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Behav. Sci., Volume 9, Issue 8 (August 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The development of technology and the widespread use of the Internet have brought about new forms [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Attentional Control in Bilingualism: An Exploration of the Effects of Trait Anxiety and Rumination on Inhibition
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(8), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9080089 - 19 Aug 2019
Viewed by 630
Abstract
Bilingual individuals have been reported to show enhanced executive function in comparison to monolingual peers. However, the role of adverse emotional traits such as trait anxiety and rumination in bilingual cognitive control has not been established. Attentional Control Theory holds that anxiety disproportionately [...] Read more.
Bilingual individuals have been reported to show enhanced executive function in comparison to monolingual peers. However, the role of adverse emotional traits such as trait anxiety and rumination in bilingual cognitive control has not been established. Attentional Control Theory holds that anxiety disproportionately impacts processing efficiency (typically measured via reaction time) in comparison to accuracy (performance effectiveness). We administered eye tracking and behavioural measures of inhibition to young, healthy monolingual and highly proficient bilingual adults. We found that trait anxiety was a reliable risk factor for decreased inhibitory control accuracy in bilingual but not monolingual participants. These findings, therefore, indicate that adverse emotional traits may differentially modulate performance in monolingual and bilingual individuals, an interpretation which has implications both for ACT and future research on bilingual cognition. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An EEG Study on Emotional Intelligence and Advertising Message Effectiveness
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(8), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9080088 - 15 Aug 2019
Viewed by 569
Abstract
Some electroencephalography (EEG) studies have investigated emotional intelligence (EI), but none have examined the relationships between EI and commercial advertising messages and related consumer behaviors. This study combines brain (EEG) techniques with an EI psychometric to explore the brain responses associated with a [...] Read more.
Some electroencephalography (EEG) studies have investigated emotional intelligence (EI), but none have examined the relationships between EI and commercial advertising messages and related consumer behaviors. This study combines brain (EEG) techniques with an EI psychometric to explore the brain responses associated with a range of advertisements. A group of 45 participants (23 females, 22 males) had their EEG recorded while watching a series of advertisements selected from various marketing categories such as community interests, celebrities, food/drink, and social issues. Participants were also categorized as high or low in emotional intelligence (n = 34). The EEG data analysis was centered on rating decision-making in order to measure brain responses associated with advertising information processing for both groups. The findings suggest that participants with high and low emotional intelligence (EI) were attentive to different types of advertising messages. The two EI groups demonstrated preferences for “people” or “object,” related advertising information. This suggests that differences in consumer perception and emotions may suggest why certain advertising material or marketing strategies are effective or not. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Mindfulness Meditation and Fantasy Relaxation in a Group Setting Leads to a Diminished Sense of Self and an Increased Present Orientation
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(8), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9080087 - 15 Aug 2019
Viewed by 665
Abstract
(1) Background: Mind-body interventions (MBI), such as meditation or other relaxation techniques, have become the focus of attention in the clinical and health sciences. Differences in the effects of induction techniques are being increasingly investigated. (2) Methods: Here, we compared changes in the [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Mind-body interventions (MBI), such as meditation or other relaxation techniques, have become the focus of attention in the clinical and health sciences. Differences in the effects of induction techniques are being increasingly investigated. (2) Methods: Here, we compared changes in the individual experience of time, space, and self in 44 students in an integrative health-promotion program. They participated in a study employing mindfulness meditation and a relaxation intervention with one week between sessions, thus employing a within-subjects design. (3) Results: No significant differences were detected when subjective reports were compared directly after each intervention. However, we found significant sequence effects between t1 and t2, independent of the meditation type. The sense of self diminished, the present orientation increased, and the past and future orientations decreased in both interventions. (4) Conclusions: We propose using scales to assess subjective time, self, and space as basic constituents of experience to measure the specificity of intervention methods, as well as longitudinal changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mind–Body Interventions for Psychological and Cognitive Benefits)
Open AccessArticle
Shifting Gear in the Study of the Bilingual Advantage: Language Switching Examined as a Possible Moderator
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(8), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9080086 - 15 Aug 2019
Viewed by 551
Abstract
The bilingual advantage is a heavily debated topic in research on bilingualism. The current study further investigated one specific aspect of bilingualism proposed to be a determining factor for the bilingual advantage, namely language switching behaviour. We investigated whether a bilingual advantage can [...] Read more.
The bilingual advantage is a heavily debated topic in research on bilingualism. The current study further investigated one specific aspect of bilingualism proposed to be a determining factor for the bilingual advantage, namely language switching behaviour. We investigated whether a bilingual advantage can be detected in the executive functions of inhibition and shifting by comparing monolingual and bilingual participants on a Simon task and a colour–shape switching task. Furthermore, we examined the relation between these executive functions and language switching proficiency, as measured by a semantic verbal fluency task. In addition, the current study set out to investigate the convergence of self-reported language switching estimates and actual language switching proficiency. Results revealed a bilingual advantage for shifting, but not for inhibition. However, this bilingual advantage for shifting was not related to language switching behaviour. Additionally, we were unable to identify a relation between objective and subjective measures of switching abilities. These findings seem to confirm the existence of a bilingual advantage, but also once again validate its elusiveness, as demonstrated by the absence of bilingual benefits on our measure of inhibition. It furthermore questions the validity of switching measures employed in previous studies. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Peer Status Position within School-Based Hierarchies and Excessive Fat Accumulation in Adulthood—A 30 Year Follow up of a Stockholm Cohort
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(8), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9080085 - 09 Aug 2019
Viewed by 939
Abstract
Disadvantaged socioeconomic status is arguably the one exposure that has most consistently been linked to obesity, even more strongly so than diet and physical inactivity, which are the two main perceived root causes of weight gain. However, we still know very little about [...] Read more.
