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Open AccessReview

Therapeutic Potential of Rosmarinic Acid: A Comprehensive Review

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Department of Environmental Sciences, Comsats University Islamabad, Vehari Campus, Vehari 61100, Pakistan
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University Institute of Diet and Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, The University of Lahore, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
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School of Exercise and Nutrition, Deakin University, Victoria 3221, Australia
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Department of Food Science, Nutrition & Home Economics, Institute of Home and Food Sciences, Government College University Faisalabad, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
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Department of Food Science and Technology, MNS-University of Agriculture, Multan 66000, Pakistan
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Institute of Food and Nutritional Sciences, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi 46300, Pakistan
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Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000, Pakistan
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Department of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Ghazi University, Dera Ghazi Khan 32200, Pakistan
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Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Jouf University, Sakaka 72341, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Physiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
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Student Research Committee, School of Medicine, Bam University of Medical Sciences, Bam 44340847, Iran
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Medical Illustration, Kendall College of Art and Design, Ferris State University, Grand Rapids, MI 49503, USA
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Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Concepcion, Concepcion 4070386, Chile
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Zabol Medicinal Plants Research Center, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol 61615-585, Iran
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Department of Clinical Oncology, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, 30 Gascoigne Road, Hong Kong, China
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Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal
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Institute for Research and Innovation in Health (i3S), University of Porto, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(15), 3139; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9153139
Received: 26 June 2019 / Revised: 25 July 2019 / Accepted: 29 July 2019 / Published: 2 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activity and Applications of Natural Compounds)
Naturally occurring food-derived active ingredients have received huge attention for their chemopreventive and chemotherapy capabilities in several diseases. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a caffeic acid ester and a naturally-occurring phenolic compound in a number of plants belonging to the Lamiaceae family, such as Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) from which it was formerly isolated. RA intervenes in carcinogenesis through different ways, including in tumor cell proliferation, apoptosis, metastasis, and inflammation. On the other hand, it also exerts powerful antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and even antidepressant, anti-aging effects. The present review aims to provide an overview on anticancer activities of RA and to deliberate its therapeutic potential against a wide variety of diseases. Given the current evidence, RA may be considered as part of the daily diet in the treatment of several diseases, with pre-determined doses avoiding cytotoxicity. View Full-Text
Keywords: rosemary; rosmarinic acid; anticancer; antidiabetic; cardioprotective; antioxidant; oxidative stress rosemary; rosmarinic acid; anticancer; antidiabetic; cardioprotective; antioxidant; oxidative stress
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nadeem, M.; Imran, M.; Aslam Gondal, T.; Imran, A.; Shahbaz, M.; Muhammad Amir, R.; Wasim Sajid, M.; Batool Qaisrani, T.; Atif, M.; Hussain, G.; Salehi, B.; Adrian Ostrander, E.; Martorell, M.; Sharifi-Rad, J.; C. Cho, W.; Martins, N. Therapeutic Potential of Rosmarinic Acid: A Comprehensive Review. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 3139.

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