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Volume 11, April

Behav. Sci., Volume 11, Issue 5 (May 2021) – 16 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Effects of General Fatigue Induced by Exhaustive Exercise on Posture and Gait Stability of Healthy Young Men
by , , , , and
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(5), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs11050072 (registering DOI) - 08 May 2021
Abstract
Bipedal walking is a composite task requiring integration of many control circuitries in the brain and spinal cord. The present study was carried out to verify whether an increase in blood lactate, such as that associated with a high intensity exercise, is able [...] Read more.
Bipedal walking is a composite task requiring integration of many control circuitries in the brain and spinal cord. The present study was carried out to verify whether an increase in blood lactate, such as that associated with a high intensity exercise, is able to significantly modify the qualitative and/or quantitative aspects of human walking. Eighteen healthy physically male participants, aged between 20 and 24 years (M = 21.8, SD = 1.22), were recruited for the study. For this purpose, the experimental protocol included the measure of blood lactate levels with the aim of assessing possible relations between lactate blood values and different aspect of walking after an exhaustive exercise. An exhaustive exercise was associated with a strong increase of blood lactate levels and produced a significant worsening in the ability to maintain the bipodalic upright posture as well as the fluidity of walking. Our results suggest that exhausting bouts impose greater challenges on postural control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity, Physical and Psychological Health)
Open AccessArticle
Prediction of One Repetition Maximum Using Reference Minimum Velocity Threshold Values in Young and Middle-Aged Resistance-Trained Males
by , , , , and
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(5), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs11050071 - 07 May 2021
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Abstract
Background: This study determined the accuracy of different velocity-based methods when predicting one-repetition maximum (1RM) in young and middle-aged resistance-trained males. Methods: Two days after maximal strength testing, 20 young (age 21.0 ± 1.6 years) and 20 middle-aged (age 42.6 ± 6.7 years) [...] Read more.
Background: This study determined the accuracy of different velocity-based methods when predicting one-repetition maximum (1RM) in young and middle-aged resistance-trained males. Methods: Two days after maximal strength testing, 20 young (age 21.0 ± 1.6 years) and 20 middle-aged (age 42.6 ± 6.7 years) resistance-trained males completed three repetitions of bench press, back squat, and bent-over-row at loads corresponding to 20–80% 1RM. Using reference minimum velocity threshold (MVT) values, the 1RM was estimated from the load-velocity relationships through multiple (20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80% 1RM), two-point (20 and 80% 1RM), high-load (60 and 80% 1RM) and low-load (20 and 40% 1RM) methods for each group. Results: Despite most prediction methods demonstrating acceptable correlations (r = 0.55 to 0.96), the absolute errors for young and middle-aged groups were generally moderate to high for bench press (absolute errors = 8.2 to 14.2% and 8.6 to 20.4%, respectively) and bent-over-row (absolute error = 14.9 to 19.9% and 8.6 to 18.2%, respectively). For squats, the absolute errors were lower in the young group (5.7 to 13.4%) than the middle-aged group (13.2 to 17.0%) but still unacceptable. Conclusion: These findings suggest that reference MVTs cannot accurately predict the 1RM in these populations. Therefore, practitioners need to directly assess 1RM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aging, Physical Health and Exercise Physiology)
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Open AccessArticle
Contrasting Effects of “External” Worker’s Proactive Behavior on Their Turnover Intention: A Moderated Mediation Model
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(5), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs11050070 (registering DOI) - 06 May 2021
Viewed by 151
Abstract
Interpersonal conflicts between portfolio career workers (hereafter, PCWs) who entered from the external labor market and existing permanent workers are a controversial workplace issue in South Korea. This study examines whether the existing permanent workers’ responses to the newcomers speaking up depend on [...] Read more.
