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Behav. Sci., Volume 9, Issue 7 (July 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Executive functions refer to a class of cognitive processes which are crucial when a flexible [...] Read more.
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Open AccessReview
A Systematic Review on the Possible Relationship Between Bilingualism, Cognitive Decline, and the Onset of Dementia
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(7), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9070081
Received: 21 June 2019 / Revised: 17 July 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 23 July 2019
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Abstract
A systematic review was conducted to investigate whether bilingualism has a protective effect against cognitive decline in aging and can protect against dementia. We searched the Medline, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and ERIC databases with a cut-off date of 31 March 2019, thereby following the [...] Read more.
A systematic review was conducted to investigate whether bilingualism has a protective effect against cognitive decline in aging and can protect against dementia. We searched the Medline, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and ERIC databases with a cut-off date of 31 March 2019, thereby following the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) protocol. Our search resulted in 34 eligible studies. Mixed results were found with respect to the protective effect of bilingualism against cognitive decline. Several studies showed a protective effect whereas other studies failed to find it. Moreover, evidence for a delay of the onset of dementia of between 4 and 5.5 years in bilingual individuals compared to monolinguals was found in several studies, but not in all. Methodological differences in the set-up of the studies seem to explain these mixed results. Lifelong bilingualism is a complex individual process, and many factors seem to influence this and need to be further investigated. This can be best achieved through large longitudinal studies with objective behavioral and neuroimaging measurements. In conclusion, although some evidence was found for a cognitive reserve-enhancing effect of lifelong bilingualism and protection against dementia, to date, no firm conclusions can be drawn. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hospitalized Patients with Medically Unexplained Physical Symptoms: Clinical Context and Economic Costs of Healthcare Management
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(7), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9070080
Received: 29 May 2019 / Revised: 11 July 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 19 July 2019
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Abstract
Medically Unexplained Physical Symptoms (MUPS) are physical symptoms without a medical explanation. This study collected data from hospitalized patients presenting MUPS, aiming to draw a clinical and socio-demographic profile of patients with MUPS, to explore psychopathological correlations of Somatic Symptoms Disorder (SSD) diagnosis, [...] Read more.
Medically Unexplained Physical Symptoms (MUPS) are physical symptoms without a medical explanation. This study collected data from hospitalized patients presenting MUPS, aiming to draw a clinical and socio-demographic profile of patients with MUPS, to explore psychopathological correlations of Somatic Symptoms Disorder (SSD) diagnosis, and to estimate economic costs related to hospital management for MUPS. The cross-sectional study consisted in the evaluation of data referring to hospitalized patients admitted between 2008 and 2018 in a teaching hospital in Northern Italy. A total of 273 patients presenting MUPS have been hospitalized. The sample showed a prevalence of female, married and employed patients. The most frequent wards involved are Neurology, Internal Medicine and Short Unit Stay. The most common symptoms found are headache, pain, syncope and vertigo. There is no evidence that a history of medical disease is associated with a diagnosis of SSD. A personality disorder diagnosis in patients with MUPS was associated with increased probability of having a diagnosis of SSD. A marginally significant positive association emerged with anxiety disorders, but not with depressive disorder. The overall estimated cost of hospitalization for patients with MUPS is 475′409.73 €. The study provides the investigation of a large number of patients with MUPS and a financial estimate of related hospitalization costs. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Dynamic Framework for Modelling Set-Shifting Performances
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(7), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9070079
Received: 14 May 2019 / Revised: 10 July 2019 / Accepted: 12 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
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Abstract
Higher-order cognitive functions can be seen as a class of cognitive processes which are crucial in situations requiring a flexible adjustment of behaviour in response to changing demands of the environment. The cognitive assessment of these functions often relies on tasks which admit [...] Read more.
