Special Issue "From Basic to Clinical in Behavioral Disorders"

A special issue of Behavioral Sciences (ISSN 2076-328X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 August 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Maria De los Angeles Robinson Agramonte
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Guest Editor
International Center for Neurological Restoration, Havana, Cuba
Interests: neuroinflammation, neurodegenerative disorder, Huntington's disease, demyelinating diseases, multiple sclerosis, neurophysiology, sleep and cognitive disorders, epilepsy, neurodevelopmental disorders, autism
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Teresa Serrano Sanchez
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Guest Editor
International Center for Neurological Restoration
Interests: neuroinflammation; neurodegenerative disorder; Huntington’s disease; demyelinating diseases; multiple sclerosis; neurophysiology; sleep and cognitive disorders; epilepsy
Prof. Dr. Carlos Alberto Gonçalves
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Guest Editor
Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil
Interests: astroglial response; neuroinflammation; neural plasticity; neurodegenerative diseases; signaling transduction pathway
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue, entitled “From Basic to Clinical in Behavioral Disorders”, aims to provide a summary of the relevant topics in neurology and behavioral disorders, with quality and impact in the field of clinical and preclinical neuroscience. Topics to be published include aspects of  neuroimmunology, neuroinflammation, neuroimmunology, neurophysiology glial reaction, biomarkers, neurointervention in connection with neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders, epilepsy, demyelinating diseases, and cognitive and sleep dysfunction, among others. Others papers from clinical and basic research that explore the mechanisms underlying brain damage and neuroplasticity in neurological disorders such as autism, multiple sclerosis and NMO, epilepsy, stroke, Huntington’s disease, aging, and age-related neurological disorders are also relevant topics to this issue.

Prof. Dr. Maria de los Angeles Robinson Agramonte
Prof. Dr. Teresa Serrano Sanchez
Prof. Dr. Carlos Alberto Gonçalves
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Behavioral Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • neurodevelopmental disorders
  • neuroinflammation
  • epigenetic and gene expression
  • neurophysiology
  • neuroinmunology
  • neurointervention
  • epilepsy
  • neural plasticity

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Cerebral Small Vessel Disease Associated with Subclinical Vascular Damage Indicators in Asymptomatic Hypertensive Patients
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(9), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9090091 - 22 Aug 2019
Abstract
Background: Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is frequent in patients with cardiovascular risk factors including arterial hypertension, and it is associated with vascular damage in other organs and the risk of stroke, cognitive impairment, and dementia. Early diagnosis of CSVD could prevent [...] Read more.
Background: Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is frequent in patients with cardiovascular risk factors including arterial hypertension, and it is associated with vascular damage in other organs and the risk of stroke, cognitive impairment, and dementia. Early diagnosis of CSVD could prevent deleterious consequences. Objective: To characterize CSVD associated with indicators of subclinical vascular damage in asymptomatic hypertensive patients. Materials and Methods: Participants were hypertensive (HT) and non-hypertensive (non-HT) individuals; without signs of cerebrovascular disease, dementia, and chronic renal failure. For CSVD, white matter hyperintensities (WMH), enlarged Virchow–Robin perivascular spaces (EVRPS), lacunar infarcts, and microbleeds were investigated. Subclinical vascular damage was evaluated (hypertensive retinopathy, microalbuminuria, and extracranial carotid morphology: intima media thickness (IMT) and atheroma plaque). Results: CSVD MRI findings were more frequent in HT; as well as greater intimal thickening. The IMT and/or plaque was significantly associated with all MRI variables; but retinopathy was correlated with EVRPS and lacunar infarcts. Only microalbuminuria was related to the greater severity of WMH in HT. Multivariate analysis evidenced that CSVD was independently associated with the combination of indicators of vascular damage and systolic blood pressure. Conclusions: Combining indicators of subclinical vascular damage, such as carotid morphological variables, microalbuminuria, and hypertensive retinopathy for early detection of CSVD in asymptomatic hypertensive patients could prove to be useful to take actions for the prevention of irreversible brain damage, which could lead to cognitive impairment, dementia and stroke. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Basic to Clinical in Behavioral Disorders)
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Open AccessArticle
Electroacupuncture Reduces Seizure Activity and Enhances GAD 67 and Glutamate Transporter Expression in Kainic Acid Induced Status Epilepticus in Infant Rats
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(7), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9070068 - 27 Jun 2019
Abstract
Status epilepticus (SE) is one of the most significant complications in pediatric neurology. Clinical studies have shown positive effects of electroacupuncture (EA) as a therapeutic alternative in the control of partial seizures and secondary generalized clonic seizures. EA promotes the release of neurotransmitters [...] Read more.