Interpersonal conflicts between portfolio career workers (hereafter, PCWs) who entered from the external labor market and existing permanent workers are a controversial workplace issue in South Korea. This study examines whether the existing permanent workers’ responses to the newcomers speaking up depend on the type of proactive behavior, that is, whether PCWs speak within extra-role or in-role boundaries. We found that PCWs perceive more workplace ostracism when they are proactive outside their job boundaries and less workplace ostracism when they are proactive inside their job boundaries. Further, their perceptions of ostracism lead to intentions of turnover. These relationships are conditional on the type of employee–organization relationship and the PCWs’ status in a new organization. Data were collected from 261 PCWs in Korea. Bootstrap-based conditional process analyses were utilized to test the hypothesized model. The results show that workplace ostracism mediates the relationship between the two types of proactive behavior and turnover intention, but in contrasting directions. The effect of the two types of proactive behavior on workplace ostracism is stronger for higher levels of reciprocal relationship between organization and employees, while the effect of workplace ostracism on turnover intention is stronger for higher levels of PCWs’ status in a new organization. Thus, the workplace conflicts PCWs face not only represent interpersonal problems within the workplace but also constitute a multilayered phenomenon related to the long-term institutionalized relationships between organizations and employees. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behaviors)
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Open AccessArticle
Insufficient Sleep and Poor Sleep Quality Completely Mediate the Relationship between Financial Stress and Dietary Risk among Higher Education Students
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(5), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs11050069 - 05 May 2021
Viewed by 183
Abstract
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic worsened financial stress for higher education students in the U.S. Financial stress is associated with poor dietary behaviors; however, factors that might influence this relationship are not well characterized. The present cross-sectional study investigated the associations between [...] Read more.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic worsened financial stress for higher education students in the U.S. Financial stress is associated with poor dietary behaviors; however, factors that might influence this relationship are not well characterized. The present cross-sectional study investigated the associations between financial stress and dietary intake and dietary risk scores among higher education students (undergraduate and graduate students) in the U.S. and examined whether poor sleep quality and short sleep duration mediated the relationship between financial stress and dietary risk score. Validated tools were used to assess financial stress, sleep quality, sleep duration, dietary intake, and dietary risk. A total of 1280 students from three large U.S. universities completed the study. Results indicated that higher financial stress was associated with lower vegetable, fruit, fiber, and calcium intake, higher added sugar intake from sugar sweetened beverages, and higher dietary risk score. Further, the positive relationship between financial stress and dietary risk score was completely mediated by poor sleep quality among students who reported poor sleep quality and by short sleep duration among students who slept less than 7 h per night. These findings suggest that students might benefit from both financial management training and sleep education services to reduce undesirable dietary behaviors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Alternative Devices for Heart Rate Variability Measures: A Comparative Test–Retest Reliability Study
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(5), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs11050068 - 02 May 2021
Viewed by 245
Abstract
Using healthy adult participants, seven measures of heart rate variability were obtained simultaneously from four devices in five behavioral conditions. Two devices were ECG-based and two utilized photoplethysmography. The 140 numerical values (measure, condition, device) are presented. The comparative operational reliability of the [...] Read more.
Using healthy adult participants, seven measures of heart rate variability were obtained simultaneously from four devices in five behavioral conditions. Two devices were ECG-based and two utilized photoplethysmography. The 140 numerical values (measure, condition, device) are presented. The comparative operational reliability of the four devices was assessed, and it was found that the two ECG-base devices were more reliable than the photoplethysmographic devices. The interchangeability of devices was assessed by determining the between-device Limits of Agreement. Intraclass correlation coefficients were determined and used to calculate the standard error of measurement and the Minimal Detectable Difference. The Minimal Detectable Difference, MDD, quantifies the smallest statistically significant change in a measure and is therefore critical when HRV measures are used longitudinally to assess treatment response or disease progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biological Psychiatry)
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Open AccessReview
Including the Excluded in Antenatal Care: A Systematic Review of Concerns for D/deaf Pregnant Women
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(5), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs11050067 - 01 May 2021
Viewed by 256
Abstract
This paper presents global evidence derived from a systematic review of the literature on the issues of D/deaf pregnant women and antenatal care. A comprehensive search through four bibliographic databases identified a dataset of 10,375 academic papers, from which six papers met the [...] Read more.