Higher-order cognitive functions can be seen as a class of cognitive processes which are crucial in situations requiring a flexible adjustment of behaviour in response to changing demands of the environment. The cognitive assessment of these functions often relies on tasks which admit a dynamic, or longitudinal, component requiring participants to flexibly adapt their behaviour during the unfolding of the task. An intriguing feature of such experimental protocols is that they allow the performance of an individual to change as the task unfolds. In this work, we propose a Latent Markov Model approach to capture some dynamic aspects of observed response patterns of both healthy and substance dependent individuals in a set-shifting task. In particular, data from a Wisconsin Card Sorting Test were analysed in order to represent performance trends in terms of latent cognitive states dynamics. The results highlighted how a dynamic modelling approach can considerably improve the amount of information a researcher, or a clinician, can obtain from the analysis of a set-shifting task. Full article
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Open AccessBrief Report
Anxiety and Depression in Adolescents with Severe Asthma and in Their Parents: Preliminary Results after 1 Year of Treatment
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(7), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9070078
Received: 19 June 2019 / Revised: 7 July 2019 / Accepted: 12 July 2019 / Published: 13 July 2019
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Abstract
Emotional problems, such as anxiety and depression, are a relevant co-morbidity in severe asthma. Anxiety and depression may also be common in the parents of asthmatic adolescents. The current study evaluated anxious and depressive symptoms in 40 adolescents suffering from severe asthma, and [...] Read more.
Emotional problems, such as anxiety and depression, are a relevant co-morbidity in severe asthma. Anxiety and depression may also be common in the parents of asthmatic adolescents. The current study evaluated anxious and depressive symptoms in 40 adolescents suffering from severe asthma, and in their parents, before and after 1 year of treatment, tailored according to validated asthma guidelines. We used the HADS (Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale) questionnaire for the adolescents, and HADS, STAY (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), and BDI (Beck Depression Inventory) questionnaires for their parents. We also considered the grade of asthma severity before and after 1 year of treatment. The current study demonstrated that anxiety and depression are common in both the adolescents suffering from severe asthma and their parents. Anxious and depressive symptoms were correlated between adolescents and their parents. Asthma treatment improved the asthma severity in almost all adolescents. However, the parental anxiety and depression remained unchanged at the end of the asthma treatment. Thus, a psychological assessment could be included in the adolescent severe asthma work-up, involving both the adolescents and their parents. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Heroin Overdose-Related Child and Adolescent Hospitalizations: Insight on Comorbid Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(7), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9070077
Received: 6 June 2019 / Revised: 10 July 2019 / Accepted: 10 July 2019 / Published: 13 July 2019
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Abstract
Objective: To evaluate the association between psychiatric comorbidities, substance use disorders and heroin overdose-related hospitalizations (HOD). Next, to understand the demographic trend of HOD hospitalizations and comorbidities. Methods: Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), we included 27,442,808 child and adolescent hospitalizations, and 1432 [...] Read more.
Objective: To evaluate the association between psychiatric comorbidities, substance use disorders and heroin overdose-related hospitalizations (HOD). Next, to understand the demographic trend of HOD hospitalizations and comorbidities. Methods: Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), we included 27,442,808 child and adolescent hospitalizations, and 1432 inpatients (0.005%) were managed primarily for HOD. The odds ratio (OR) of the association of variables in HOD inpatients were measured using a logistic regression model. Results: Adolescents had 56 times higher odds (95% CI 43.36–73.30) for HOD-related hospitalizations compared to 4.6% children under 11 years. About three-fifth of the HOD inpatients were male, and they had 1.5-fold higher odds (95% CI 1.30–1.64) compared to 43% females in the study population. Whites were considerably higher in proportion (81%) than other race/ethnicities. A greater portion of HOD inpatients (40%) were from high-income families. Most common comorbid psychiatric disorders were mood (43.8%) and anxiety (20.4%). The prevalent comorbid substance use disorders were opioid (62.4%), tobacco (36.8%) and cannabis (28.5%) use disorders. Conclusion: HOD-related hospitalizations were predominant in males, White and older adolescents (12–18 years). Prescription opioids are the bridge to heroin abuse, thereby increasing the vulnerability to other substance abuse. This requires more surveillance and should be explored to help reduce the heroin epidemic in children. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Mathematics Difficulties for Second and Third Graders: Cognitive and Psychological Parameters
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(7), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9070076
Received: 31 May 2019 / Revised: 9 July 2019 / Accepted: 10 July 2019 / Published: 12 July 2019
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Abstract
Mathematical achievement during the first years of primary school seems to be a reliable predictor of students’ later performance. In addition, cognitive, metacognitive, and psychological parameters are considered to be factors related to mathematical achievement. However, in the Greek educational system, there is [...] Read more.
