Next Issue
Volume 12, December-2
Previous Issue
Volume 12, November-2
 
 

Animals, Volume 12, Issue 23 (December-1 2022) – 216 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Design theory has been an alternative to develop more sustainable strategies that allow pastoral livestock production systems to evolve within grasslands by enhancing their health and enabling the continuous delivery of multiple ecosystem services. Understanding how grassland key components—soil, plant, and ruminant—interact and contribute to grassland health under different climatic and topographic conditions and grazing management effects is paramount to designing more sustainable pastoral livestock production systems. Therefore, by taking a systems thinking approach, we aimed to review the literature for a holistic comprehension of grassland complexity and dynamism in order to build a design framework to design alternative and more sustainable pastoral livestock production systems that enhance grassland health. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
20 pages, 15858 KiB  
Review
Ultrasound Guided Surgery as a Refinement Tool in Oncology Research
by Juan Antonio Camara Serrano
Animals 2022, 12(23), 3445; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12233445 - 06 Dec 2022
Viewed by 2469
Abstract
Refinement is one of the ethical pillars of the use of animals in research. Ultrasonography is currently used in human medicine as a surgical tool for guided biopsies and this idea can be applied to preclinical research thanks to the development of specific [...] Read more.
Refinement is one of the ethical pillars of the use of animals in research. Ultrasonography is currently used in human medicine as a surgical tool for guided biopsies and this idea can be applied to preclinical research thanks to the development of specific instruments. This will eliminate the necessity of a surgical opening for implanting cells in specific organs or taking samples from tissues. The approach for the injection will depend on the target but most of the case is going to be lateral, with the probe in a ventral position and the needle going into from the lateral. This is the situation for the thyroid gland, heart, liver, spleen, kidney, pancreas, uterus, and testicles. Other approaches, such as the dorsal, can be used in the spleen or kidney. The maximum injected volume will depend on the size of the structure. For biopsies, the technical protocol is similar to the injection knowing that in big organs such as the liver, spleen, or kidney we can take several samples moving slightly the needle inside the structure. In all cases, animals must be anesthetized and minimum pain management is required after the intervention. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

11 pages, 703 KiB  
Article
Effects of Low Dietary Cation and Anion Difference on Blood Gas, Renal Electrolyte, and Acid Excretions in Goats in Tropical Conditions
by Dang Khoa Do Nguyen, Sapon Semsirmboon, Narongsak Chaiyabutr and Sumpun Thammacharoen
Animals 2022, 12(23), 3444; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12233444 - 06 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1490
Abstract
Goats can suffer from intermittent heat stress in high ambient temperature (HTa) conditions, which causes sporadic respiratory hypocapnia. Obstructive urolithiasis is a common urological problem in goats. Sandy uroliths can be partially relieved by urine acidification with short-term ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) [...] Read more.
Goats can suffer from intermittent heat stress in high ambient temperature (HTa) conditions, which causes sporadic respiratory hypocapnia. Obstructive urolithiasis is a common urological problem in goats. Sandy uroliths can be partially relieved by urine acidification with short-term ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) treatment. However, the outcome of urine acidification and the physiological responses to short-term NH4Cl supplementation under respiratory hypocapnia of HTa have rarely been reported. The present study investigated the effect of NH4Cl supplementation that produced a low dietary cation-anion different (l-DCAD) diet on acid-base balance and renal function under HTa conditions. The first experiment investigated the physiological responses to natural HTa to prove whether the peak HTa during the afternoon could induce HTa responses without a change in the plasma cortisol. The partial pressure of CO2 also tended to decrease during the afternoon. The second experiment examined the short-term effect of l-DCAD under HTa conditions. Although the blood pH was within the normal range, there was a clear acid-base response in the direction of metabolic acidosis. The major responses in renal function were an increase in tubular function and acid excretion. With a comparable level of creatinine clearance, the fractional excretions (FE) of chloride and calcium increased, and the FE of potassium decreased. Acid excretion increased significantly in the l-DCAD group. We conclude that under HTa conditions, the tubular excretion of electrolytes and acids was the major response to acid loading without changing the filtration rate. The l-DCAD formulation can be used to acidify urine effectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Small Ruminants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 2982 KiB  
Article
Growth Characteristics of Long-Nosed Skate Dipturus oxyrinchus (Linnaeus, 1758) Inhabiting the Northeastern Mediterranean Sea
by Nuri Başusta and Fatih Volkan Ozel
Animals 2022, 12(23), 3443; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12233443 - 06 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1340
Abstract
This study aims to determine the age and growth characteristics of Dipturus oxyrinchus living in the Northeastern Mediterranean Sea and to present data that can provide a comparison with previous studies on the same subject. A total of 255 long-nose skates at a [...] Read more.
This study aims to determine the age and growth characteristics of Dipturus oxyrinchus living in the Northeastern Mediterranean Sea and to present data that can provide a comparison with previous studies on the same subject. A total of 255 long-nose skates at a total length of 12.2–93.5 cm and weight of 8.34–3828 g were collected as non-target species from a commercial fishing boat. The male−female ratio was determined as 1:1.27. Using the von Bertalanffy equation and the Gompertz or logistic growth models, the growth parameters of Dipturus oxyrinchus were estimated as L∞ = 154.0, K = 0.064, t0 = −1.622; L∞ = 104.0, K = 0.35, I = 4.99; L∞ = 128.40, K = 0.19, I = 4.39 for all individuals, respectively. Maximum absolute growth was calculated as 9.33 cm at 5–6 years of age. Maximum relative growth at 1–2 years of age was estimated as 36.39%. Both absolute and relative growth were minimal in the 11–12 age group. The highest condition factor value was estimated as 0.416 in the 8-year-old group. As a result, the growth data of long-nose skates were obtained for the first time in the Northeastern Mediterranean Sea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sharks and Skates: Ecology, Distribution and Conservation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 3084 KiB  
Article
Effects of Landscape Features on Bird Community in Winter Urban Parks
by Peilin Huang, Dulai Zheng, Yijing Yan, Weizhen Xu, Yujie Zhao, Ziluo Huang, Yinghong Ding, Yuxin Lin, Zhipeng Zhu, Ziru Chen and Weicong Fu
Animals 2022, 12(23), 3442; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12233442 - 06 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2015
Abstract
Urban parks, as critical components of the urban green space, have practical significance in studying the influence of landscape characteristics on birds. Nine urban parks in Fuzhou, China, were used as study objects to explore the influence of landscape features (patch, landscape, and [...] Read more.
