COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 caused a worldwide crisis, highlighting the importance of preventive measures in infectious diseases control. SARS-CoV-2 can remain infectious on surfaces for up to several weeks; therefore, proper disinfection is required to mitigate the risk of indirect virus spreading. Gaseous [...] Read more.
COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 caused a worldwide crisis, highlighting the importance of preventive measures in infectious diseases control. SARS-CoV-2 can remain infectious on surfaces for up to several weeks; therefore, proper disinfection is required to mitigate the risk of indirect virus spreading. Gaseous ozone treatment has received particular attention as an easily accessible disinfection tool. In this study, we evaluated the virucidal effectiveness of gaseous ozone treatment (>7.3 ppm, 2 h) on murine hepatitis virus (MHV)-contaminated stainless-steel surface and PBS-suspended virus under field conditions at ambient (21.8%) and high (49.8–54.2%) relative humidity. Surficial virus was soiled with 0.3 g/L of BSA. Parallelly, a half-hour vaporization with 7.3% hydrogen peroxide was performed on contaminated carriers. The obtained results showed that gaseous ozone, whilst quite effective against suspended virus, was insufficient in sanitizing coronavirus contaminated surfaces, especially under low RH. Increased humidity created more favorable conditions for MHV inactivation, resulting in 2.1 log titre reduction. Vaporization with 7.3% hydrogen peroxide presented much better virucidal performance than ozonation in a similar experimental setup, indicating that its application may be more advantageous regarding gaseous disinfection of surfaces contaminated with other coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section ROS, RNS and RSS)
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Review
Oxidative Stress and Beta Amyloid in Alzheimer’s Disease. Which Comes First: The Chicken or the Egg?
Antioxidants 2021, 10(9), 1479; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10091479 - 16 Sep 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1148
Abstract
The pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease involves β amyloid (Aβ) accumulation known to induce synaptic dysfunction and neurodegeneration. The brain’s vulnerability to oxidative stress (OS) is considered a crucial detrimental factor in Alzheimer’s disease. OS and Aβ are linked to each other because Aβ [...] Read more.
The pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease involves β amyloid (Aβ) accumulation known to induce synaptic dysfunction and neurodegeneration. The brain’s vulnerability to oxidative stress (OS) is considered a crucial detrimental factor in Alzheimer’s disease. OS and Aβ are linked to each other because Aβ induces OS, and OS increases the Aβ deposition. Thus, the answer to the question “which comes first: the chicken or the egg?” remains extremely difficult. In any case, the evidence for the primary occurrence of oxidative stress in AD is attractive. Thus, evidence indicates that a long period of gradual oxidative damage accumulation precedes and results in the appearance of clinical and pathological AD symptoms, including Aβ deposition, neurofibrillary tangle formation, metabolic dysfunction, and cognitive decline. Moreover, oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of many risk factors for AD. Alzheimer’s disease begins many years before its symptoms, and antioxidant treatment can be an important therapeutic target for attacking the disease. Full article
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Article
An Exploration of the Effects of an Early Postpartum Intravenous Infusion with Carnosic Acid on Physiological Responses of Transition Dairy Cows
Antioxidants 2021, 10(9), 1478; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10091478 - 16 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 765
Abstract
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compound found in rosemary plants (Salvia rosmarinus) named carnosic acid during the transition period of dairy cows. From day 1 to 3 after calving, 16 [...] Read more.
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compound found in rosemary plants (Salvia rosmarinus) named carnosic acid during the transition period of dairy cows. From day 1 to 3 after calving, 16 multiparous Holstein cows received a daily intravenous infusion of either 500 mL of saline (NaCl 0.9%; Saline; n = 8) or carnosic acid at a rate of 0.3 mg/kg of BW supplied in 500 mL of saline (CA; n = 8). Blood samples were taken at –7, 2, 5, 7, 14, and 21 d relative to parturition, then analyzed for metabolites related to energy metabolism, muscle mass catabolism, liver function, inflammation, and oxidative stress. CA infusion tended to improve milk performance; however, DMI was unaffected by treatment. At 2 d relative to parturition, CA cows had lower blood concentrations of haptoglobin, paraoxonase, FRAP, and NO2 than saline cows. After treatment infusions, haptoglobin remained lower in CA cows than saline at 5 d relative to parturition. Our results demonstrate that carnosic acid promoted positive responses on inflammation and oxidative stress biomarkers and may promote beneficial effects on lactation performance in peripartal dairy cows. Full article
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Article
Polydatin Counteracts 5-Fluorouracil Resistance by Enhancing Apoptosis via Calcium Influx in Colon Cancer
Antioxidants 2021, 10(9), 1477; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10091477 - 16 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 760
Abstract
Colon cancer is a disease with a high prevalence rate worldwide, and for its treatment, a 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapeutic strategy is generally used. However, conventional anticancer agents have some limitations, including the development of drug resistance. Therefore, there has recently been a demand [...] Read more.