Mathematical achievement during the first years of primary school seems to be a reliable predictor of students’ later performance. In addition, cognitive, metacognitive, and psychological parameters are considered to be factors related to mathematical achievement. However, in the Greek educational system, there is a shortage of valid and reliable tools for the assessment of mathematics difficulties and as a consequence, identification of children with these difficulties does not take place before the last years of primary school. This study aims to investigate the relationship between working memory, sustained attention, executive functions, and math anxiety with mathematical achievement in 2nd and 3rd graders. The design of the study was based on the parameters of mathematics difficulties, as they arise from the literature review. Ninety-one Year 2 and Year 3 primary school students (mean age 8.06 years) from three public schools situated in Attica, Greece participated in the study. The students completed three different scales including educational, cognitive, and psychological tasks. Results showed that mathematical skills were significantly correlated with sustained attention, inductive reasoning, math anxiety, and working memory. Moreover, mental arithmetic ability, sustained attention, and working memory predicted mathematical achievement of second and third graders. The study’s outcomes verify that sustained attention, inductive reasoning, working memory, and math anxiety are correlated with young students’ mathematical performance. The implications of the results for the development of an assessment tool for early detection of mathematics difficulties will be discussed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Self-Evaluation Dimensions of Criminal Activity and Prospects Simulation of Persons Serving Custodial Sentence
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(7), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9070075
Received: 30 April 2019 / Revised: 3 July 2019 / Accepted: 7 July 2019 / Published: 10 July 2019
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Abstract
The article presents the self-evaluation indicators of the causes of criminal behavior committed by persons serving a custodial sentence at X institution, focusing on imprisonment and modeling of life prospects after release from prison. The main idea of the study is to reveal [...] Read more.
The article presents the self-evaluation indicators of the causes of criminal behavior committed by persons serving a custodial sentence at X institution, focusing on imprisonment and modeling of life prospects after release from prison. The main idea of the study is to reveal the subjective self-evaluation experience of persons serving custodial sentence with regard to criminal activity and simulation of future prospects. The scientific discussion of the article presents incarcerated persons’ (N = 58) subjective self-evaluation data collected during the qualitative research and their theoretical-practical interpretation. Convicted persons’ subjective self-evaluation and prospects simulation data enable stating certain features showing the discrepancy between their disposition and achievement of resocialization goals. This confirms the insufficiently interiorized reasonableness of punishment, personal perception, and realized motivation to change. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Social Skills in Children at Home and in Preschool
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(7), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9070074
Received: 2 June 2019 / Revised: 1 July 2019 / Accepted: 3 July 2019 / Published: 8 July 2019
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Abstract
Preschool age is a crucial period for social development. Social skills acquired during this period are the basis for future life’s success. This study aimed to investigate the level of social skills in preschool children at home and in preschool and to examine [...] Read more.
Preschool age is a crucial period for social development. Social skills acquired during this period are the basis for future life’s success. This study aimed to investigate the level of social skills in preschool children at home and in preschool and to examine the association between children’s social skills and environmental and cultural backgrounds. A cross-sectional study using a multistage cluster sampling method was conducted on 546 children studying in the preschool centers of an urban area of Iran. Data were collected through demographic and social skill questionnaires from parents and teachers. Our findings showed that the social skills of girls were more than those of boys at home. Further, the majority of children had a moderate level of social skills from the parents’ and teachers’ perspectives. There was a modest parent–teacher agreement in most domains of social skills. Moreover, a statistically significant association was reported between children’s social skill domains and the child’s birth rank, father’s age, father’s job, teacher’s age, teacher’s education, teacher’s experience, and preschool classroom in terms of the numbers of children and the type of classroom. Accordingly, the risk of problems with social skills was reported to be relatively low. Therefore, more attention should be given to the family status and the teacher’s and preschool center’s characteristics to improve social skills in children. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Conduct Disorder-Related Hospitalization and Substance Use Disorders in American Teens
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(7), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9070073
Received: 20 May 2019 / Revised: 2 July 2019 / Accepted: 3 July 2019 / Published: 5 July 2019
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Abstract
Objective: Our study aimed to compare the demographic characteristics of conduct disorder (CD) inpatients versus other psychiatric inpatients in children and adolescents, and assess the association between conduct disorder patients and the spectrum of substance use disorders (SUD). Methods: We included 800,614 psychiatric [...] Read more.