Urban parks, as critical components of the urban green space, have practical significance in studying the influence of landscape characteristics on birds. Nine urban parks in Fuzhou, China, were used as study objects to explore the influence of landscape features (patch, landscape, and surrounding environment indices) on bird communities. The results showed that (1) from December 2021 to February 2022, we found a total of 2874 individuals belonging to 61 species of 9 orders, 32 families, which were dominated by the birds of Passeriformes (37 species of 24 families, accounting for 89.91% of the total number of individuals) and resident birds in Fuzhou urban parks (n = 30; 85.46%); (2) The park area, park perimeter, woodland area, grassland area, and the park shape index increased as the distance to the city center increases; (3) Bird diversity responds differently to different landscape features. The total abundance of birds, the abundance of winter migrant birds, and the richness of winter migrant birds increased with the park area. And the park shape index affects positively for the the α-diversity of birds and the abundance of resident birds. Woodland proportion and waterbody shape index affected positively on the richness and α-diversity of resident birds. To promote the diversity of regional birds, it is recommended that the construction and planning of urban parks should enlarge the park area as much as possible, increase the proportion of woodland, and make shorelines more irregular. Our study could serve as a reference for the construction of biodiversity enhancements in core green areas of urban parks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Birds)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 599 KiB  
Article
Effect of Dietary Level of Beet Pulp, with or without Molasses, on Health Status, Growth Performance, and Carcass and Digestive Tract Traits of Rabbits
by Orlando Arce, Gilbert Alagón, Luis Ródenas, Eugenio Martínez-Paredes, Vicente Javier Moya, Concha Cervera and Juan José Pascual
Animals 2022, 12(23), 3441; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12233441 - 06 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1179
Abstract
To evaluate the effect of dietary level of beet pulp, with or without molasses, on growth performance, a total of 470 28-day-old rabbits were used (614 ± 6 g). Animals were randomly allocated into five dietary treatment groups: Control, without beet pulp; BP [...] Read more.
To evaluate the effect of dietary level of beet pulp, with or without molasses, on growth performance, a total of 470 28-day-old rabbits were used (614 ± 6 g). Animals were randomly allocated into five dietary treatment groups: Control, without beet pulp; BP20, and BP40 with 20 and 40% of beet pulp without molasses, respectively; and BPM20 and BPM40, with 20 and 40% of beet pulp with molasses, respectively. Daily feed intake (DFI) and average daily gain (ADG) were controlled at 28, 49, and 59 days of age. Carcass and digestive tract traits were also determined at 59 days of age. Mortality and morbidity were controlled daily. Mortality during the growing period was higher in BPM than in BP groups (+9.2%; p < 0.05). The higher the inclusion of beet pulp, the lower the DFI and ADG of animals (5.5 and 4.6% for every 20% inclusion, respectively; p < 0.001), as well as the dressing out percentage, the liver proportion, and the dissectible fat percentage of their carcasses. However, the best feed efficiency during the last 10 days was obtained with the BPM40 group. The higher the inclusion of beet pulp, the higher the weight of the empty gastrointestinal tract and cecum (+2.4 and +3.0 percentage points for every 20% inclusion, respectively; p < 0.001). In fact, a higher inclusion of beet pulp decreased the pH and dry matter and decreased the total volatile fatty acids content of cecum richer in acetic acid but poorer in propionic, isobutiric, isovaleric, and valeric acids. Stomach weight was lower, and the capric acid content in the cecum was higher in the BPM than in the BP group. The inclusion of beet pulp in the feed reduced the growth performance and carcass yield of growing rabbits, and an even higher incidence of digestive disorders was observed when beet pulp included molasses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Nutrition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 594 KiB  
Article
Body Weight Development in Adult Dogs Fed a High Level Resistant Starch Diet
by Kangmin Seo, Hyun-Woo Cho, Ju Lan Chun, Kyoung Min So and Ki Hyun Kim
Animals 2022, 12(23), 3440; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12233440 - 06 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1326
Abstract
This study investigated the effect of Dodamssal rice, which has a high content of resistant starch, on obesity and hematologic properties in dogs. In Experiment 1, 24 spayed dogs were divided into three feeding groups: normal-fat basal diet (control), high-fat diet with 12% [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effect of Dodamssal rice, which has a high content of resistant starch, on obesity and hematologic properties in dogs. In Experiment 1, 24 spayed dogs were divided into three feeding groups: normal-fat basal diet (control), high-fat diet with 12% normal amylose type rice (hNAR), and high-fat diet with 12% high amylose type rice (Dodamssal rice; hHAR). In Experiment 2, 8 spayed dogs were assigned to a normal amylose type rice (NAR) group and a high amylose type rice group (HAR) with a normal-fat basal diet. After 24 weeks, an increase in weight and blood cholesterol was observed in both high-fat diet groups for Experiment 1. Specifically, an increase in serum alanine aminotransferase was observed over time in the hNAR group compared with that of the control; however, no such patterns were present in the hHAR group. Further, a significant weight-loss effect was observed in the HAR group in Experiment 2 at 4 weeks. The effect on body weight was due to the reduced digestibility of amylose and thereby lower dietary ME content. Overall, this confirmed that Dodamssal rice had a positive effect on weight loss in dogs, and these results suggest that Dodamssal rice has potential value as a raw ingredient for preventing obesity in dogs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Companion Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1848 KiB  
Article
The Use of Prefemoral Endoscope-Assisted Surgery and Transplastron Coeliotomy in Chelonian Reproductive Disorders
by Tom Hellebuyck and Ferran Solanes Vilanova
Animals 2022, 12(23), 3439; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12233439 - 06 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1681
Abstract
Throughout the last decades, the increased popularity of the keeping of reptiles has led to a better understanding of the captive needs of a wide variety of species. Although this is reflected by the successful captive reproduction in many of those species, reproductive [...] Read more.
Throughout the last decades, the increased popularity of the keeping of reptiles has led to a better understanding of the captive needs of a wide variety of species. Although this is reflected by the successful captive reproduction in many of those species, reproductive disorders such as preovulatory follicular stasis, postovulatory dystocia, secondary yolk coelomitis, and prolapse of the oviduct and male copulatory organ are commonly encountered in veterinary practice. In comparison to squamates, chelonians with postovulatory dystocia seem to be more responsive to oxytocin treatment, even in cases of chronic dystocia. There are various conditions, however, that necessitate the use of surgical procedures for the treatment of dystocia and other reproductive disorders in chelonians. Although restrictions may be encountered, the endoscope-assisted prefemoral approach is the least invasive and thus preferred technique instead of the ventral transplastron coeliotomy. The present report describes the diagnostic and surgical approach applied in seven cases of female chelonians with reproductive disorders. The therapeutic efficacy largely relied on the choice of minimally invasive endoscope-assisted surgery versus transplastron coeliotomy that was primarily dictated by the involved species, etiology, and associated pathology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Herpetological Medicine and Surgery)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

11 pages, 2753 KiB  
Article
Ecomorphology and Morphological Disparity of Caquetaia Kraussii (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in Colombia
by Jordan Hernandez, Amado Villalobos-Leiva, Adriana Bermúdez, Daniela Ahumada-C, Manuel J. Suazo, Margarita Correa, Angie Díaz and Hugo A. Benítez
Animals 2022, 12(23), 3438; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12233438 - 06 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1734
Abstract
Understanding the interspecific morphological variability of Caquetaia kraussii (Perciformes: Cichlidae) between different localities in its distribution range is becoming essential, as this species constitutes a valuable resource for the economy and subsistence of the local human communities where it is endemic in Colombia [...] Read more.