Colon cancer is a disease with a high prevalence rate worldwide, and for its treatment, a 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapeutic strategy is generally used. However, conventional anticancer agents have some limitations, including the development of drug resistance. Therefore, there has recently been a demand for the improvement of antitumor agents using natural products with low side effects and high efficacy. Polydatin is a natural active compound extracted from an annual plant, and widely known for its anticancer effects in diverse types of cancer. However, it is still not clearly understood how polydatin ameliorates several drawbacks of standard anticancer drugs by reinforcing the chemosensitivity against 5-FU, and neither are the intrinsic mechanisms behind this process. In this study, we examined how polydatin produces anticancer effects in two types of colon cancer, called HCT116 and HT-29 cells. Polydatin has the ability to repress the progression of colon cancer, and causes a modification of distribution in the cell cycle by a flow cytometry analysis. It also induces mitochondrial dysfunctions through oxidative stress and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. The present study investigated the apoptosis caused by the disturbance of calcium regulation and the expression levels of related proteins through flow cytometry and immunoblotting analysis. It was revealed that polydatin suppresses the signaling pathways of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and PI3K/AKT. In addition, it was shown that polydatin combined with 5-FU counteracts drug resistance in 5-FU-resistant cells. Therefore, this study suggests that polydatin has the potential to be developed as an innovative medicinal drug for the treatment of colon cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural and Synthetic Antioxidants)
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Article
Improving Physicochemical Stability of Quercetin-Loaded Hollow Zein Particles with Chitosan/Pectin Complex Coating
Antioxidants 2021, 10(9), 1476; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10091476 - 16 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 885
Abstract
Hollow nanoparticles are preferred over solid ones for their high loading capabilities, sustained release and low density. Hollow zein particles are susceptible to aggregation with a slight variation in the ionic strength, pH and temperature of the medium. This study was aimed to [...] Read more.
Hollow nanoparticles are preferred over solid ones for their high loading capabilities, sustained release and low density. Hollow zein particles are susceptible to aggregation with a slight variation in the ionic strength, pH and temperature of the medium. This study was aimed to fabricate quercetin-loaded hollow zein particles with chitosan and pectin coating to improve their physicochemical stability. Quercetin as a model flavonoid had a loading efficiency and capacity of about 86–94% and 2.22–5.89%, respectively. Infrared and X-ray diffraction investigations revealed the interaction of quercetin with zein and the change in its physical state from crystalline to amorphous upon incorporation in the composite particles. The chitosan/pectin coating improved the stability of quercetin-loaded hollow zein particles against heat treatment, sodium chloride and in a wide range of pH. The complex coating protected quercetin that was encapsulated in hollow zein particles from free radicals in the aqueous medium and enhanced its DPPH radical scavenging ability. The entrapment of quercetin in the particles improved its storage and photochemical stability. The storage stability of entrapped quercetin was enhanced both at 25 and 45 °C in hollow zein particles coated with chitosan and pectin. Therefore, composite hollow zein particles fabricated with a combination of polysaccharides can expand their role in the encapsulation, protection and delivery of bioactive components. Full article
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Article
Exploiting the Potential of Bioactive Molecules Extracted by Ultrasounds from Avocado Peels—Food and Nutraceutical Applications
Antioxidants 2021, 10(9), 1475; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10091475 - 16 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 780
Abstract
Natural bioactive compounds from food waste have fomented interest in food and pharmaceutical industries for the past decade. In this work, it purposed the recovery of bioactive avocado peel extract using an environmentally friendly technique: the ultrasound assisted extraction. The response surface methodology [...] Read more.
Natural bioactive compounds from food waste have fomented interest in food and pharmaceutical industries for the past decade. In this work, it purposed the recovery of bioactive avocado peel extract using an environmentally friendly technique: the ultrasound assisted extraction. The response surface methodology was applied in order to optimize the conditions of the extraction, ethanol-water mixtures and time. The optimized extracts (ethanol 38.46%, 44.06 min, and 50 °C) were chemically characterized by HPLC-ESI-MS and FTIR. Its antioxidant ability, as well as, its effect on cell metabolic activity of normal (L929) and cancer (Caco-2, A549 and HeLa) cell lines were assessed. Aqueous ethanol extracts presented a high content in bioactive compounds with high antioxidant potential. The most representative class of the phenolic compounds found in the avocado peel extract were phenolic acids, such as hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids. Another important chemical group detected were the flavonoids, such as flavanols, flavanonols, flavones, flavanones and chalcone, phenylethanoids and lignans. In terms of its influence on the metabolic activity of normal and cancer cell lines, the extract does not significantly affect normal cells. On the other hand, it can negatively affect cancer cells, particularly HeLa cells. These results clearly demonstrated that ultrasound is a sustainable extraction technique, resulting in extracts with low toxicity in normal cells and with potential application in food, pharmaceutical or nutraceutical sectors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Antioxidants for Food Improvement)
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Article
Oxidative Stress and Related Biomarkers in Gilbert’s Syndrome: A Secondary Analysis of Two Case-Control Studies
Antioxidants 2021, 10(9), 1474; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10091474 - 15 Sep 2021
Viewed by 767
Abstract
Bilirubin is an important antioxidant and a modulator of biological functions. However, most of the protection against oxidative stress was shown in vitro or ex vivo. The aim of this case-control study was to investigate whether subjects with Gilbert’s syndrome (GS) experience different [...] Read more.
