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Open AccessReview

Therapeutic Potential of Rosmarinic Acid: A Comprehensive Review

Department of Environmental Sciences, Comsats University Islamabad, Vehari Campus, Vehari 61100, Pakistan
University Institute of Diet and Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, The University of Lahore, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
School of Exercise and Nutrition, Deakin University, Victoria 3221, Australia
Department of Food Science, Nutrition & Home Economics, Institute of Home and Food Sciences, Government College University Faisalabad, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
Department of Food Science and Technology, MNS-University of Agriculture, Multan 66000, Pakistan
Institute of Food and Nutritional Sciences, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi 46300, Pakistan
Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000, Pakistan
Department of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Ghazi University, Dera Ghazi Khan 32200, Pakistan
Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Jouf University, Sakaka 72341, Saudi Arabia
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
Student Research Committee, School of Medicine, Bam University of Medical Sciences, Bam 44340847, Iran
Medical Illustration, Kendall College of Art and Design, Ferris State University, Grand Rapids, MI 49503, USA
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Concepcion, Concepcion 4070386, Chile
Zabol Medicinal Plants Research Center, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol 61615-585, Iran
Department of Clinical Oncology, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, 30 Gascoigne Road, Hong Kong, China
Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal
Institute for Research and Innovation in Health (i3S), University of Porto, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(15), 3139;
Received: 26 June 2019 / Revised: 25 July 2019 / Accepted: 29 July 2019 / Published: 2 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activity and Applications of Natural Compounds)
Naturally occurring food-derived active ingredients have received huge attention for their chemopreventive and chemotherapy capabilities in several diseases. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a caffeic acid ester and a naturally-occurring phenolic compound in a number of plants belonging to the Lamiaceae family, such as Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) from which it was formerly isolated. RA intervenes in carcinogenesis through different ways, including in tumor cell proliferation, apoptosis, metastasis, and inflammation. On the other hand, it also exerts powerful antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and even antidepressant, anti-aging effects. The present review aims to provide an overview on anticancer activities of RA and to deliberate its therapeutic potential against a wide variety of diseases. Given the current evidence, RA may be considered as part of the daily diet in the treatment of several diseases, with pre-determined doses avoiding cytotoxicity. View Full-Text
Keywords: rosemary; rosmarinic acid; anticancer; antidiabetic; cardioprotective; antioxidant; oxidative stress rosemary; rosmarinic acid; anticancer; antidiabetic; cardioprotective; antioxidant; oxidative stress
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Nadeem, M.; Imran, M.; Aslam Gondal, T.; Imran, A.; Shahbaz, M.; Muhammad Amir, R.; Wasim Sajid, M.; Batool Qaisrani, T.; Atif, M.; Hussain, G.; Salehi, B.; Adrian Ostrander, E.; Martorell, M.; Sharifi-Rad, J.; C. Cho, W.; Martins, N. Therapeutic Potential of Rosmarinic Acid: A Comprehensive Review. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 3139.

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