Understanding the interspecific morphological variability of Caquetaia kraussii (Perciformes: Cichlidae) between different localities in its distribution range is becoming essential, as this species constitutes a valuable resource for the economy and subsistence of the local human communities where it is endemic in Colombia and Venezuela. In order to develop efficient farming and handling plans for this species, a deep understanding of the factors and mechanisms generating morphological variability is crucial. This study analyzes the morphological variability of C. kraussii by using geometric morphometrics in four localities distributed between the Dique and North channels, which are part of the Bolívar department in Colombia. Likewise, the effect of environmental variables such as temperature (T°), dissolved oxygen (OD) and pH on morphological variability was analyzed using a partial least squares approach. The results show that environmental stress has an influence on ~10% of the body shape of C. kraussii, whereas ~90% of the body shape is not directly influenced by environmental parameters, suggesting an effect from stress related to sexual dimorphism. Similarly, the analyses show shape variation among localities, mainly between populations of lotic environments and those of lentic environments. This morphological disparity seems to be subject to environmental and sexual stresses in the different localities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geometric Morphometrics Applied to Biological Structures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 852 KiB  
Article
Flunixin Meglumine Is Superior to Meloxicam for Providing Analgesia after Surgical Castration in 2-Month-Old Goats
by Victor Brusin, Maria Camila Ceballos, Pedro Henrique Esteves Trindade, Karen Camille Rocha Góis, Gabriel Conde, Virginia Tessarine Barbosa, Gustavo dos Santos Rosa and Mateus Jose Rodrigues Paranhos da Costa
Animals 2022, 12(23), 3437; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12233437 - 06 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4373
Abstract
Farm animals are exposed to various painful procedures during their productive lives, making it necessary to implement anesthetic and analgesic protocols. However, there are few studies evaluating the effectiveness of these drugs. Our objective was to compare the analgesic effects of two nonsteroidal [...] Read more.
Farm animals are exposed to various painful procedures during their productive lives, making it necessary to implement anesthetic and analgesic protocols. However, there are few studies evaluating the effectiveness of these drugs. Our objective was to compare the analgesic effects of two nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): meloxicam (MEL) and flunixin meglumine (FLU), in goat kids subjected to surgical castration under local anesthesia. Anglo-Nubian goat kids (60 days old) were allocated into two groups: MEL (n = 9), and FLU (n = 8), each administered 5 min before starting castration. All had been previously subjected to local anesthesia with lidocaine, injected bilaterally into the testes, plus subcutaneous in the scrotal raphe. Pain sensitivity was evaluated using the von Frey monofilaments test. Reactions were recorded before castration (M0), immediately after castration (M1), and once-daily for three consecutive days post-castration (M2, M3, and M4, respectively). Pain assessments were conducted in three body regions: at four points of the scrotum (dorsal and ventral; left and right lateral; R1); medial region of the pelvic limb, gracilis muscle (R2); and hypogastric region of the abdomen (R3). MEL goats had considerably greater pain reaction in R1 and R2 over time, mainly in M2; therefore, FLU was a more effective analgesic than MEL, resulting in less pain reaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animals’ Tenth Anniversary)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 296 KiB  
Article
Training Effects on the Stress Predictors for Young Lusitano Horses Used in Dressage
by Clarisse S. Coelho, Ana Sofia B. A. Silva, Catarina M. R. Santos, Ana Margarida R. Santos, Carolina M. B. L. Vintem, Anderson G. Leite, Joana M. C. Fonseca, José M. C. S. Prazeres, Vinicius R. C. Souza, Renata F. Siqueira, Helio C. Manso Filho and Joana S. A. Simões
Animals 2022, 12(23), 3436; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12233436 - 06 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1583
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate stressful responses during a 6-week training protocol in young Lusitano horses used for dressage. The hypothesis was that the proposed training protocol would improve fitness and ensure the welfare of the animals by reducing stress [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate stressful responses during a 6-week training protocol in young Lusitano horses used for dressage. The hypothesis was that the proposed training protocol would improve fitness and ensure the welfare of the animals by reducing stress predictors. Nine 4-year-old horses were evaluated before (M1) and six weeks after (M2) beginning a training protocol. The training program was performed six times per week and included 40–80 min of individually intensity-adjusted preparatory exercises for dressage. For both moments, the horses were examined before (T0) and after (T1) dressage simulation tests (DST), and at 30 (T2) and 240 min (T3) during the recovery period. Blood samples were taken to determine the horses’ cortisol levels, total WBC, and neutrophil and lymphocyte counts. All variables were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests, with p ≤ 0.05. After training, there was a significant reduction in cortisol (p = 0.0133), HR (p = 0.0283), total WBC (p < 0.0001), and neutrophil (p < 0.0001) and lymphocyte (p = 0.0341) counts. Other findings included an increase in HRV parameters related to a cardiac vagal modulation. In conclusion, the chosen training protocol led to better fitness as the horses worked more intensively with lower cardiovascular requirements, and they showed blunted cortisol responses at M2. Such data can be used to evaluate performance, but also to predict the welfare of athletic horses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Equine Training and Rehabilitation)
14 pages, 871 KiB  
Article
Effects of Starch Overload and Cecal Buffering on Fecal Microbiota of Horses
by Caio C. Bustamante, Vanessa B. de Paula, Isabela P. Rabelo, Camila C. Fernandes, Luciano T. Kishi, Paulo A. Canola, Eliana Gertrudes de M. Lemos and Carlos Augusto A. Valadão
Animals 2022, 12(23), 3435; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12233435 - 06 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1445
Abstract
Starch overload in horses causes gastrointestinal and metabolic disorders that are associated with microbiota changes. Therefore, we identified the fecal microbiota and hypothesized that intracecal injection of alkaline solution (buffer; Mg(OH)2 + Al(OH)3) could stabilize these microbiota and clinical changes [...] Read more.
Starch overload in horses causes gastrointestinal and metabolic disorders that are associated with microbiota changes. Therefore, we identified the fecal microbiota and hypothesized that intracecal injection of alkaline solution (buffer; Mg(OH)2 + Al(OH)3) could stabilize these microbiota and clinical changes in horses submitted to corn starch overload. Ten crossbred horses (females and geldings) were allocated to group I (water–saline and starch–buffer treatments) and group II (water–buffer and starch–saline treatments). Clinical signs, gross analysis of the feces, and fecal microbiota were evaluated through 72 h (T0; T8; T12; T24; T48; T72). Corn starch or water were administrated by nasogastric tube at T0, and the buffer injected into the cecum at T8 in starch–buffer and water–buffer treatments. Starch overload reduced the richness (p < 0.001) and diversity (p = 0.001) of the fecal microbiota. However, the starch–buffer treatment showed greater increase in amylolytic bacteria (Bifidobacterium 0.0% to 5.6%; Lactobacillus 0.1% to 7.4%; p < 0.05) and decrease in fibrolytic bacteria (Lachnospiraceae 10.2% to 5.0%; Ruminococcaceae 11.7% to 4.2%; p < 0.05) than starch–saline treatment. Additionally, animals that received starch–buffer treatment showed more signs of abdominal discomfort and lameness associated with dysbiosis (amylolytic r > 0.5; fribolytic r < 0.1; p < 0.05), showing that cecal infusion of buffer did not prevent, but intensified intestinal disturbances and the risk of laminitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Genetics and Genomics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 510 KiB  
Article
“It Almost Makes Her Human”: How Female Animal Guardians Construct Experiences of Cat and Dog Empathy
by Karen M. Hiestand, Karen McComb and Robin Banerjee
Animals 2022, 12(23), 3434; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12233434 - 06 Dec 2022
Viewed by 3082
Abstract
Understanding how humans perceive and construct experiences of non-human animal empathy (hereafter, ‘animal/s’) can provide important information to aid our understanding of how companion animals contribute to social support. This study investigates the phenomenology of animal empathy by examining how humans construct sense-making [...] Read more.