Bilirubin is an important antioxidant and a modulator of biological functions. However, most of the protection against oxidative stress was shown in vitro or ex vivo. The aim of this case-control study was to investigate whether subjects with Gilbert’s syndrome (GS) experience different levels of lipid and protein oxidation (as well as differences in oxidative stress related markers) compared to healthy controls. GS subjects (n = 119) demonstrated higher serum levels of unconjugated bilirubin (p < 0.001), a lower BMI (p < 0.001), 37% higher antioxidant potential assessed as ferric reducing ability potential (p < 0.001), higher advanced oxidation protein products (p < 0.01) andlower apolipoprotein B (p < 0.05), hs-C-reactive protein (p < 0.05), interleukin 6 (p < 0.001) and interleukin 1 beta (p < 0.05) values compared to healthy controls (n = 119). Furthermore, the resting heart rate was significantly lower in the GS group (p < 0.05). Stronger protective effects for GS subjects were demonstrated in the older subgroup (n = 104, average age 50 years) compared to those of the younger group (n = 134, average age 27 years). Although not all markers related to oxidative stress were different between the groups (e.g., malondialdehyde, homocysteine, oxLDL, and myeloperoxidase; p > 0.05), the observed differences contribute to the explanation of why GS serves as an important protector in the pathogenesis of metabolic, oxidative stress related diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bilirubin and Oxidative Stress)
Review
Impact of Heavy Metals on Human Male Fertility—An Overview
Antioxidants 2021, 10(9), 1473; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10091473 - 15 Sep 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1354
Abstract
Heavy metals are endocrine disruptors which interfere with processes mediated by endogenous hormones of the organism, negatively affecting endocrine functions. Some studies have correlated heavy metal exposure with male infertility. However, the number of studies conducted on humans are limited. Therefore, the aim [...] Read more.
Heavy metals are endocrine disruptors which interfere with processes mediated by endogenous hormones of the organism, negatively affecting endocrine functions. Some studies have correlated heavy metal exposure with male infertility. However, the number of studies conducted on humans are limited. Therefore, the aim of this study is to summarize the current knowledge on how heavy metals influence human male fertility. Hence, three distinct databases were consulted—PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science—using single keywords and combinations of them. The total number of identified articles was 636. Nevertheless, by using the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 144 articles were finally included in this work. Results display that the development of adequate instruments for heavy metal assessment may play an important function in human male fertility diagnosis and treatment. Furthermore, clinical trials could be useful to confirm the role of heavy metals in human male fertility diagnosis. Overall, further research is required to fully understand the molecular and cellular basis of the influence of environmental and occupational exposure to heavy metals on human male infertility and reproductive outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Male Infertility)
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Review
Microbial Biosurfactant: A New Frontier for Sustainable Agriculture and Pharmaceutical Industries
Antioxidants 2021, 10(9), 1472; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10091472 - 15 Sep 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 1679
Abstract
In the current scenario of changing climatic conditions and the rising global population, there is an urgent need to explore novel, efficient, and economical natural products for the benefit of humankind. Biosurfactants are one of the latest explored microbial synthesized biomolecules that have [...] Read more.
In the current scenario of changing climatic conditions and the rising global population, there is an urgent need to explore novel, efficient, and economical natural products for the benefit of humankind. Biosurfactants are one of the latest explored microbial synthesized biomolecules that have been used in numerous fields, including agriculture, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, food processing, and environment-cleaning industries, as a source of raw materials, for the lubrication, wetting, foaming, emulsions formulations, and as stabilizing dispersions. The amphiphilic nature of biosurfactants have shown to be a great advantage, distributing themselves into two immiscible surfaces by reducing the interfacial surface tension and increasing the solubility of hydrophobic compounds. Furthermore, their eco-friendly nature, low or even no toxic nature, durability at higher temperatures, and ability to withstand a wide range of pH fluctuations make microbial surfactants preferable compared to their chemical counterparts. Additionally, biosurfactants can obviate the oxidation flow by eliciting antioxidant properties, antimicrobial and anticancer activities, and drug delivery systems, further broadening their applicability in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Nowadays, biosurfactants have been broadly utilized to improve the soil quality by improving the concentration of trace elements and have either been mixed with pesticides or applied singly on the plant surfaces for plant disease management. In the present review, we summarize the latest research on microbial synthesized biosurfactant compounds, the limiting factors of biosurfactant production, their application in improving soil quality and plant disease management, and their use as antioxidant or antimicrobial compounds in the pharmaceutical industries. Full article
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