Status epilepticus (SE) is one of the most significant complications in pediatric neurology. Clinical studies have shown positive effects of electroacupuncture (EA) as a therapeutic alternative in the control of partial seizures and secondary generalized clonic seizures. EA promotes the release of neurotransmitters such as GABA and some opioids. The present study aimed to evaluate the anticonvulsive and neuromodulatory effects of Shui Gou DM26 (SG_DM26) acupuncture point electrostimulation on the expression of the glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) enzyme and the glutamate transporter EAAC1 in an early SE model. At ten postnatal days (10-PD), male rats weighing 22–26 g were divided into 16 groups, including control and treatment groups: Simple stimulation, electrostimulation, anticonvulsant drug treatment, and combined treatment—electrostimulation and pentobarbital (PB). SE was induced with kainic acid (KA), and the following parameters were measured: Motor behavior, and expression of GAD67 and EAAC1. The results suggest an antiepileptic effect derived from SG DM26 point EA. The possible mechanism is most likely the increased production of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA, which is observed as an increase in the expression of both GAD67 and EAAC1, as well as the potential synergy between the neuromodulator effects of EA and PB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Basic to Clinical in Behavioral Disorders)
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Open AccessArticle
Association Between Quantitative Electroencephalogram Frequency Composition and Post-Surgical Evolution in Pharmacoresistant Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Patients
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9030023 - 04 Mar 2019
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to estimate the association between quantitative electroencephalogram frequency composition (QEEGC) and post-surgical evolution in patients with pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and to evaluate the predictive value of QEEGC before and after surgery. A prospective, longitudinal study [...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper is to estimate the association between quantitative electroencephalogram frequency composition (QEEGC) and post-surgical evolution in patients with pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and to evaluate the predictive value of QEEGC before and after surgery. A prospective, longitudinal study was made at International Neurological Restoration Center, Havana, Cuba. Twenty-nine patients with TLE submitted to epilepsy surgery were evaluated before surgery, and six months and two years after. They were classified as unsatisfactory and satisfactory post-surgical clinical evolution using the Modified Engels Scale. Eighty-seven electroencephalograms with quantitative narrow- and broad-band measures were analyzed. A Mann Whitney test (p > 0.05) showed that QEEGC before surgery was similar between groups independently of two years post-surgical evolution. A Mann Whitney test (p ˂ 0.05) showed that subjects with two years satisfactory post-surgical evolution had greater alpha power compared to subjects with two years unsatisfactory post-surgical evolution that showed greater theta power. A Wilcoxon test (p ˂ 0.05) showed that alpha and theta power increased for two groups from pre-surgical state to post-surgical state. Logit regression (p ˂ 0.05) showed that six months after surgery, quantitative electroencephalogram frequency value with the greatest power at occipital regions shows predictive value for two years evolution. QEEGC can be a tool to predict the outcome of epilepsy surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Basic to Clinical in Behavioral Disorders)
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Open AccessArticle
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) in Psychogenic Non-Epileptic Seizures (PNES): A Case Report and Literature Review
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9020015 - 29 Jan 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are classified as a somatoform conversion disorder. We present a case of a 24-year-old male with a past psychiatric history of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and anxiety disorder, admitted to our inpatient psychiatric unit. The patient experienced multiple episodes [...] Read more.
Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are classified as a somatoform conversion disorder. We present a case of a 24-year-old male with a past psychiatric history of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and anxiety disorder, admitted to our inpatient psychiatric unit. The patient experienced multiple episodes of seizures during hospitalization. Work up was unremarkable, and PNES were suspected and later confirmed with video-electroencephalography (video-EEG). He underwent supervised withdrawal of antiepileptic medications with the initiation of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), which reduced the frequency of seizures. Diagnosis of PNES can present as a challenge and failure to diagnose its psychological nature can lead to a delay in the psychological intervention. CBT leads to a decrease in seizure frequency, and improvement in psychiatric symptoms, psychosocial functioning, and quality of life. It is important to consider PNES in the differential diagnosis of seizures presented by psychiatric patients, as CBT is necessary for better patient outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Basic to Clinical in Behavioral Disorders)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Subjective Assessment of Sleep in Infantile Autism: A Comparative Study
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9020012 - 24 Jan 2019
Abstract
Sleep disturbances are very common in children with autism; it is for this reason that instruments that facilitate their evaluation are necessary. Objectives: Perform sleep assessment from a subjective perspective in a group of children with primary autism and compare them with a [...] Read more.