Understanding how humans perceive and construct experiences of non-human animal empathy (hereafter, ‘animal/s’) can provide important information to aid our understanding of how companion animals contribute to social support. This study investigates the phenomenology of animal empathy by examining how humans construct sense-making narratives of these experiences, with the hypothesis that anthropomorphic attributions would play a key role in these constructions. Comprehensive, semi-structured interviews were conducted with six participants, using established interpretative phenomenological analysis methodology to facilitate deep examination of how they interpreted and reacted emotionally. Participants were consistent in reporting changes to their companion animals’ normal behaviour as the key to the identification of animal empathy experiences, yet they were highly paradoxical in their constructions of perceived internal drivers within their dogs and cats. Explanations were highly dichotomous, from highly anthropomorphic to highly anthropocentric, and these extremes were combined both within individual participant narratives and within some thematic constructs. This research demonstrates that experiences of companion animal empathy can be powerful and meaningful for humans, but the inconsistent mixture of anthropomorphic and anthropocentric reasoning illustrates the confused nature of human understanding of animals’ internal states. Insight into how humans construct animal empathy has implications for the moral status of these animals and an application for companion animals used explicitly for social support, such as in animal-assisted therapy and emotional support animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emotional Contagion in Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 219 KiB  
Article
Effect of Nasogastric Tube Placement, Manipulation, and Fluid Administration on Transcutaneous Ultrasound Visualization and Assessment of Stomach Position in Healthy Unfed and Fed Horses
by Kira Lyn Epstein and Mark David Hall
Animals 2022, 12(23), 3433; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12233433 - 06 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1426
Abstract
Knowledge of the effects of feeding and nasogastric tube placement and manipulation on gastric ultrasound is limited. Given the variability in duration since feeding and the ubiquitous use of nasogastric tubes in horses with colic, the interpretation of gastric ultrasound in horses with [...] Read more.
Knowledge of the effects of feeding and nasogastric tube placement and manipulation on gastric ultrasound is limited. Given the variability in duration since feeding and the ubiquitous use of nasogastric tubes in horses with colic, the interpretation of gastric ultrasound in horses with colic requires an understanding of these effects. Cranial to caudal and dorsal to ventral ultrasonographic dimensions of the stomach were obtained in 10 unfed horses and five fed horses, before and after nasogastric tube placement, after checking for reflux and after administration of 6 L of water in unfed horses. Fed horses’ stomachs were larger in both cranial to caudal and dorsal to ventral dimension than unfed horses. Nasogastric intubation and the administration of water increased ultrasonographic gastric dimensions in fed and unfed horses. Checking for reflux did not consistently decrease ultrasonographic gastric dimension in fed or unfed horses. Fluid was consistently identified in the stomach with ultrasound after 6 L of water. Increases in gastric ultrasound dimensions found in horses that have been recently fed and/or had a nasogastric tube placed can occur without pathologic gastric distension related to colic and should be interpreted in this context. In contrast, the identification of fluid in the stomach on ultrasound occurs consistently with fluid administration and may be more useful than standard ultrasound parameters of gastric dimensions to identify horses with colic likely to have significant gastric reflux. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Equine Colic)
15 pages, 1520 KiB  
Article
Extensive Adaptive Variation in Gene Expression within and between Closely Related Horseshoe Bats (Chiroptera, Rhinolophus) Revealed by Three Organs
by Jun Li, Keping Sun, Wentao Dai, Haixia Leng, Aoqiang Li and Jiang Feng
Animals 2022, 12(23), 3432; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12233432 - 06 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1246
Abstract
In the process of species differentiation and adaption, the relative influence of natural selection on gene expression variation often remains unclear (especially its impact on phenotypic divergence). In this study, we used differentially expressed genes from brain, cochlea, and liver samples collected from [...] Read more.
In the process of species differentiation and adaption, the relative influence of natural selection on gene expression variation often remains unclear (especially its impact on phenotypic divergence). In this study, we used differentially expressed genes from brain, cochlea, and liver samples collected from two species of bats to determine the gene expression variation forced by natural selection when comparing at the interspecific (Rhinolophus siamensis and R. episcopus episcopus) and the intraspecific (R. e. episcopus and R. episcopus spp.) levels. In both cases, gene expression variation was extensively adaptive (>66.0%) and mainly governed by directional selection, followed by stabilizing selection, and finally balancing selection. The expression variation related to acoustic signals (resting frequency, RF) and body size (forearm length, FA) was also widely governed by natural selection (>69.1%). Different functional patterns of RF- or FA-related adaptive expression variation were found between the two comparisons, which manifested as abundant immune-related regulations between subspecies (indicating a relationship between immune response and phenotypic adaption). Our study verifies the extensive adaptive expression variation between both species and subspecies and provides insight into the effects of natural selection on species differentiation and adaptation as well as phenotypic divergence at the expression level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Genetics and Genomics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 2619 KiB  
Article
Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Vitamin A on Antioxidant and Intestinal Barrier Function of Broilers Co-Infected with Coccidia and Clostridium perfringens
by Peng Li, Chengao Liu, Junlong Niu, Yuanke Zhang, Changwu Li, Zhengfan Zhang, Shuangshuang Guo and Bingying Ding
Animals 2022, 12(23), 3431; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12233431 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1515
Abstract
Necrotic enteritis (NE) impairs poultry production and causes great economic loss. The nutritional regulation of diets has the potential to alleviate NE. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with vitamin A (VA) on the antioxidant and intestinal [...] Read more.
Necrotic enteritis (NE) impairs poultry production and causes great economic loss. The nutritional regulation of diets has the potential to alleviate NE. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with vitamin A (VA) on the antioxidant and intestinal barrier function of broilers co-infected with coccidia and C. perfringens (CCP). In a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, 336 one-day-old Ross 308 broilers were divided into four treatments with two levels of VA (0 or 12,000 IU/kg) and challenged with or without CCP. The animal trial lasted for 42 days. The results showed that dietary supplemental VA improved body weight gain (BWG) and the feed intake (FI), and the FI was negatively affected by CCP. Additionally, the levels of catalase (CAT) in the serum, total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), and CAT in the jejunum and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the liver decreased with the CCP challenge (p < 0.05). The mRNA levels of SOD, CAT, GSH-Px1, and GSH-Px3 in the liver and jejunum were upregulated by the CCP challenge (p < 0.05). In addition, the level of serum diamine oxidase (DAO), and the mRNA level of ZO-1 were also upregulated with the CCP challenge. Dietary supplementation with VA contributed to the intestinal villi height and the mRNA level of Mucin-2 in the jejunum (p < 0.05). Additionally, dietary VA had the ability to alleviate the upregulation of SOD in the liver and SOD, CAT, GSH-Px1, GSH-Px3, ZO-1, and claudin-1 in the jejunum with the CCP challenge (p < 0.05). However, the mRNA level of GSH-Px3 and the levels of SOD in the liver and jejunum were downregulated with the VA supplementation in the diet. In conclusion, dietary VA improved the growth performance and the intestinal barrier function; nonetheless, it failed to alleviate the negative effects of CCP on the antioxidant function in broilers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Feeding and Nutrition in Poultry Production)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1800 KiB  
Article
Sex Differences in Fecal Microbiome Composition and Function of Dromedary Camels in Saudi Arabia
by Haitham Elbir and Naser Abdullah Alhumam
Animals 2022, 12(23), 3430; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12233430 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1622
Abstract
The gastrointestinal microbiome plays a significant role in diet digestion and the energy production of its host. Several factors that affect the gastrointestinal microbiota composition were studied in camels. Yet, the impact of sex on the gastrointestinal bacteriome of camels remains unexplored to [...] Read more.