This paper presents global evidence derived from a systematic review of the literature on the issues of D/deaf pregnant women and antenatal care. A comprehensive search through four bibliographic databases identified a dataset of 10,375 academic papers, from which six papers met the inclusion criteria for in-depth analysis related to D/deaf pregnant women’s use of antenatal care/clinics. Findings from the analysis revealed four major concerns for D/deaf pregnant women who attended antenatal clinics for care. These concerns were communication difficulties, satisfaction with antenatal care services, attendance at antenatal clinics, and associated health outcomes. Based on the identified issues and concerns, it is recommended that pre- and in-service healthcare workers should be trained on how to communicate through sign language with their D/deaf patients. In addition, there is a need to rapidly expand the body of knowledge on the issues concerning antenatal care for D/deaf pregnant women vis-à-vis their relationship with healthcare workers in antenatal facilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Experimental and Clinical Neurosciences)
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Open AccessReview
Moral Decision Making: From Bentham to Veil of Ignorance via Perspective Taking Accessibility
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(5), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs11050066 - 01 May 2021
Viewed by 206
Abstract
Making morally sensitive decisions and evaluations pervade many human everyday activities. Philosophers, economists, psychologists and behavioural scientists researching such decision-making typically explore the principles, processes and predictors that constitute human moral decision-making. Crucially, very little research has explored the theoretical and methodological development [...] Read more.
Making morally sensitive decisions and evaluations pervade many human everyday activities. Philosophers, economists, psychologists and behavioural scientists researching such decision-making typically explore the principles, processes and predictors that constitute human moral decision-making. Crucially, very little research has explored the theoretical and methodological development (supported by empirical evidence) of utilitarian theories of moral decision-making. Accordingly, in this critical review article, we invite the reader on a moral journey from Jeremy Bentham’s utilitarianism to the veil of ignorance reasoning, via a recent theoretical proposal emphasising utilitarian moral behaviour—perspective-taking accessibility (PT accessibility). PT accessibility research revealed that providing participants with access to all situational perspectives in moral scenarios, eliminates (previously reported in the literature) inconsistency between their moral judgements and choices. Moreover, in contrast to any previous theoretical and methodological accounts, moral scenarios/tasks with full PT accessibility provide the participants with unbiased even odds (neither risk averse nor risk seeking) and impartiality. We conclude that the proposed by Martin et al. PT Accessibility (a new type of veil of ignorance with even odds that do not trigger self-interest, risk related preferences or decision biases) is necessary in order to measure humans’ prosocial utilitarian behaviour and promote its societal benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cognition)
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Open AccessArticle
Food Neophobia and Food Disgust: The Mediating Role of Perceived Vulnerability to Disease
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(5), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs11050065 - 29 Apr 2021
Viewed by 300
Abstract
Negative attitudes towards food are influenced by two factors, neophobia and often related disgust. Neophobia is the tendency to avoid new foods, while food disgust is the refusal of food that is considered potentially harmful to health. The study presented here aims to [...] Read more.
Negative attitudes towards food are influenced by two factors, neophobia and often related disgust. Neophobia is the tendency to avoid new foods, while food disgust is the refusal of food that is considered potentially harmful to health. The study presented here aims to analyze the correlation between these two attitudes and the possible mediation operated by the perception of vulnerability to diseases, in order to understand if and how this contributes to the disgust towards certain unfamiliar foods. The study was developed through the administration of an anonymous questionnaire to a sample of 487 Italian citizens participating on a voluntary basis. Three tools were used: Food Neophobia Scale, Perceived Vulnerability to Disease, and Food Disgust Scale. The results showed a strong positive correlation between food disgust and food neophobia. Furthermore, through the application of structural mediation models, it has been shown that between food neophobia and food disgust, there is a mediation effect determined by perceived infectivity. The research aims to make a significant contribution to the understanding of the relationship between food disgust and some individual and psychological characteristics of people, demonstrating that the fear of disease transmission affects their food choices. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pandemic and Typhoon: Positive Impacts of a Double Disaster on Mental Health of Female Students in the Philippines
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(5), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs11050064 - 29 Apr 2021
Viewed by 503
Abstract
Humanitarian emergencies pose a great challenge to how all sectors perform their functions in society. In several countries, these emergencies combined the pandemic and other man-made and natural disasters: “double disaster”, which affected the health, safety, and well-being of both individuals and communities. [...] Read more.
Humanitarian emergencies pose a great challenge to how all sectors perform their functions in society. In several countries, these emergencies combined the pandemic and other man-made and natural disasters: “double disaster”, which affected the health, safety, and well-being of both individuals and communities. Students are a particularly vulnerable population for mental health problems considering the challenges with their transitions to adulthood. Using narrative analysis, this study explored the impacts of a double disaster on the mental health of students and how they cope up with these emergencies. The results showed that the occurrence of natural disasters during the lockdowns from pandemic brought stress to students in adjusting to distance education, completing academic requirements, and accessing technology for online learning. Participants expressed their anxieties about the spread of the virus in the community, particularly in the disaster evacuation centers with less strictly observed social distancing, insufficient hygiene and sanitation facilities, and lack of basic needs. Participants described their learnings and coping strategies that included helping one another, following the government protocols, finding additional sources of income, using energy for important purposes only, and leaning on faith. The findings of this study would be instrumental in formulating policies and strategic measures that best complement the needs of community members during a double disaster, particularly in addressing the mental health impacts of humanitarian emergencies. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Mass Media Exposure and Safer Sex Negotiation among Women in Sexual Unions in Sub-Saharan Africa: Analysis of Demographic and Health Survey Data
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(5), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs11050063 - 28 Apr 2021
Viewed by 301
Abstract
(1) Background: Improving sexual autonomy among women in sexual unions comes with various benefits, including the reduction of sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections. We examined the relationship between mass media exposure and safer sex negotiation among women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). (2) Methods: [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Improving sexual autonomy among women in sexual unions comes with various benefits, including the reduction of sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections. We examined the relationship between mass media exposure and safer sex negotiation among women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). (2) Methods: The study involved a cross-sectional analysis of Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data of 29 sub-Saharan African countries. A total of 224,647 women aged 15–49 were included in our analyses. We examined the association between mass media exposure and safer sex negotiation using binary logistic regression analysis. The results are presented using a crude odds ratio (cOR) and adjusted odds ratio (aOR), with their respective confidence intervals (CIs). Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. (3) Results: The overall prevalence of safer sex negotiation among women in sexual unions in SSA was 71.6% (71.4–71.8). Women exposed to mass media had higher odds of negotiating for safer sex compared with those who had no exposure (aOR = 1.94; 95% CI = 1.86–2.02), and this persisted after controlling for covariates (maternal age, wealth index, maternal educational level, partner’s age, partner’s educational level, sex of household head, religion, place of residence, and marital status) (aOR = 1.40; 95% CI = 1.35–1.46). The disaggregated results showed higher odds of safer sex negotiation among women exposed to mass media in all the individual countries, except Ghana, Comoros, Rwanda, and Namibia. (4) Conclusions: The findings could inform policies (e.g., transformative mass media educational seminars) and interventions (e.g., face-to-face counselling; small group sensitization sessions) in SSA on the crucial role of mass media in increasing safer sex practice among women in sexual unions. To accelerate progress towards the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goal five’s targets on empowering all women and safeguarding their reproductive rights, the study recommends that countries such as Ghana, Comoros, Rwanda, and Namibia need to intensify their efforts (e.g., regular sensitization campaigns) in increasing safer sex negotiation among women to counter power imbalances in sexual behaviour. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sex Desire, Sexuality and Sexual Dysfunction)
Open AccessArticle
Information Overload, Wellbeing and COVID-19: A Survey in China
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(5), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs11050062 - 27 Apr 2021
Viewed by 305
Abstract
(1) Psychology must play an important role in the prevention and management of the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of the present study was to examine associations between the perceptions of information overload and wellbeing in China during the initial phase of COVID-19. (2) [...] Read more.
(1) Psychology must play an important role in the prevention and management of the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of the present study was to examine associations between the perceptions of information overload and wellbeing in China during the initial phase of COVID-19. (2) Methods: The present research involved a cross-sectional online survey, which controlled for established predictors of wellbeing and the perception of general (not COVID-19-specific) information overload. The setting of the research was China, February 2020. A total of 1349 participants completed an online survey, and the results from 1240 members of the general public who stated that they were uninfected are reported here (55.6% female; 49.4% single; age distribution: 17–25 years: 26%; 26–30 years: 24.3%; 31–40 years: 23.9%; 41–50 years: 16.2%; 51 years+: 9.6%; the most frequent occupations were: 21.5% students; 19.5% teachers; 25.9% office workers; 10.8% managers, plus a few in a wide range of jobs). The outcomes were positive wellbeing (positive affect and life satisfaction) and negative wellbeing (stress, negative affect, anxiety and depression). (3) Results: Regressions were carried out, controlling for established predictors of wellbeing (psychological capital, general information overload, positive and negative coping). Spending time getting information about COVID-19 was associated with more positive wellbeing. In contrast, perceptions of COVID-19 information overload and feeling panic due to COVID-19 were associated with more negative wellbeing. (4) Conclusions: These results have implications for the communication of information about COVID-19 to the general public and form the basis for further research on the topic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
Death Anxiety in Social Workers as a Consequence of the COVID-19 Pandemic
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(5), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs11050061 - 26 Apr 2021
Viewed by 362
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected all social spaces, conditioning our daily routines, including those at work. All professions have been affected by stressful situations and anxiety in the proximity’s face of death generated by the pandemic. In this context, some professionals have emerged [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected all social spaces, conditioning our daily routines, including those at work. All professions have been affected by stressful situations and anxiety in the proximity’s face of death generated by the pandemic. In this context, some professionals have emerged as essential, as social workers, acting in extreme situations in the face of increased demands and social uncertainty arising from the health crisis. The present study aimed to determine the levels of anxiety about death among social workers in Spain. For this purpose, an ad hoc questionnaire was designed, taking the Collett and Lester Fear of Death Scale as a reference (n = 304). The exploitation of the data was carried out from a quantitative perspective. First, a descriptive analysis was performed. Then, binary logistic regressions were carried out on the general scale. The dependent variable in all of them was the risk of suffering death anxiety to the set of its subscales. The main research results show high values of this anxiety in social workers concerning the general value of the scale—and the subscales—and the point of view of state and process. The highest values were Fear of Death of Others (81.6%) and Fear of the Process of Dying of Others (78.3%). Regarding the binary logistic regressions applied, predictor variables were identified in all of them, but the following stand out: Lack of personal protection equipment and Need psychological or psychiatric support. In addition, being a woman increases the risk of suffering Fear of the Dying Process of others. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Symptoms of Addictive Eating: What Do Different Health Professions Think?
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(5), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs11050060 - 26 Apr 2021
Viewed by 331
Abstract
The symptoms of addictive eating are often debated, with some overlap in symptoms with substance addictions or other disorders such as binge eating disorder. This study explored the levels of agreement with symptoms of addictive eating among different health professions, the conditions they [...] Read more.
The symptoms of addictive eating are often debated, with some overlap in symptoms with substance addictions or other disorders such as binge eating disorder. This study explored the levels of agreement with symptoms of addictive eating among different health professions, the conditions they provide advice for, and the population group/s they work with. An online cross-sectional survey was conducted in February–April 2020 including 142 health professionals (87% female, 65% residing in Australia, 28% each working in private practice/hospital settings). Of these, 47% were dietitians, 20% psychologists/psychotherapists/counsellors, 16% other health practitioners (e.g., social workers), 13% health researchers, and 5% medical professionals. Agreement with 11 statements relating to addictive eating symptoms was assessed on a scale of 1/strongly disagree to 5/strongly agree (e.g., certain foods produce physiological effects in the brain rewards system). Differences in agreement by health profession were assessed by one-way analysis of variance. There were significant differences in agreement with individual statements between health professions. Psychologists, psychotherapists, and counsellors reported lower agreement to statements relating to physiological effects in the reward system, withdrawal symptoms, and over-eating to alleviate stress/anxiety, than other professions (p < 0.05). Those providing advice for disordered eating only reported lower agreement across statements compared with those providing advice for overweight/obesity or both (p < 0.001). There were minimal differences based on the population group/s that health professionals work with. There is some agreement among health professionals regarding addictive eating symptoms, however, this differs by profession and the conditions they treat. This study provides a novel perspective on health professionals’ views on addictive eating symptoms, and there is a need for more research to explore the concepts further. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Psychology)
Open AccessArticle
The Recognition of Cross-Cultural Emotional Faces Is Affected by Intensity and Ethnicity in a Japanese Sample
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(5), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs11050059 - 23 Apr 2021
Viewed by 453
Abstract
Human faces convey a range of emotions and psychobiological signals that support social interactions. Multiple factors potentially mediate the facial expressions of emotions across cultures. To further determine the mechanisms underlying human emotion recognition in a complex and ecological environment, we hypothesized that [...] Read more.
Human faces convey a range of emotions and psychobiological signals that support social interactions. Multiple factors potentially mediate the facial expressions of emotions across cultures. To further determine the mechanisms underlying human emotion recognition in a complex and ecological environment, we hypothesized that both behavioral and neurophysiological measures would be influenced by stimuli ethnicity (Japanese, Caucasian) in the context of ambiguous emotional expressions (mid-happy, angry). We assessed the neurophysiological and behavioral responses of neurotypical Japanese adults (N = 27, 13 males) involved in a facial expression recognition task. Results uncover an interaction between universal and culturally-driven mechanisms. No differences in behavioral responses are found between male and female participants, male and female faces, and neutral Japanese versus Caucasian faces. However, Caucasian ambiguous emotional expressions which require more energy-consuming processing, as highlighted by neurophysiological results of the Arousal Index, were judged more accurately than Japanese ones. Additionally, a differential Frontal Asymmetry Index in neuronal activation, the signature of an approach versus avoidance response, is found in male participants according to the gender and emotional valence of the stimuli. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Experimental and Clinical Neurosciences)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing the Impact of COVID-19 on Work-Related Quality of Life through the Lens of Sexual Orientation
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(5), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs11050058 - 23 Apr 2021
Viewed by 423
Abstract
In the face of the COVID-19 pandemic and the exceptional situation that has been experienced on a global scale since 2020, it is essential to assess the impact of COVID-19 in several areas and domains. Therefore, this research seeks to evaluate the impact [...] Read more.
In the face of the COVID-19 pandemic and the exceptional situation that has been experienced on a global scale since 2020, it is essential to assess the impact of COVID-19 in several areas and domains. Therefore, this research seeks to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on work-related quality of life (WRQoL) in a Portuguese-speaking sample, through the lens of sexual orientation. One thousand, five hundred and seventy-seven individuals participated in this study, of which 1396 (88.5%) self-identified as heterosexual, 95 (6.0%) as gay or lesbian, and 87 (5.5%) as bisexual. Participants responded to the “Work-Related Quality of Life” scale, the “Fear of COVID-19” scale, and the “Negative Impact of COVID-19” scale. Bisexuals scored higher on “Fear of COVID-19” and “Negative Impact of COVID-19” than heterosexual, and gay, or lesbian participants. Differences between sexual orientations for all dimensions of WRQoL were found: heterosexual participants scored higher on general well-being, home–work interface, career satisfaction, working conditions, and lower on stress at work, compared to bisexual, and gay, or lesbian participants. Gay or lesbian participants scored lower than heterosexual and bisexual participants on career satisfaction and working conditions. Sexual orientation, the fear of COVID-19, and the negative impact of COVID-19 were significant predictors of overall WRQoL (explaining 13% of variance). Moderation analysis also showed that sexual orientation is a significant moderator of the association between the fear of COVID-19, the negative impact of COVID-19, and WRQoL. LGB people (especially bisexuals) suffer more severe impacts of COVID-19 and have lower WRQoL than heterosexual people. Inevitably, this has consequences in terms of mental health and overall quality of life for sexual minorities, thus reinforcing the need to adopt inclusive policies in organizations and companies to improve their WRQoL. Full article
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Open AccessPerspective
Enhancing Qualities of Consciousness during Online Learning via Multisensory Interactions
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(5), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs11050057 - 21 Apr 2021
Viewed by 360
Abstract
Online-learning is a feasible alternative to in-person attendance during COVID-19 pandemic. In this period, information technologies have allowed sharing experiences, but have also highlighted some limitations compared to traditional learning. Learning is strongly supported by some qualities of consciousness such as flow (intended [...] Read more.
Online-learning is a feasible alternative to in-person attendance during COVID-19 pandemic. In this period, information technologies have allowed sharing experiences, but have also highlighted some limitations compared to traditional learning. Learning is strongly supported by some qualities of consciousness such as flow (intended as the optimal state of absorption and engagement activity) and sense of presence (feeling of exerting control, interacting with and getting immersed into real/virtual environments), behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement, together with the need for social interaction. During online learning, feelings of disconnection, social isolation, distractions, boredom, and lack of control exert a detrimental effect on the ability to reach the state of flow, the feeling of presence, the feeling of social involvement. Since online environments could prevent the rising of these learning–supporting variables, this article aims at describing the role of flow, presence, engagement, and social interactions during online sessions and at characterizing multisensory stimulations as a driver to cope with these issues. We argue that the use of augmented, mixed, or virtual reality can support the above-mentioned domains, and thus counteract the detrimental effects of physical distance. Such support could be further increased by enhancing multisensory stimulation modalities within augmented and virtual environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Embodiment, Motor Control and Brain Injury)
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