Sleep disturbances are very common in children with autism; it is for this reason that instruments that facilitate their evaluation are necessary. Objectives: Perform sleep assessment from a subjective perspective in a group of children with primary autism and compare them with a control group, using the Sleep Habits in Children Survey (CSHQ), with the purpose of determining sleep disturbances according to the subscales used. Method: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in a group of 21 patients with primary autism. For the evaluation of sleep disturbances, we chose the CSHQ survey. The differences between the independent groups were calculated by applying a Mann–Whitney U test. Results: In the group of children with autism, higher values of the total scale were observed in comparison with the control group (p = 0.00) which It is congruent with a large sleep dysfunction. Significant differences were observed for all subscales (p = 0.00), with the exception of the subscale number 7. Conclusions: A high presence of sleep disturbances was observed in children with primary autism, with the exception of sleep breathing disorders, which did not show significant differences between the groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Basic to Clinical in Behavioral Disorders)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Sleep Macrostructure in Patients Diagnosed with Parkinson’s Disease
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9010006 - 08 Jan 2019
Abstract
Patients diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease present sleep disorders with a higher frequency than the general population. The sleep architecture in these patients shows variations with respect to the normal population, so in this work it was decided to investigate the characteristics of the [...] Read more.
Patients diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease present sleep disorders with a higher frequency than the general population. The sleep architecture in these patients shows variations with respect to the normal population, so in this work it was decided to investigate the characteristics of the macroarchitecture of sleep in patients diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease. A polysomnographic study was carried out on 77 patients diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease. All the studies were processed according to the AASM Manual for the Scoring of Sleep and Associated Events v.2.2, and to the criteria of the International Classification of Sleep Disorders 3rd ed. (2014). Processing was carried out using descriptive statistics, as well as non-parametric analysis for comparison between cases and controls. The group of patients showed significant reductions of the N2, N3, and REM sleep stages when compared with a control group, as well as a significant increase in intra-sleep wakefulness. The number of REM–NoREM sleep cycles and sleep efficiency showed marked reduction compared to the control group. There was a statistically significant difference in the macroarchitecture of sleep between patients diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease and healthy controls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Basic to Clinical in Behavioral Disorders)
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Open AccessBrief Report
Neuroinflammation and Neuromodulation in Neurological Diseases
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(9), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9090099 - 12 Sep 2019
Abstract
Neuroimmunology is a relatively young science. This discipline has emerged today from the research field as a mature and fully developed innovative research area that integrates not only pure topics of neuroimmunology, but also expands on wider fields such as neuroplasticity, neuronal reserve [...] Read more.
Neuroimmunology is a relatively young science. This discipline has emerged today from the research field as a mature and fully developed innovative research area that integrates not only pure topics of neuroimmunology, but also expands on wider fields such as neuroplasticity, neuronal reserve and neuromodulation in association with clinical events, amongst which behavioral disorders stand out. The Cuban School of Neuroimmunology—a recent meeting that took place in Havana, Cuba—focused on topics based on the molecular mechanisms of neuroinflammation in neurological disorders involving behavioral manifestations, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), autism, cerebellar ataxias, Alzheimer´s disease and stroke among others, as well as on the use of new interventional technologies in neurology. Professor Luis Velazquez, from the Cuban Academy of Sciences, dictated an interesting lecture on Spinocerebellar ataxias, a genetic disorder where recent hypotheses related to the influence of neuroinflammation as a neurobiological factor influencing the progression of this disease have emerged. At the same time, the use of new interventional technologies in neurology was discussed, including those referring to novel disease modifying therapies in the course of MS and the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation in several neurological diseases, the latter reinforcing how interventional strategies in the form of non-invasive bran stimulation can contribute to physical rehabilitation in neurology. This paper summarizes the highlights of the most relevant topics presented during the First Cuban School of Neuroimmunology, organized by the Cuban Network of Neuroimmunology, held in June 2019. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Basic to Clinical in Behavioral Disorders)
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Open AccessCase Report
Spontaneous Subdural Hematoma and Behavioral Changes Due to a Dural Arteriovenous Fistula. A Case Report and Literature Review
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(6), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9060063 - 14 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) represent 10–15% of intracranial arteriovenous malformations. Of these, only 12–29% cause intracranial hemorrhage. The presentation of DAVF as a subdural hematoma (SDH) and intraparenchymal hemorrhage (IPH) is infrequent; additionally, behavioral changes are not common among these patients. We report, [...] Read more.
Dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) represent 10–15% of intracranial arteriovenous malformations. Of these, only 12–29% cause intracranial hemorrhage. The presentation of DAVF as a subdural hematoma (SDH) and intraparenchymal hemorrhage (IPH) is infrequent; additionally, behavioral changes are not common among these patients. We report, for the first time in our country, the case of a 23-year-old man with no history of head injury, in which a brain computed tomography (CT) scan revealed SDH and IPH with behavioral disturbances. The angiotomography showed ecstatic venous vessels, indicating the presence of a DAVF, which was later confirmed by cerebral angiography. Endovascular therapy, which followed the clinical diagnosis, resulted in satisfactory evolution two years after treatment. A review of the literature concerning cases with DAVF and behavioral disturbances is presented. DAVF may lead to cognitive impairment, behavioral changes, and dementia as a result of diffuse white matter and thalamus modifications related to venous ischemia, and it should be considered as a reversible cause of vascular dementia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Basic to Clinical in Behavioral Disorders)
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