The gastrointestinal microbiome plays a significant role in diet digestion and the energy production of its host. Several factors that affect the gastrointestinal microbiota composition were studied in camels. Yet, the impact of sex on the gastrointestinal bacteriome of camels remains unexplored to date. In this perspective, the fecal microbiome community composition from dromedary camels was determined in 10 male and 10 female samples using the 16S rRNA amplicon, in order to estimate if this was influenced by sex. The core microbiome in females contained 284 bacterial OTUs and one archaeal OUT, whereas in males, it contained 279 bacterial OTUs and one archaeal OTU. In females, Bacteroidetes and Spirochaetes were significantly more abundant than in male camels, whereas Lentisphaerae and Euryarchaeota were significantly abundant in males. According to Principal Coordinate Analysis and UPGMA clustering, grouping with respect to sex was observed. The functional prediction results showed differences such as energy production and conversion, and that the cell wall/membrane/envelope were enriched in female camels. The fecal microbiome of male camels was rich in amino acid, lipid transport and metabolism. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 623 KiB  
Article
Ameliorative Effect of Quercetin against Abamectin-Induced Hemato-Biochemical Alterations and Hepatorenal Oxidative Damage in Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus
by Abdallah Tageldein Mansour, Heba H. Mahboub, Rehab M. Amen, Marwa A. El-Beltagy, Amany Ramah, Abdelfattah M. Abdelfattah, Hossam S. El-Beltagi, Tarek A. Shalaby, Hesham S. Ghazzawy, Khaled M. A. Ramadan, Adnan H. M. Alhajji and Heba S. Hamed
Animals 2022, 12(23), 3429; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12233429 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2311
Abstract
Abamectin (ABM) is a common agricultural pesticide and veterinary anthelmintic drug. It can discharge from the sites of application to aquatic systems via surface run-off or spray drift, causing harmful effects to aquatic organisms. The present study investigated the protective effect of dietary [...] Read more.
Abamectin (ABM) is a common agricultural pesticide and veterinary anthelmintic drug. It can discharge from the sites of application to aquatic systems via surface run-off or spray drift, causing harmful effects to aquatic organisms. The present study investigated the protective effect of dietary quercetin supplementation on hemato-biochemical parameters and hepato-renal oxidative stress biomarkers in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to a sublethal dose of ABM. Fish were allocated into six equal groups. The first group was kept as a control group. The second and third groups (Q400, and Q800) were fed diets supplemented with two quercetin levels (400 and 800 mg/kg diet), respectively. The fourth group (ABM) was intoxicated with 20.73 µg/L of ABM. The fifth and sixth groups (ABM + Q400, and ABM + Q800) were fed diet supplemented with two quercetin levels (400 and 800 mg/kg diet) and simultaneously intoxicated with ABM for 60 days. The results showed that ABM significantly decreased RBCs, hemoglobin content, hematocrit, total protein, albumin levels, and acetylcholinesterase activity activities compared to the control. Meanwhile, ABM significantly increased white blood cells, glucose, total lipids, cholesterol, and alanine and aspartate aminotransferase activities. Liver and kidney levels of lipid peroxidation was significantly increased, while hepato-renal antioxidant biomarkers (reduced glutathione, super oxide dismutase, catalase, and total antioxidant capacity) were significantly decreased upon ABM exposure. On the other hand, quercetin dietary supplementation improved the hemato-biochemical alterations and alleviated oxidative stress induced by ABM exposure. Fish supplemented with quercetin at a level of 800 mg/kg diet showed better alleviating effects against ABM compared to 400 mg/kg diet. Based on these study findings, we suggest that quercetin dietary supplementation (800 mg/kg) offered direct protection against ABM-induced physiological disturbance and oxidative stress in Nile tilapia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effects of Pollution and Other Stressors on Fish Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1723 KiB  
Article
Genetic Relationship between Salmonella Isolates Recovered from Calves and Broilers Chickens in Kafr El-Sheikh City Using ERIC PCR
by Rasha Gomaa Tawfik, Mahmoud F. Gawish, Mahmoud M. Abotaleb, Hassan S. Nada, Kareem Morsy, Mohamed M. A. Abumandour and Helmy Torky
Animals 2022, 12(23), 3428; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12233428 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1392
Abstract
A prevalent bacterial intestinal infection with severe economic damage is salmonellosis. Our study was carried out to diagnose Salmonella from chickens and calves, to determine its resistance to antimicrobials’ phenotypic and genotypic characterization of integrons and β lactamase genes in the multidrug resistance [...] Read more.
