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Behav. Sci., Volume 9, Issue 6 (June 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
A Relational View of Psychological Empowerment and Sense of Community in Academic Contexts: A Preliminary Study
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(6), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9060065
Received: 23 April 2019 / Revised: 10 June 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 18 June 2019
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Abstract
Scholars need to pay attention to understand the factors that shape the interactions between individuals and social groups. Constructs like Psychological Sense of Community (PSoC) and Psychological Empowerment (PE) are powerful constructs used to evaluate the antecedents and the consequences of individual attachment [...] Read more.
Scholars need to pay attention to understand the factors that shape the interactions between individuals and social groups. Constructs like Psychological Sense of Community (PSoC) and Psychological Empowerment (PE) are powerful constructs used to evaluate the antecedents and the consequences of individual attachment to social settings. In parallel, recent advances in network analysis show that the position occupied within whole networks and ego-centric networks are relational factors that affect the subjective perception of membership to social groups. Studies that are conducted in organizational and community settings show strong associations between PSoC and PE. However, these connections have rarely been evaluated within natural settings such as the classroom context. On the other hand, although the theoretic basis of PSoC and PE claims that both processes are formed in a relational way, there are few studies that empirically evaluate the effects of social connectedness on the emergence of PSoC—referred to the classroom—and PE referred to academic-task development. The aim of this research is to determine the effects that the position occupied in formal and informal exchange networks induce on PSoC and PE dimensions. Sixty-four students enrolled in a master degree program (women = 68.8%, Mean age = 26.09, SD = 3.88) participated in this cross-sectional study. Multivariate analyses and network analyses were performed to test the hypotheses under study. The main research finding is that PSoC and PE are synergistic constructs that mutually shape to each other. In relational terms, by sending several nominations in informal networks, it is possible to generate notable impacts on some PSoC dimensions, while receipt of a wide number of nominations in formal contact networks is associated with high levels of PE. In addition, individuals who present high levels of PE are located in the core of formal exchange networks. These results are discussed in order to design actions to increase PSoC and PE in postgraduate academic settings. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Factors that Promote Resilience in Homeless Children and Adolescents in Ghana: A Qualitative Study
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(6), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9060064
Received: 28 April 2019 / Revised: 30 May 2019 / Accepted: 31 May 2019 / Published: 18 June 2019
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Abstract
Several studies conducted on street youth have focused on causes of homelessness, their engagement in risky sexual behaviours and the prevalence of STIs, including HIV/AIDS. Although homeless youth are considered resilient, sparse literature exists on factors that promote resilience in this vulnerable group. [...] Read more.
Several studies conducted on street youth have focused on causes of homelessness, their engagement in risky sexual behaviours and the prevalence of STIs, including HIV/AIDS. Although homeless youth are considered resilient, sparse literature exists on factors that promote resilience in this vulnerable group. Using a qualitative approach, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 purposively selected homeless children and youth (with a mean age of 14 years) from the Central Business District of Accra, Ghana. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Findings showed that a strong religious belief, sense of humour, engagement in meaningful social interactive activities, reciprocal friendship, adherence to cultural norms and support from community-based organizations were identified as factors that help homeless youth cope with the multiple challenges of street life. Strengthening such protective factors could help ameliorate the impact of adverse conditions of these street youth. Full article
Open AccessCase Report
Spontaneous Subdural Hematoma and Behavioral Changes Due to a Dural Arteriovenous Fistula. A Case Report and Literature Review
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(6), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9060063
Received: 5 February 2019 / Revised: 17 May 2019 / Accepted: 6 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
Dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) represent 10–15% of intracranial arteriovenous malformations. Of these, only 12–29% cause intracranial hemorrhage. The presentation of DAVF as a subdural hematoma (SDH) and intraparenchymal hemorrhage (IPH) is infrequent; additionally, behavioral changes are not common among these patients. We report, [...] Read more.
Dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) represent 10–15% of intracranial arteriovenous malformations. Of these, only 12–29% cause intracranial hemorrhage. The presentation of DAVF as a subdural hematoma (SDH) and intraparenchymal hemorrhage (IPH) is infrequent; additionally, behavioral changes are not common among these patients. We report, for the first time in our country, the case of a 23-year-old man with no history of head injury, in which a brain computed tomography (CT) scan revealed SDH and IPH with behavioral disturbances. The angiotomography showed ecstatic venous vessels, indicating the presence of a DAVF, which was later confirmed by cerebral angiography. Endovascular therapy, which followed the clinical diagnosis, resulted in satisfactory evolution two years after treatment. A review of the literature concerning cases with DAVF and behavioral disturbances is presented. DAVF may lead to cognitive impairment, behavioral changes, and dementia as a result of diffuse white matter and thalamus modifications related to venous ischemia, and it should be considered as a reversible cause of vascular dementia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Basic to Clinical in Behavioral Disorders)
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Open AccessReview
Neurobiological Risk Factors for the Development of Internet Addiction in Adolescents
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(6), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9060062
Received: 13 April 2019 / Revised: 28 May 2019 / Accepted: 31 May 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
The sudden appearance and spread of Internet addiction in adolescent populations, in association with the rapid escalation of consumed Internet content and the broad availability of smartphones and tablets with Internet access, is posing a new challenge for classical addictology which requires urgent [...] Read more.