Disadvantaged socioeconomic status is arguably the one exposure that has most consistently been linked to obesity, even more strongly so than diet and physical inactivity, which are the two main perceived root causes of weight gain. However, we still know very little about the relationship between having a disadvantaged social position and excessive fat accumulation, particularly when it comes to whether the relationship in question can also be seen as a long-term one, i.e., spanning from childhood to adulthood. By making use of the unique Stockholm Birth Cohort Multigenerational Study, the present study uses generalized ordered logistic regressions to examine the association between sociometrically assessed peer status position in school at age 13 and excessive fat accumulation at age 32. The results suggest that the odds of having excessive fat accumulation are about 0.5 times lower among popular and accepted children (ORs = 0.52 and 0.56, respectively), compared to those with a marginalized peer status position, independent of other obesogenic risk factors measured both prior and subsequent to peer status position. Our results give support to the notion that improved weight status may be another positive consequence of policies aiming to increase social inclusion within schools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Influence of Childhood Conditions on the Whole Life)
Open AccessArticle
Effectiveness of a Motor Intervention Program on Motivation and Learning of English Vocabulary in Preschoolers: A Pilot Study
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(8), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9080084 - 05 Aug 2019
Viewed by 714
Abstract
(1) Background: Linking physical activity to the teaching of curricular contents provides numerous motivational and emotional benefits which improve academic performance and lead to the improvement and creation of healthy habits from an early age. (2) Method: The objective of the study is [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Linking physical activity to the teaching of curricular contents provides numerous motivational and emotional benefits which improve academic performance and lead to the improvement and creation of healthy habits from an early age. (2) Method: The objective of the study is to analyze the effectiveness of a 5-week intervention program based on the use of a combined methodology of physical activity and gestures on motivation and vocabulary learning in English. The sample of children was aged from 4 to 7 years and was recruited from three children’s centers in Tegucigalpa, Honduras. A quasi-experimentalstudy was carried out using a pretest–posttest design in a sample (n = 88). (3) Results: Statistically significant results were obtained in the learning of words through the combined methodology of gestures and motor activity, compared to the traditional methodology used in the control group. (4) Conclusions: The main conclusions are that motor and expressive activities at an early age can be an effective motivational resource that promotes an increase in children’s physical activity time in the classroom. Further, it improves academic performance, producing a more effective learning of the vocabulary of a second language. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle
Exercise Intensity Influences Prefrontal Cortex Oxygenation during Cognitive Testing
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(8), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9080083 - 26 Jul 2019
Viewed by 890
Abstract
Activation changes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) regions have been linked to acute exercise-induced improvements in cognitive performance. The type of exercise performed may influence PFC activation, and further impact cognitive function. The present study aimed to compare PFC activation during cognitive testing [...] Read more.
Activation changes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) regions have been linked to acute exercise-induced improvements in cognitive performance. The type of exercise performed may influence PFC activation, and further impact cognitive function. The present study aimed to compare PFC activation during cognitive testing after moderate-intensity, high intensity, and yoga exercises, and to determine if PFC activation is linked to cognitive performance. Eight subjects (four male and four female), aged 35 ± 5 completed a control, high intensity, moderate intensity, and yoga exercises followed by administration of a cognitive task (NIH Toolbox Fluid Cognition). Left and right PFC activation (LPFC and RPFC, respectively) were evaluated by measuring hemoglobin difference (Hbdiff) changes during post-exercise cognitive assessment using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Activation during the cognitive test was higher in the LPFC after moderate intensity exercise compared to control, high intensity, and yoga (5.30 ± 6.65 vs. 2.26 ± 2.40, 2.50 ± 1.48, 2.41 ± 2.36 μM, p < 0.05, respectively). A negative relationship was detected between LPFC and processing speed after exercise. PFC activation did not align with cognitive performance. However, acute exercise, regardless of type, appeared to alter neural processing. Specifically, less PFC activation was required for a given neural output after exercise. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Use of Digital Technologies, Impulsivity and Psychopathological Symptoms in Adolescence
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(8), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9080082 - 24 Jul 2019
Viewed by 939
Abstract
Background and aims: Past research on the associations between psychopathological symptoms and technological-based addictions, i.e., Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) and Social Media Addiction (SMA), showed contradictory results in adolescents and adult populations. The present study investigated correlations between adolescents’ psychopathological risks and impulsivity, [...] Read more.
Background and aims: Past research on the associations between psychopathological symptoms and technological-based addictions, i.e., Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) and Social Media Addiction (SMA), showed contradictory results in adolescents and adult populations. The present study investigated correlations between adolescents’ psychopathological risks and impulsivity, IGD and SMA. Methods: A sample of 656 participants (338 males; Mage = 16.32 years) was divided into three age groups (early, mid-, and late adolescence) and completed a battery of scales comprising the (i) Internet Gaming Disorder Scale–Short Form, (ii) Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale, (iii) Barratt Impulsiveness Scale for Adolescents, and (iv) Symptom Checklist-90-R. Results: The significance of the correlations was not corroborated in the basic tables. Significant associations appeared only in the adolescent subgroups, sometimes for bivariate and sometimes for partial correlations and with different patterns of associations between males and females. Moreover, both technological addictions were correlated with impulsiveness in bivariate and partial correlations. Discussion and conclusions: Following a developmentally-oriented approach to determine the patterns of associations between technological behavioral addictions and psychopathology in the specific sub-phases of early-, mid- and late-adolescence, this exploratory research showed how these associations might change depending on the developmental phase and gender of the individual. Future research is needed to provide empirical evidence of specific emotional–psychopathological correlations. Full article
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