A prevalent bacterial intestinal infection with severe economic damage is salmonellosis. Our study was carried out to diagnose Salmonella from chickens and calves, to determine its resistance to antimicrobials’ phenotypic and genotypic characterization of integrons and β lactamase genes in the multidrug resistance of different Salmonella serotypes, and to detect the genetic relationship between Salmonella isolates collected from different origins using an ERIC PCR. In total, 200 samples from diseased chicken and diarrheic calves were obtained from 50 various farms from Kafr El-sheikh, Egypt. Salmonella poultry isolates were characterized as S. Typhimurium (3/8), S. Enteritidis (3/8), and S. Kentucky (2/8), but Salmonella isolates from cattle were S. Enteritidis (1/2) and S. Kentucky (1/2). When antibiotic susceptibility testing was completed on all of the isolates, it showed that there was multidrug resistance present (MDR). A PCR was applied for identifying the accompanying class 1 integrons and ESBLs from MDR Salmonella isolates (two isolates of S. Kentucky were divided as one from calf and one from poultry). Our results detected blaTEM and class 1 integron, but were negative for bla IMP, bla VIM, and bla SHV. An ERIC PCR was conducted for understanding the clonal relation between various β-lactamase-producing MDR Salmonella isolates. The same four previously mentioned isolates were also tested. The two isolates of S. Enteritidis isolated from poultry and calves had 100% similarity despite indicating that there were interactions between broilers and calves living on the same farm that caused infection from the same Salmonella strains, while the other two isolates of S. Kentucky showed only 33% serovarities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Veterinary Microbiology in Farm Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 305 KiB  
Article
Production Efficiency and Utility Features of Broiler Ducks Fed with Feed Thinned with Wheat Grain
by Jakub Biesek, Mirosław Banaszak, Małgorzata Grabowicz, Sebastian Wlaźlak and Marek Adamski
Animals 2022, 12(23), 3427; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12233427 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1564
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the production efficiency (economics), growth, and meat quality of ducks fed with feed partially replaced with wheat. A total of 200 ducks were reared for 49 days. Each group consisted of 50 ducks (5 pens [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the production efficiency (economics), growth, and meat quality of ducks fed with feed partially replaced with wheat. A total of 200 ducks were reared for 49 days. Each group consisted of 50 ducks (5 pens with 10 birds). For slaughter, 10 birds per group were chosen. The control group (C) was provided with a complete feed. In the experimental groups, from 42 to 49 days, the feed was replaced with wheat grains at the level of 10% (W10), 20% (W20), or 40% (W40). In the W20 and W40 groups, the cost of feed was reduced. In the W40 group, the profit per 1 kg carcass was increased by PLN 3.34 (more than 24% higher than the C group profit). A higher percentage of pectoral muscles and intramuscular fat was observed in the W20 group, with lower water content. A lower water-holding capacity (WHC) was observed in the duck leg muscles in group W40. The muscles from the W20 group had higher protein, collagen, and water content, and the fat was highest in the W40 group. A lower toughness of cooked meat was observed in the W20 group, and lower shear force in the pectoral muscles of groups C and W40. Thinning feed with wheat grains could represent an alternative to conventional feeding of broiler ducks, owing to reduced feed costs, with no negative impact on utility features, including growth, except the share of pectoral muscle and water absorption traits. Full article
17 pages, 370 KiB  
Review
Neonatology: Topics on Puppies and Kittens Neonatal Management to Improve Neonatal Outcome
by Keylla Helena Nobre Pacífico Pereira, Kárita da Mata Fuchs, Jaqueline Valença Corrêa, Simone Biagio Chiacchio and Maria Lucia Gomes Lourenço
Animals 2022, 12(23), 3426; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12233426 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3724
Abstract
The productivity of kennels and catteries is directly linked to maternal prolificacy and neonatal survival. During the neonatal period, mortality is high, not only due to environmental factors after birth but also with regard to gestational fetal life, complications during delivery, and management [...] Read more.
The productivity of kennels and catteries is directly linked to maternal prolificacy and neonatal survival. During the neonatal period, mortality is high, not only due to environmental factors after birth but also with regard to gestational fetal life, complications during delivery, and management errors. Neonatology is an area of veterinary medicine where having a strong knowledge base of applied physiology and common clinical presentations for newborns can often favor better outcomes and greater neonatal survival. The teaching of animal theriogenology topics, particularly neonatal medicine, in the veterinary curriculum has evolved significantly in recent years. It is essential that the veterinarian understands the maternal and neonatal particularities and the main aspects involved in the handling of puppies and kittens for the instruction of the correct handling to the breeders and better medical conduct. The breeder of dogs and cats, experienced or not, must count on the help of a veterinarian in their breeding. Proper management, constant monitoring of the litter, and prompt assistance are the keys to successful breeding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Reproduction)
18 pages, 357 KiB  
Review
Zoonotic Disease Risks of Live Export of Cattle and Sheep, with a Focus on Australian Shipments to Asia and the Middle East
by Clive J. C. Phillips
Animals 2022, 12(23), 3425; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12233425 - 05 Dec 2022
Viewed by 2486
Abstract
The growing human and livestock populations in the world today and increased international transport of livestock is increasing the risk of both emerging and endemic zoonotic diseases. This review focuses on the potential for the live export trade to transmit zoonotic diseases. Both [...] Read more.
The growing human and livestock populations in the world today and increased international transport of livestock is increasing the risk of both emerging and endemic zoonotic diseases. This review focuses on the potential for the live export trade to transmit zoonotic diseases. Both cattle and sheep are exposed to major stresses during the transport process, which are described, together with the impact of these stresses on the immune function of transported animals. Heat stress, overcrowding, inanition, ship and vehicle motion and accumulation of noxious gases are analysed for their ability to potentiate infectious diseases. The major zoonoses are described: pustular dermatitis, pneumonia, salmonellosis, as well as some common conditions, such as conjunctivitis, with specific reference to stressors associated with each disorder. Historical precedents exist for restriction of the trade based on disease risks. Finally, the economic and regulatory frameworks are considered to evaluate ways in which the spread of zoonotic diseases can be controlled. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Relationship between Farm Animal Transport, Disease and Welfare)
12 pages, 561 KiB  
Article
Cheese and Butter as a Source of Health-Promoting Fatty Acids in the Human Diet
by Beata Paszczyk
Animals 2022, 12(23), 3424; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12233424 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2556
Abstract
The assessment of fatty acid composition, including the content of conjugated linoleic acid cis9trans11 C18:2 (CLA) and trans C18:1 and C18:2 isomers in fat extracted from selected high-fat dairy products commonly available to consumers in retail sale on the Polish [...] Read more.
The assessment of fatty acid composition, including the content of conjugated linoleic acid cis9trans11 C18:2 (CLA) and trans C18:1 and C18:2 isomers in fat extracted from selected high-fat dairy products commonly available to consumers in retail sale on the Polish market, and a comparison of their indicators as to the quality of lipids was the aim of the study. The experimental materials were hard cheeses, white-mold cheeses, blue-veined cheeses, and butters. The conducted study demonstrated that various contents of groups of fatty acids and the values of lipid quality indices were found in the tested products. Butters turned out to be richer sources of short-chain, branched-chain, and odd-chain fatty acids. The fat extracted from butters and white-mold cheeses had a significantly higher (p < 0.05) content of n-3 fatty acids. Lower values of the n-6/n-3 ratio were determined in the fat extracted from butters and white-mold cheeses. The highest values of the thrombogenicity index (TI) were found in fat extracted from hard cheeses. Significantly lower values (p < 0.05) of the atherogenicity index (AI) and values of the H/H ratio were found in fat from mold cheeses. Fat from butters and white-mold cheeses had a significantly higher (p < 0.05) content of CLA and total content of trans C18:1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Quality Assessment in Milk and Dairy Products)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2358 KiB  
Article
Economic Improvement of Artisanal Fishing by Studying the Survival of Discarded Plectorhinchus mediterraneus
by Ignacio Ruiz-Jarabo, Blanca Partida, María Page, Diego Madera, Nuria Saiz, Aitana Alonso-Gómez, Lisbeth Herrera-Castillo, Esther Isorna, Ángel L. Alonso-Gómez, Ana I. Valenciano, Nuria de Pedro, Jorge Saez and Maria J. Delgado
Animals 2022, 12(23), 3423; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12233423 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1251
Abstract
Europe calls for the end to fisheries discards, which means bringing all caught fish (subject to minimum sizes or quotas) to land. This decision is beneficial to the ecosystem, since it forces the selectivity of the fishing gears to improve. However, artisanal fishermen [...] Read more.