Objective: Our study aimed to compare the demographic characteristics of conduct disorder (CD) inpatients versus other psychiatric inpatients in children and adolescents, and assess the association between conduct disorder patients and the spectrum of substance use disorders (SUD). Methods: We included 800,614 psychiatric adolescent (12–18 years) inpatients, and this included 8885 inpatients (1.1%) primarily for conduct disorder in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2010–2014). ICD-9 codes were used to detect SUD, and a logistic regression model was used to evaluate the odds ratio (OR) for SUD in conduct disorder inpatients. Results: A higher proportion of conduct disorder inpatients were of 12–15 years of age (62.6%), male (64.4%), and White (45.7%). The lower median household income was correlated with a higher prevalence of conduct disorder (36.4%). Among SUD, cannabis use (23.7%) was most prevalent in conduct disorder inpatients followed by tobacco and alcohol use (10.1% each). Conduct disorder inpatients have 1.7-fold higher odds (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.52–1.82) for alcohol use and 1.4-fold higher odds (95% CI 1.31–1.49) for cannabis use compared to the non-conduct disorder inpatients. Cannabis use was seen significantly in adolescents (49.1%, 12–15 years), male (75.6%), and African Americans (45.6%). Conclusion: Conduct disorder inpatients have a higher risk of comorbid SUD compared to other psychiatric illnesses. The most common substance to be abused is cannabis followed by tobacco and alcohol. Varying pattern of substance use was seen by demographics and these predictors may help the clinicians for early diagnosis and treatment to improve overall health-related quality of life. Full article
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Open AccessProtocol
The Real Happy Study: Protocol for a Prospective Assessment of the Real-World Effectiveness of the HAPIFED Program—a Healthy APproach to weIght management and Food in Eating Disorders
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(7), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9070072
Received: 16 April 2019 / Revised: 12 June 2019 / Accepted: 25 June 2019 / Published: 1 July 2019
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Abstract
The prevalence of obesity with comorbid binge eating behaviour is growing at a faster rate than that seen for either obesity or eating disorders as separate conditions. Approximately 6% of the population are affected and they potentially face a lifetime of poor physical [...] Read more.
The prevalence of obesity with comorbid binge eating behaviour is growing at a faster rate than that seen for either obesity or eating disorders as separate conditions. Approximately 6% of the population are affected and they potentially face a lifetime of poor physical and mental health outcomes and an inability to sustain long-term weight loss. Current treatment options are inadequate in that they typically address either obesity or eating disorders exclusively, not the combination of both conditions. By treating one condition without treating the other, relapse is common, and patients are often left disappointed with their lack of weight loss. An integrated approach to treating these individuals is needed to prevent a worsening of the comorbidities associated with excess body weight and eating disorders. A new therapy has recently been developed, named HAPIFED, which addresses both overweight/obesity and comorbid binge eating behaviour with the combination of behavioural weight loss therapy and cognitive behaviour therapy-enhanced (CBT-E). The aim of this paper is to document the protocol for the Real Happy Study, which will evaluate the effectiveness of the HAPIFED program in treating overweight or obesity with comorbid binge-eating behaviour in a real-world setting. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Investigating Consumer Preferences for Production Process Labeling Using Visual Attention Data
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(7), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9070071
Received: 1 June 2019 / Revised: 22 June 2019 / Accepted: 24 June 2019 / Published: 1 July 2019
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Abstract
A second-price auction with eye movement recordings was used to investigate consumer preferences for labels disclosing the presence and absence of specific types of insecticides and to explore the relationship between visual attention and consumer purchasing behaviors. Findings contribute to the literature in [...] Read more.
A second-price auction with eye movement recordings was used to investigate consumer preferences for labels disclosing the presence and absence of specific types of insecticides and to explore the relationship between visual attention and consumer purchasing behaviors. Findings contribute to the literature in the following ways. First, visual attention pattern was endogenously determined by personal knowledge and pollinator conservation activities. Less knowledgeable or less engaged participants fixated more and for longer durations on the product as a whole rather than other information. Secondly, the first and last gaze cascade effect was confirmed by identifying a significant negative impact of participants’ first and last gaze visits on neonicotinoid labels on their bid values. Third, new evidence was added to the existing literature that the link between visual attention and consumer valuation and preference may be weak. Our results suggest that visual attention could provide useful information toward understanding participants’ bidding behaviors; however, evidence indicates that visual attention measures may not be directly linked with decision making. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Neurosciences)
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Open AccessReview
A Thematic Synthesis Considering the Factors which Influence Multiple Sclerosis Related Fatigue during Physical Activity
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(7), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9070070
Received: 15 April 2019 / Revised: 4 June 2019 / Accepted: 21 June 2019 / Published: 1 July 2019
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Abstract
The purpose of this study is to consider the factors that influence fatigue related to physical activity in patients with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) and to identify the necessary adaptations undertaken by patients to remain active. A review using a thematic synthesis methodology situated [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to consider the factors that influence fatigue related to physical activity in patients with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) and to identify the necessary adaptations undertaken by patients to remain active. A review using a thematic synthesis methodology situated within a subtle realist paradigm was undertaken. The review was completed in three stages: 1) search of relevant studies; 2) critical appraisal of literature; and 3) thematic synthesis. Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria. This included a total of 263 participants of whom 243 were PwMS (159 females, 70 males and 14 unknown). The aggregated mean age was 53.3 years and aggregated mean time living with MS post diagnosis 11.3 years. Following critical appraisal, no articles were excluded. Three major themes were identified: (1) fatigue-related consequences, (2) exercise related barriers affecting fatigue, and (3) factors that make fatigue bearable for MS individuals. The thematic synthesis identified the cycle of activity and inactivity as a result of fatigue perception. Exercise experience, professional and social support, as well as the necessary adaptation of a training programme empower PwMS to adopt a more active coping strategy and enjoy the benefits of exercise. Clinicians could consider the implementation of a suitable, individualised exercise programme to reduce PwMS’s stress during physical activities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Push and Pull of Network Mobility: How Those High in Trait-Level Neuroticism Can Come to Occupy Peripheral Network Positions
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(7), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9070069
Received: 8 May 2019 / Revised: 3 June 2019 / Accepted: 5 June 2019 / Published: 28 June 2019
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Abstract
Field research shows that people’s network positions are determined, at least in part, by their traits. For instance, over time, actors higher in trait-level neuroticism move out to the network periphery. What is unknown is how this happens. Drawing on personality and social [...] Read more.
Field research shows that people’s network positions are determined, at least in part, by their traits. For instance, over time, actors higher in trait-level neuroticism move out to the network periphery. What is unknown is how this happens. Drawing on personality and social psychological theory, we generated a model that could explain the movement of actors who are higher in neuroticism. Our aim is to add to the existing empirical literature on the interplay of actor level traits and social networks, and do so using methods that can establish possible causal pathways. In four experiments, we tested two explanatory mechanisms—aversion on the part of alters and avoidance on the part of focal actors. Results showed that potential alters indeed perceived actors higher in neuroticism as aversive, leading them to block these actors from well-connected spots. Specifically, low perceived levels of likability prevented actors from being nominated to better positions. In a test of avoidance, actors higher in neuroticism recognized the benefits of better-connected network positions, but also saw them as costly, and thus, declined opportunities to occupy them. This work shows how both alters and egos can determine egos’ place in networks, and specifies how this is done. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Electroacupuncture Reduces Seizure Activity and Enhances GAD 67 and Glutamate Transporter Expression in Kainic Acid Induced Status Epilepticus in Infant Rats
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(7), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9070068
Received: 11 April 2019 / Revised: 10 June 2019 / Accepted: 21 June 2019 / Published: 27 June 2019
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Abstract
Status epilepticus (SE) is one of the most significant complications in pediatric neurology. Clinical studies have shown positive effects of electroacupuncture (EA) as a therapeutic alternative in the control of partial seizures and secondary generalized clonic seizures. EA promotes the release of neurotransmitters [...] Read more.
Status epilepticus (SE) is one of the most significant complications in pediatric neurology. Clinical studies have shown positive effects of electroacupuncture (EA) as a therapeutic alternative in the control of partial seizures and secondary generalized clonic seizures. EA promotes the release of neurotransmitters such as GABA and some opioids. The present study aimed to evaluate the anticonvulsive and neuromodulatory effects of Shui Gou DM26 (SG_DM26) acupuncture point electrostimulation on the expression of the glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) enzyme and the glutamate transporter EAAC1 in an early SE model. At ten postnatal days (10-PD), male rats weighing 22–26 g were divided into 16 groups, including control and treatment groups: Simple stimulation, electrostimulation, anticonvulsant drug treatment, and combined treatment—electrostimulation and pentobarbital (PB). SE was induced with kainic acid (KA), and the following parameters were measured: Motor behavior, and expression of GAD67 and EAAC1. The results suggest an antiepileptic effect derived from SG DM26 point EA. The possible mechanism is most likely the increased production of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA, which is observed as an increase in the expression of both GAD67 and EAAC1, as well as the potential synergy between the neuromodulator effects of EA and PB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Basic to Clinical in Behavioral Disorders)
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Open AccessArticle
Snakes Elaphe Radiata May Acquire Awareness of Their Body Limits When Trying to Hide in a Shelter
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(7), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9070067
Received: 30 April 2019 / Revised: 20 June 2019 / Accepted: 22 June 2019 / Published: 26 June 2019
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Abstract
Body awareness was studied experimentally in the rat snakes Elaphe radiata. The experimental design required that the snakes take into account the limits of their bodies when choosing a suitable hole for penetration into the shelter. The experimental setup consisted of two [...] Read more.
Body awareness was studied experimentally in the rat snakes Elaphe radiata. The experimental design required that the snakes take into account the limits of their bodies when choosing a suitable hole for penetration into the shelter. The experimental setup consisted of two compartments, a launch chamber and a shelter, separated by a partition with openings of different diameters. The diameters of the holes and/or their position in the partition were changeable. The subjects were 20 snakes divided into two groups, for one of which only the locations of the holes varied; for another, both the location of the holes and the limits of the body varied. The body was increased by feeding the snakes. In the course of the first three experimental series the snakes formed the skill of taking into account the body limits, which manifested in the reduced number of unsuccessful attempts to select holes too small for their bodies. During the fourth series, with the locations of holes randomized for each trial, the snakes demonstrated behavioral flexibility, significantly more often penetrating into the shelter from the first attempt irrespectively of the location of the suitable hole. We argue that these results demonstrate the body-awareness in snakes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Contours of Positive Mental Health: An Exploratory Delphi Study from India
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(7), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9070066
Received: 7 May 2019 / Revised: 18 June 2019 / Accepted: 21 June 2019 / Published: 26 June 2019
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Abstract
The need to broaden attention from a narrow focus on mental illness and pathology to investing in understanding and enhancing positive mental health is well recognized. The bulk of research on positive mental health tends to be largely based onwestern developed nationconceptualizations. This [...] Read more.
The need to broaden attention from a narrow focus on mental illness and pathology to investing in understanding and enhancing positive mental health is well recognized. The bulk of research on positive mental health tends to be largely based onwestern developed nationconceptualizations. This highlights the need to examine the construct of positive mental health in diverse socio-cultural contexts. Present study aimed at exploring indicators and dimensions of positive mental health in Indian adults. A two-step Delphi technique, involving a vignette-based tool was used for facilitating a contextualised understanding of indicators of positive mental health. The sample consisted of a panel of 35 experts from different regions of India, majority of whom had >10 years of professional experience. Using a bottom-up approach, content analysis of the emergent data in terms of responses of experts to 10 vignettes resulted in identification and operationalisation of 33 indicators which could be grouped under 13 dimensions. Comparisons with popular well-being frameworks indicated that eight of these could be considered newer dimensions. Though the remaining dimensions significantly overlapped with existing dimensions of well-being in the western literature; finer differences in their meanings and constituents were observed. Finding have implications for further research. Full article
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