The sudden appearance and spread of Internet addiction in adolescent populations, in association with the rapid escalation of consumed Internet content and the broad availability of smartphones and tablets with Internet access, is posing a new challenge for classical addictology which requires urgent solutions. Like the majority of other psychopathological conditions, pathological Internet addiction depends upon a group of multifactor polygenic conditions. For each specific case, there is a unique combination of inherited characteristics (nervous tissue structure, secretion, degradation, and reception of neuromediators), and many are extra-environment factors (family-related, social, and ethnic-cultural). One of the main challenges in the development of the bio-psychosocial model of Internet addiction is to determine which genes and neuromediators are responsible for increased addiction susceptibility. This information will herald the start of a search for new therapeutic targets and the development of early prevention strategies, including the assessment of genetic risk levels. This review summarizes the literature and currently available knowledge related to neurobiological risk factors regarding Internet addiction in adolescents. Genetic, neurochemical and neuroimaging data are presented with links to actual pathogenetic hypotheses according to the bio-psychosocial model of IA forming. Full article
Open AccessReview
The Role of Nurses and the Facilitators and Barriers in Diabetes Care: A Mixed Methods Systematic Literature Review
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(6), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9060061
Received: 13 April 2019 / Revised: 10 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
Background: The aim of this review is to identify the roles and activities of nurses working with people with diabetes and to examine the facilitators and barriers in caring for such people. Methods: A systematic review was conducted. From 531 abstracts reviewed, 29 [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this review is to identify the roles and activities of nurses working with people with diabetes and to examine the facilitators and barriers in caring for such people. Methods: A systematic review was conducted. From 531 abstracts reviewed, 29 studies were included (18 studies comprised questionnaire surveys, one was an intervention study, two used both questionnaires and interviews, and eight of them used interviews). Barriers and facilitators were extracted and combined using qualitative synthesis. Results: The literature review revealed three major roles and a number of barriers. A model for achieving enhanced nursing care of patients with diabetes has been developed according to the findings of this literature. Specifically, a stepladder suggesting that through better nursing training and education and by providing adequate resources, time, and synergies to diabetes specialists, nurses will be able to correctly perform their diabetes care roles, which include patient education, advanced care, and psychological support. Conclusions: Taking into serious consideration that a large number of hospital users are people with diabetes and that there is an inconsistency among countries about the work settings of Diabetes Specialist Nurses (DSNs), it is important to give greater focus to inpatient care and perhaps to enhance nurses’ roles by eliminating any barriers that prevent them from providing adequate quality care. Furthermore, integrated care involving the role of DSNs within the inpatient care would have been more beneficial for patients. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Speech-Stimulating Substances in Autism Spectrum Disorders
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(6), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9060060
Received: 24 May 2019 / Revised: 10 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 12 June 2019
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Abstract
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by the core domains of persistent deficits in social communication and restricted-repetitive patterns of behaviors, interests, or activities. A heterogeneous and complex set of neurodevelopmental conditions are grouped in the spectrum. Pro-inflammatory events and immune system dysfunctions [...] Read more.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by the core domains of persistent deficits in social communication and restricted-repetitive patterns of behaviors, interests, or activities. A heterogeneous and complex set of neurodevelopmental conditions are grouped in the spectrum. Pro-inflammatory events and immune system dysfunctions are cellular and molecular events associated with ASD. Several conditions co-occur with ASD: seizures, gastro-intestinal problems, attention deficit, anxiety and depression, and sleep problems. However, language and speech issues are key components of ASD symptoms current therapies find difficult to face. Several speech-stimulating substances have been shown to be effective in increasing speech ability in ASD subjects. The need for large clinical trials to determine safety and efficacy is recommended. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Relationship between Academic Stress, Physical Activity and Diet in University Students of Education
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(6), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9060059
Received: 10 April 2019 / Revised: 21 May 2019 / Accepted: 2 June 2019 / Published: 5 June 2019
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Abstract
(1) Background: Several research works have shown the relationship between physical activity (PA), adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) and health. Nevertheless, there are few studies that demonstrate the relationship of these habits with academic performance, and specifically with academic stress. (2) Methods: [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Several research works have shown the relationship between physical activity (PA), adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) and health. Nevertheless, there are few studies that demonstrate the relationship of these habits with academic performance, and specifically with academic stress. (2) Methods: This descriptive, non-experimental, and cross-sectional study aims to analyse the associations between these variables in a sample composed of 515 university students, using as main instruments the KIDMED, PAQ-A and the Scale of Academic Stress. (3) Results: The university students analysed showed higher levels of academic stress for women, and especially in the academic obligations and communication of own ideas. In addition, it was shown that those university students that had a body mass index (BMI) associated with being overweight or under-weight were the respondents with higher levels of stress. Finally, the students with a low adherence to MD had higher scores for stress associated with the communication of their own ideas, while PA was not related to academic stress. When sex and BMI variables were controlled in the regression model, no associations were obtained between stress and diet quality. (4) Conclusions: This study shows interesting implications in the treatment of academic stress. Although stress was not associated with diet and physical activity, it was linked to a worse state of health associated with states of being overweight, being of special interest the treatment of stress in women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
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