Europe calls for the end to fisheries discards, which means bringing all caught fish (subject to minimum sizes or quotas) to land. This decision is beneficial to the ecosystem, since it forces the selectivity of the fishing gears to improve. However, artisanal fishermen find themselves in a vulnerable situation where their subsistence depends on catches with small profit margins. An exemption to this landing obligation exists, as it is also ruled that those animals whose survival is scientifically guaranteed may be returned to the sea. Here we study the survival of Plectorhinchus mediterraneus captured by hookline and gillnet, as well as their physiological recovery. Survival exceeds 93% in both cases. The physiological assessment of primary (cortisol) and secondary (energy mobilization, acid-base and hydromineral balance, and immune system) stress responses indicates that surviving animals are able to recover after fishing. Thus, we propose the optimal size of capture of this species to achieve greater economic benefit. For this, we rely on the prices according to size in recent years, as well as on the growth curves of the species. In this way, by releasing fish of less than 1 kg, the current benefits could be multiplied between 2.3 and 9.6 times. This pilot study lays the groundwork for regulating artisanal fisheries through scientific data related to survival of discards along with information on the sale prices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Welfare Assessment: Challenges for Aquaculture and Research)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 3325 KiB  
Article
Bacillus subtilis Effects on Growth Performance and Health Status of Totoaba macdonaldi Fed with High Levels of Soy Protein Concentrate
by Jorge Olmos, Lus M. López, Antonio Gorriño, Mario A. Galaviz and Victor Mercado
Animals 2022, 12(23), 3422; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12233422 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2114
Abstract
T. macdonaldi is a carnivorous species endemic to the Gulf of California. Indiscriminate exploitation has put totoaba at risk, inducing the development of aquaculture procedures to grow it without affecting the wild population. However, aquafeeds increasing cost and low yields obtained with commercial [...] Read more.
T. macdonaldi is a carnivorous species endemic to the Gulf of California. Indiscriminate exploitation has put totoaba at risk, inducing the development of aquaculture procedures to grow it without affecting the wild population. However, aquafeeds increasing cost and low yields obtained with commercial feeds have motivated researchers to look for more nutritious and cheaper alternatives. Soybean (SB) is the most popular alternative to fishmeal (FM); however, antinutritional factors limit its use in carnivorous species. In this study, we analyzed B. subtilis 9b probiotic capacity to improve growth performance and health status of T. macdonaldi fed with formulations containing 30% and 60% substitution of fish meal with soy protein concentrate (SPC). In addition, we investigated its effect on internal organs condition, their capacity to modulate the intestinal microbiota, and to boost the immunological response of T. macdonaldi against V. harveyi infections. In this sense, we found that T. macdonaldi fed with SPC30Pro diet supplemented with B. subtilis 9b strain and 30% SPC produced better results than SPC30C control diet without B. subtilis and DCML commercial diet. Additionally, animals fed with SPC60Pro diet supplemented with B. subtilis 9b strain and 60% SPC doubled their weight and produced 20% more survival than SPC60C control diet without B. subtilis. Thus, B. subtilis 9b improved T. macdonaldi growth performance, health status, modulated intestinal microbiota, and increased animal’s resistance to V. harveyi infections, placing this bacterium as an excellent candidate to produce functional feeds with high levels of SPC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Feeds to Improve Shrimp and Fish Aquaculture)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 3300 KiB  
Article
Transcutaneous Detection of Intramural Microchips for Tracking the Migration of the Equine Large Colon: A Pilot Study
by Sara KT Steward, Hannah M. McKee, Allison M. Watson, Mo D. Salman and Diana M. Hassel
Animals 2022, 12(23), 3421; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12233421 - 05 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1452
Abstract
Colic remains the number one cause of mortality in horses, and large colon displacement including colonic volvulus is one of the leading causes for equine hospitalization and surgery. Currently, there is not an adequate model to study the pathophysiology of this condition. The [...] Read more.
Colic remains the number one cause of mortality in horses, and large colon displacement including colonic volvulus is one of the leading causes for equine hospitalization and surgery. Currently, there is not an adequate model to study the pathophysiology of this condition. The objective of this proof-of-concept study was to determine if subserosal implantation of bioinert microchips in the large intestine would be detectable by a RFID (radio-frequency identification) receiver when the implanted microchips were adjacent to the body wall, thus identifying the location of the colon within the abdomen. A horse with no history of gastrointestinal disease underwent a ventral midline celiotomy to implant twelve bioinert microchips into the subserosa at predetermined locations within the large colon and cecum. A RFID scanner was used to monitor the location of the colon via transcutaneous identification 1–3 times daily for a one-month period. Following humane euthanasia, a postmortem examination of the horse was performed to assess microchip implantation sites for migration and histologic assessment. Eleven out of the 12 implanted microchips were successfully identified transcutaneously at occurrences as high as 100%. Odds ratios were calculated for the likelihood of identifying each chip in a location different from its most common location. Microchips implanted into the subserosa of the equine large colon can be used as a means of identifying the approximate location of the equine large colon via transcutaneous identification with an RFID scanner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Equine Colic)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 247 KiB  
Article
Effects of Supplemented Resveratrol on In Vitro Ruminal Fermentation and Growth Performance of Hanwoo Calves
by Chae Hwa Ryu, Byeong Hyeon Kim, Seul Lee, Han Tae Bang and Youl Chang Baek
Animals 2022, 12(23), 3420; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12233420 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1269
Abstract
We investigated the effects of resveratrol supplementation on in vitro ruminal fermentation and growth performance of Hanwoo calves. Treatment with three resveratrol concentrations (0%, 0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5%) was used for in vitro ruminal fermentation. Resveratrol concentrations and pH of rumen fluid were [...] Read more.
We investigated the effects of resveratrol supplementation on in vitro ruminal fermentation and growth performance of Hanwoo calves. Treatment with three resveratrol concentrations (0%, 0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5%) was used for in vitro ruminal fermentation. Resveratrol concentrations and pH of rumen fluid were negatively correlated (p < 0.05); therefore, total gas production, total volatile fatty acids, and acetate, propionate, and butyrate levels were significantly higher in the treatments than in the control at all time periods (p < 0.05). The appropriate resveratrol concentration that could be added without negative effects on the rumen was 0.3%. In farm experiments, we divided 14 Korean cattle calves into control (C) and 0.3% resveratrol (T) groups. There were no significant differences in the daily weight gain, feed conversion, final body weight, body length, withers height, and height at hip cross in the resveratrol-fed Hanwoo calves. Immunoglobulin G level was significantly higher in the treatment than in the control (p < 0.05), but IgA and IgM levels did not differ. Supplemental feeding of resveratrol is beneficial to in vitro ruminal fermentation, but it is important to supplement it at 0.3%. Furthermore, resveratrol affects calf immunoglobulin G. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Nutrition)
10 pages, 2009 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Femur Positioning on Measurement of Tibial Plateau Angle: An In Vitro Study
by Alan Danielski, Miguel Angel Solano and Russell Yeadon
Animals 2022, 12(23), 3419; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12233419 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1196
Abstract
Five canine cadaveric pelvic limbs with intact cranial cruciate ligaments were used to quantify the effect of variation in limb positioning on the radiographic measurement of the tibial plateau angle (TPA) with reference to the degree of femoral condyle superimposition. Intra-osseous pin placement [...] Read more.
Five canine cadaveric pelvic limbs with intact cranial cruciate ligaments were used to quantify the effect of variation in limb positioning on the radiographic measurement of the tibial plateau angle (TPA) with reference to the degree of femoral condyle superimposition. Intra-osseous pin placement and a custom jig design allowed the controlled three-dimensional manipulation of limbs. Medio-lateral digital radiographic projections were taken with perfect femoral hemicondylar superimposition to establish a “reference” TPA (difference in position = 0 mm), and subsequently in varying degrees of supination/pronation and abduction/adduction. The lack of femoral hemicondylar superimposition for each radiograph was quantified using a tangential line technique with reference to the long tibial axis. A total of 176 radiographs were each assessed by three observers. “True” TPA was measured and it ranged within 17–25° across all limbs assessed. Variation in femoral condylar positioning ranged from −13 mm to +13 mm proximo-distally, and −11 mm to +11 mm cranio-caudally. Moreover, 3 mm non-superimposition of the femoral condyles produced 90.6% of measurements with 1° difference between measured and “true” TPA, and a sensitivity of 97.9% for a 2° difference. Further reduction in femoral condylar superimposition to 4 mm reduced the frequency of 1° difference between measured and “true” TPA to 84.9%, and to 94.8% for a 2° difference. In conclusion, measurement of TPA in large breed dogs from radiographs with greater than 3 mm variation in femoral condylar superimposition should be interpreted with caution. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 258 KiB  
Article
Effects of Glutamine on Rumen Digestive Enzymes and the Barrier Function of the Ruminal Epithelium in Hu Lambs Fed a High-Concentrate Finishing Diet
by Qiujue Wu, Zhongying Xing, Jiahui Liao, Longlong Zhu, Rongkai Zhang, Saiqiao Wang, Cong Wang, Yan Ma and Yuqin Wang
Animals 2022, 12(23), 3418; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12233418 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1174
Abstract
The present experiment aimed to research the effects of glutamine (Gln) on the digestive and barrier function of the ruminal epithelium in Hu lambs fed a high-concentrate finishing diet containing some soybean meal and cottonseed meal. Thirty healthy 3-month-old male Hu lambs were [...] Read more.
The present experiment aimed to research the effects of glutamine (Gln) on the digestive and barrier function of the ruminal epithelium in Hu lambs fed a high-concentrate finishing diet containing some soybean meal and cottonseed meal. Thirty healthy 3-month-old male Hu lambs were randomly divided into three treatments. Lambs were fed a high-concentrate diet and supplemented with 0, 0.5, and 1% Gln on diet for 60 days. The experimental results show that the Gln treatment group had lower pepsin and cellulase enzyme activity, propionate acid concentration, and IL-6, TNF-α, claudin-1, and ZO-1 mRNA expression in the ruminal epithelium (p < 0.05); as well as increases in lipase enzyme activity, the ratio of propionic acid to acetic acid, the IL-10 content in the plasma, and the mRNA expression of IL-2 and IL-10 in the ruminal epithelium, in contrast to the CON (control group) treatment (p < 0.05). Taken together, the findings of this present study support the addition of Gln to improve digestive enzyme activity, the ruminal epithelium’s barrier, and fermentation and immune function by supplying energy to the mononuclear cells, improving the ruminal epithelium’s morphology and integrity, and mediating the mRNA expression of tight junction proteins (TJs) and cytokines. Full article
11 pages, 1627 KiB  
Article
ProAKAP4 Concentration Is Related to Sperm Motility and Motile Sperm Subpopulations in Frozen–Thawed Horse Semen
by Marta Dordas-Perpinyà, Ivan Yanez-Ortiz, Nicolas Sergeant, Vincent Mevel, Jean-François Bruyas, Jaime Catalán, Maryse Delehedde, Lamia Briand-Amirat and Jordi Miró
Animals 2022, 12(23), 3417; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12233417 - 04 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2047
Abstract
ProAKAP4 is the precursor of AKAP4 (A-kinase Anchor protein 4), the main structural protein of the fibrous sheath of sperm. The amount of proAKAP4 reflects the ability of spermatozoa to maintain the flagellum activity and functionality up to the site of fertilization and [...] Read more.
ProAKAP4 is the precursor of AKAP4 (A-kinase Anchor protein 4), the main structural protein of the fibrous sheath of sperm. The amount of proAKAP4 reflects the ability of spermatozoa to maintain the flagellum activity and functionality up to the site of fertilization and is positively correlated with progressive motility in several mammalian species. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between proAKAP4 concentration with horse sperm motility descriptors and spermatic motile subpopulations. For this purpose, a total of 48 ejaculates from 13 different stallions were analyzed. Spermatic motility descriptors were obtained by the CASA system, and four motile subpopulations (SP) with specific motility patterns were statistically identified. ProAKAP4 concentrations were evaluated by ELISA. The relationship between motility descriptors of sperm subpopulations and proAKAP4 concentrations was evaluated. Following a hierarchical cluster statistical analysis, ejaculates were divided into two groups according to their proAKAP4 concentrations, either having low proAKAP4 concentrations (5.06–35.61 ng/10M spz; n = 23) or high (39.92–82.23 ng/10M spz; n = 25) proAKAP4 concentrations (p < 0.001). ProAKAP4 concentrations were positively correlated (p < 0.05) with total and progressive motility, as well as with parameters of velocity. ProAKAP4 amount also showed a negative correlation (p < 0.05) with sperm motile subpopulation number 3, which was the subpopulation with the lowest velocity parameters. In conclusion, proAKAP4 concentration in stallion semen positively reflects sperm progressive motility with the functional velocity kinematic descriptors. Concentrations of proAKAP4 higher than 37.77 ng/10M spz were correlated with a very good quality frozen/thawed stallion semen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sperm Quality and Fertility of Livestock Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 1862 KiB  
Article
Perceptions of Farm Animal Sentience and Suffering: Evidence from the BRIC Countries and the United States
by Fernando Mata, Bastian Jaeger and Ivo Domingues
Animals 2022, 12(23), 3416; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12233416 - 04 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2445
Abstract
In this study, we examined how beliefs about farm animal sentience and their suffering vary across culture and demographic characteristics. A total of N = 5027) questionnaires were administered in Brazil, Russia, India, China, and the USA. Brazilians showed higher and Chinese lower [...] Read more.
In this study, we examined how beliefs about farm animal sentience and their suffering vary across culture and demographic characteristics. A total of N = 5027) questionnaires were administered in Brazil, Russia, India, China, and the USA. Brazilians showed higher and Chinese lower levels of perceived animal sentience. In Russia and India, the perception of suffering and sentience increases with age, with similar levels to those observed in the USA. In all the countries, more people agreed than disagreed that animals are sentient. Men in India show higher levels of agreement with the relation between eating meat and animal suffering, followed by women in Brazil and China. Lower levels of agreement are observed in Americans and Chinese. Women show higher levels of compassion than men. In Russia, there is a slightly higher level of agreement between men and in the USA younger men agree more. Young American men show higher levels of agreement, while in India and China age has the opposite effect. For fair trading competition, it is important to standardize procedures and respect the demand for both animal protein and its ethical production. Overall, our results showed that perceptions of farm animal sentience and suffering vary substantially across countries and demographic groups. These differences could have important consequences for the perceived ethicality of meat production and consumption, and for global trade in animal products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Welfare from a Cross-Cultural Perspective)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop