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Animals, Volume 11, Issue 10 (October 2021) – 251 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus haemorrhagic disease is the primary cause of calf mortality in the global captive Asian elephant population, yet the factors determining calf susceptibility to the virus remain unknown. In this study, we analysed the impact of EEHV-HD in the European captive Asian elephant population and investigated if hereditary or environmental factors could be linked to a higher susceptibility of this disease. The findings of this investigation suggest the involvement of zoo-associated factors with possible sire and/or dam influence on the onset of the disease. This alerts us to the importance of continuous epidemiological studies and stresses the significance of finding further underlying factors for the development of this disease if we wish to halt it.View this paper
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11 pages, 1825 KiB  
Communication
Welfare in Nile Tilapia Production: Dorsal Fin Erection as a Visual Indicator for Insensibility
by Bruno Camargo-dos-Santos, Clarissa Lerois Carlos, João Favero-Neto, Nina Pacheco Capelini Alves, Bruno Bastos Gonçalves and Percília Cardoso Giaquinto
Animals 2021, 11(10), 3007; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11103007 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2513
Abstract
In aquaculture, to ensure animal welfare in pre-slaughter and slaughter stages, it is fundamental that fish are insensible. A method for evaluating fish insensibility is based on visual sensibility indicators (VSI) assessment (i.e., self-initiated behavior, responses to stimuli and reflexes). However, many stimuli [...] Read more.
In aquaculture, to ensure animal welfare in pre-slaughter and slaughter stages, it is fundamental that fish are insensible. A method for evaluating fish insensibility is based on visual sensibility indicators (VSI) assessment (i.e., self-initiated behavior, responses to stimuli and reflexes). However, many stimuli used to assess fish responses are painful. Therefore, this study verifies whether the presence/absence of a dorsal fin erection (DFE) response can be used as a painless VSI in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Three stunning protocols were applied to fish: benzocaine anesthesia (40 mg/L and 80 mg/L), ice water immersion (0–1, 2–3 and 5–6 °C) and CO2 stunning. After these stunning methods were applied in fish, the time of loss and return of DFE was observed, along with the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). All fish stunned using benzocaine and ice water immersion lose both VSIs, while 95% of fish stunned using CO2 lose these VSIs. In all treatments, DFEs return quicker than VOR. Therefore, DFE can be used as a VSI in Nile tilapia, which is simple for producers to assess and does not require a painful stimulus. However, the DFE alone does not totally ensure fish insensibility and must be used together with other well-established VSIs at fish farms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection New Approaches to Fish Welfare)
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8 pages, 228 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Three Newly Identified Equine Parvoviruses in Blood and Nasal Fluid Samples of Clinically Healthy Horses and Horses with Acute Onset of Respiratory Disease
by Nicola Pusterla, Kaitlyn James, Samantha Barnum and Eric Delwart
Animals 2021, 11(10), 3006; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11103006 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1700
Abstract
Three newly identified equine parvoviruses (equine parvovirus hepatitis (EqPV-H), equine parvovirus CSF (EqPV-CSF) and equine copivirus (Eqcopivirus)) have recently been discovered in horses with respiratory signs. However, the clinical impact of these three equine parvoviruses has yet to be determined. Nasal fluid samples [...] Read more.
Three newly identified equine parvoviruses (equine parvovirus hepatitis (EqPV-H), equine parvovirus CSF (EqPV-CSF) and equine copivirus (Eqcopivirus)) have recently been discovered in horses with respiratory signs. However, the clinical impact of these three equine parvoviruses has yet to be determined. Nasal fluid samples and blood from 667 equids with acute onset of fever and respiratory signs submitted to a diagnostic laboratory were analyzed for the presence of common equine respiratory pathogens (equine influenza virus, equine herpesvirus-1/-4, equine rhinitis A and B virus, S. equi subspecies equi) as well as EqPV-H, EqPV-CSF and Eqcopivirus by qPCR. An additional 87 clinically healthy horses served as controls. One hundred and seventeen sick horses tested qPCR-positive for at least one of the three parvoviruses. Co-infections with common respiratory pathogens and parvoviruses were seen in 39 sick equids. All 87 clinically healthy horses tested qPCR-negative for all tested common respiratory pathogens and 10 healthy horses tested qPCR-positive for one of the equine parvoviruses. When the frequency of detection for EqPV-H, EqPV-CSF and Eqcopivirus of equids with respiratory signs was compared to that of clinically healthy horses, the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05), suggesting that the three recently identified equine parvoviruses do not contribute to the clinical picture of equids with respiratory disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus Infection in Equine)
15 pages, 1278 KiB  
Article
Modified Nano-Montmorillonite and Monensin Modulate In Vitro Ruminal Fermentation, Nutrient Degradability, and Methanogenesis Differently
by Yosra Soltan, Amr Morsy, Nesrein Hashem, Mahmoud Elazab, Mohamed Sultan, Haneen Marey, Gomaa Abo El Lail, Nagwa El-Desoky, Nourhan Hosny, Ahmed Mahdy, Elsayed Hafez and Sobhy Sallam
Animals 2021, 11(10), 3005; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11103005 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1940
Abstract
Two types of modified nano-montmorillonite (MNM) were developed by ion-exchange reactions using two different surfactants; sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CETAB), to prepare MNMSDS and MNMCETAB, respectively. Both MNM types were on the nano-scale and had higher cation-exchange [...] Read more.
Two types of modified nano-montmorillonite (MNM) were developed by ion-exchange reactions using two different surfactants; sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CETAB), to prepare MNMSDS and MNMCETAB, respectively. Both MNM types were on the nano-scale and had higher cation-exchange capacity values than NM clay. The MNMCETAB had the highest zeta potential (−27 mV) compared with the other clays. Effects of MNM types on in vitro ruminal batch culture fermentation, nutrient degradability, and methane (CH4) emission compared with monensin were evaluated in vitro using a semi-automatic gas production system. The experimental treatments were the control (0 supplementations), monensin (40 mg/kg DM), and NM (5 g NM/kg DM), and two levels of MNMSDS and MNMCETAB were supplemented at 0.05 (low) and 0.5 (high) g/kg DM to the control basal feed substrate. Among the experimental treatments, the high dose of both MNM types reduced (p < 0.01) CH4 production and ammonia concentrations compared with the control, while only MNMCETAB treatment tended to increase (p = 0.08) the truly degraded organic matter compared with monensin. All MNM treatments increased (p < 0.01) acetate molar proportions compared with monensin. The high MNMCETAB increased (p < 0.01) the in vitro ruminal batch culture pH compared with the control and monensin. The MNMCETAB supplemented at 0.5 g/kg DM is the most efficient additive to reduce CH4 emission with the advantage of enhancing the in vitro nutrient degradability of the experimental feed substrate. These results indicated that MNM could modulate the in vitro ruminal fermentation pattern in a dose- and type-dependent manner. Full article
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19 pages, 3772 KiB  
Article
Characterization, Stress Response and Functional Analyses of Giant River Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) Glucose-Regulated Protein 78 (Mr-grp78) under Temperature Stress and during Aeromonas hydrophila Infection
by Prapansak Srisapoome, Tanya Ju-Ngam and Ratree Wongpanya
Animals 2021, 11(10), 3004; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11103004 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1809
Abstract
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an organelle important for several functions of cellular physiology. This study identified the giant river prawn’s glucose-regulated protein 78 (Mr-grp78), which is important for ER stress mechanisms. Nucleotide and amino acid analyses of Mr-grp78, as [...] Read more.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an organelle important for several functions of cellular physiology. This study identified the giant river prawn’s glucose-regulated protein 78 (Mr-grp78), which is important for ER stress mechanisms. Nucleotide and amino acid analyses of Mr-grp78, as compared with other species, revealed the highest similarity scores with the grp78 genes of crustaceans. An expression analysis by quantitative RT-PCR indicated that Mr-grp78 was expressed in all tissues and presented its highest expression in the ovary (57.64 ± 2.39-fold), followed by the gills (42.25 ± 1.12), hindgut (37.15 ± 2.47), thoracic ganglia (28.55 ± 2.45) and hemocytes (28.45 ± 2.26). Expression analysis of Mr-grp78 mRNA levels under Aeromonas hydrophila induction and heat/cold-shock exposure was conducted in the gills, hepatopancreas and hemocytes. The expression levels of Mr-grp78 in these tissues were highly upregulated 12 h after bacterial infection. In contrast, under heat- and cold-shock conditions, the expression of Mr-grp78 was significantly suppressed in the gills at 24–96 h and in the hepatopancreas at 12 h (p < 0.05). A functional analysis via Mr-grp78 gene knockdown showed that Mr-grp78 transcription in the gills, hepatopancreas and muscle strongly decreased from 6 to 96 h. Furthermore, the silencing of this gene effectively increased the sensitivity of the tested prawns to heat- and pathogenic-bacterium-induced stress. The results of this study clearly demonstrate the significant functional roles of Mr-grp78 in response to both temperature and pathogen treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Aquatic Animals)
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17 pages, 58993 KiB  
Review
Bridging Captive and Wild Studies: Behavioral Plasticity and Social Complexity in Theropithecus gelada
by Elisabetta Palagi and Thore J. Bergman
Animals 2021, 11(10), 3003; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11103003 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3446
Abstract
Cognitive ethology explores the ability of animals to flexibly adapt their behavior to rapid physical and social environment fluctuations. Although there is a historical dichotomy between field and captive studies, recently, a growing interest in questions that sit at the intersection of cognitive [...] Read more.
Cognitive ethology explores the ability of animals to flexibly adapt their behavior to rapid physical and social environment fluctuations. Although there is a historical dichotomy between field and captive studies, recently, a growing interest in questions that sit at the intersection of cognitive and adaptive perspectives has helped bridge this divide. By focusing on Theropithecus gelada, we discuss the three main reasons why this hybrid approach is extremely successful. First, captive and wild studies provide data at different social, spatial, and temporal scales that can be synthesized to give a fuller picture of the behavior. Secondly, apparently conflicting results from captive and wild settings are powerful tools to explore behavioral flexibility and latent behavioral tendencies. Third, the different settings provide ways of validating and exploring behaviors that are noticed in the other setting. Although we were able to bring together our captive and wild research to demonstrate these ideas, we could have obtained a more integrated vision on the proximate and ultimate gelada behavioral and cognitive strategies if we had considered this hybrid approach from the beginning. We hope that this manuscript stimulates scholars in designing their studies by taking into account the incredible potential of a complementary captive-wild research approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-human Primates: Emotion, Cognition and Welfare)
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17 pages, 7179 KiB  
Article
Roaming in a Land of Milk and Honey: Life Trajectories and Metabolic Rate of Female Inbred Mice Living in a Semi Naturalistic Environment
by Paul Mieske, Kai Diederich and Lars Lewejohann
Animals 2021, 11(10), 3002; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11103002 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2556
Abstract
Despite tremendous efforts at standardization, the results of scientific studies can vary greatly, especially when considering animal research. It is important to emphasize that consistent different personality-like traits emerge and accumulate over time in laboratory mice despite genetic and environmental standardization. To understand [...] Read more.
Despite tremendous efforts at standardization, the results of scientific studies can vary greatly, especially when considering animal research. It is important to emphasize that consistent different personality-like traits emerge and accumulate over time in laboratory mice despite genetic and environmental standardization. To understand to what extent variability can unfold over time, we conducted a long-term study using inbred mice living in an exceptionally complex environment comprising an area of 4.6 m2 spread over five levels. In this semi-naturalistic environment (SNE) the activity and spatial distribution of 20 female C57Bl/6J was recorded by radio-frequency identification (RFID). All individuals were monitored from an age of 11 months to 22 months and their individual pattern of spatial movement in time is described as roaming entropy. Overall, we detected an increase of diversification in roaming behavior over time with stabilizing activity patterns at the individual level. However, spontaneous behavior of the animals as well as physiological parameters did not correlate with cumulative roaming entropy. Moreover, the amount of variability did not exceed the literature data derived from mice living in restricted conventional laboratory conditions. We conclude that even taking quantum leaps towards improving animal welfare does not inevitably mean a setback in terms of data quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Welfare of Laboratory Animals)
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8 pages, 1746 KiB  
Article
miR-152 Regulates Bovine Myoblast Proliferation by Targeting KLF6
by Chengchuang Song, Xue Fang, Zhaoxin Yang, Qi Wang, Fantong Meng, Yaqi Chen, Junhao Chen, Bei Zhao, Yanhong Wang, Xingtang Fang, Lihong Gu and Chunlei Zhang
Animals 2021, 11(10), 3001; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11103001 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1648
Abstract
Though miRNAs have been reported to regulate bovine myoblast proliferation, but many miRNAs still need to be further explored. Specifically, miR-152 is a highly expressed miRNA in cattle skeletal muscle tissues, but its function in skeletal muscle development is unknown. Herein, we aimed [...] Read more.
Though miRNAs have been reported to regulate bovine myoblast proliferation, but many miRNAs still need to be further explored. Specifically, miR-152 is a highly expressed miRNA in cattle skeletal muscle tissues, but its function in skeletal muscle development is unknown. Herein, we aimed to investigate the role of miR-152 in regulating bovine myoblast proliferation. Functionally, RT-qPCR, Western blotting, EdU assay, and flow cytometry detection results showed that miR-152 inhibited bovine myoblast proliferation. Mechanistically, we demonstrated transcription factor KLF6 was a target gene of miR-152 by means of bioinformatics software prediction and dual-luciferase report analysis, which had been demonstrated to be favorable for myoblast proliferation. Collectively, our research suggested that miR-152 inhibits bovine myoblast proliferation via targeting KLF6. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cattle)
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8 pages, 270 KiB  
Article
A Survey of Intestinal Helminths of Dogs in Slovakia with an Emphasis on Zoonotic Species
by Júlia Jarošová, Daniela Antolová, Branislav Lukáč and Aladár Maďari
Animals 2021, 11(10), 3000; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11103000 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2028
Abstract
Dogs are the most popular pets worldwide; however, close contact with people increases the risk of transmission of different zoonotic parasites. This study aims to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in dogs in Slovakia. A total of 495 faecal samples collected from [...] Read more.
Dogs are the most popular pets worldwide; however, close contact with people increases the risk of transmission of different zoonotic parasites. This study aims to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in dogs in Slovakia. A total of 495 faecal samples collected from pet, shelter, guard, working (police), and hunting dogs, as well as dogs from segregated Roma settlements between 2016 and 2021, were examined using flotation and molecular methods. Eggs of intestinal helminths were detected in 134 (27.1%) samples. Microscopically, six different species/genera/families, namely, Toxocara canis (14.7%), Toxascaris leonina (1.6%), Trichuris vulpis (6.3%), Capillaria spp. (1.4%), Ancylostoma/Uncinaria spp. (8.3%), and taeniid eggs (4.0%), were recorded. Molecular analyses revealed infection with Echinococcus multilocularis in 2.2% of dogs and 0.4% of the animals were infected with Taenia hydatigena. The results showed a correlation between the occurrence of intestinal helminths and the availability of veterinary care, as dogs from Roma settlements and shelter dogs were the most often infected (66.7% and 39.2%, respectively). On the other hand, working animals were in the best health condition, with only 2.5% being positive. The relatively frequent occurrence of zoonotic species points to the constant need for preventive measures and regular deworming of dogs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parasites in Dogs and Cats)
18 pages, 362 KiB  
Essay
Invasive Research on Non-Human Primates—Time to Turn the Page
by Maria Padrell, Miquel Llorente and Federica Amici
Animals 2021, 11(10), 2999; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102999 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3923
Abstract
Invasive research on primates (i.e., laboratory research that implies body manipulations causing pain or distress that is not aimed to directly improve the individuals’ well-being) has a long history. Although some invasive studies have allowed answering research questions that we could not have [...] Read more.
Invasive research on primates (i.e., laboratory research that implies body manipulations causing pain or distress that is not aimed to directly improve the individuals’ well-being) has a long history. Although some invasive studies have allowed answering research questions that we could not have addressed with other methods (or at least not as quickly), the use of primates in invasive research also raises ethical concerns. In this review, we will discuss (i) recent advances in the study of primates that show evidence of complex behaviour and cognition, (ii) welfare issues that might arise when using primates in invasive research, (iii) the main ethical issues that have been raised about invasive research on primates, (iv) the legal protection that primates are granted in several countries, with a special focus on the principle of the 3Rs, and (v) previous and current attempts to ban the use of primates in invasive research. Based on this analysis, we suggest that the importance of a research question cannot justify the costs of invasive research on primates, and that non-invasive methods should be considered the only possible approach in the study of primates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Behavioural Methods to Study Cognitive Capacities of Animals)
12 pages, 5334 KiB  
Article
Prandial Correlations and Structure of the Ingestive Behavior of Pigs in Precision Feeding Programs
by Bruna C. K. Gomes, Ines Andretta, Marcio Valk, Candido Pomar, Luciano Hauschild, Alícia Z. Fraga, Marcos Kipper, Luciano Trevizan and Aline Remus
Animals 2021, 11(10), 2998; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102998 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1675
Abstract
The feeding behavior of growing-finishing pigs was analyzed to study prandial correlations and the probability of starting a new feeding event. The data were collected in real-time based on 157,632 visits by a group of 70 growing-finishing pigs (from 30.4 to 115.5 kg [...] Read more.
The feeding behavior of growing-finishing pigs was analyzed to study prandial correlations and the probability of starting a new feeding event. The data were collected in real-time based on 157,632 visits by a group of 70 growing-finishing pigs (from 30.4 to 115.5 kg body weight, BW) to automatic feeders. The data were collected over 84 days, during which period the pigs were kept in conventional (by phase and by group) or precision (with daily and individual adjustments) feeding programs. A criterion to delimit each meal was then defined based on the probability of an animal starting a new feeding event within the next minute since the last visit. Prandial correlations were established between meal size and interval before meal (pre-prandial) or interval after meal (post-prandial) using Pearson correlation analysis. Post-prandial correlations (which can be interpreted as hunger-regulating mechanisms) were slightly stronger than pre-prandial correlations (which can be interpreted as satiety regulation mechanisms). Both correlations decreased as the animals’ age increased but were little influenced by the feeding programs. The information generated in this study allows a better understanding of pigs’ feeding behavior regulation mechanisms and could be used in the future to improve precision feeding programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Pig Feeding: A Breakthrough Toward Sustainability)
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21 pages, 365 KiB  
Article
Effect of Supercritical Extract from Black Poplar and Basket Willow on the Quality of Natural and Probiotic Drinkable Yogurt
by Marcin Walter, Bartosz Brzozowski and Marek Adamczak
Animals 2021, 11(10), 2997; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102997 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1971
Abstract
Yogurt is a fermented milk drink produced by Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrüeckii ssp. bulgaricus, or Lactobacillus rhamnosus, which can be enriched with polyphenolic compounds to enhance its antioxidant properties. Supercritical (scCO2/H2O) extracts obtained from the mixture [...] Read more.
Yogurt is a fermented milk drink produced by Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrüeckii ssp. bulgaricus, or Lactobacillus rhamnosus, which can be enriched with polyphenolic compounds to enhance its antioxidant properties. Supercritical (scCO2/H2O) extracts obtained from the mixture of bark and wood of black poplar (Populus nigra) and basket willow (Salix viminalis) are the source of bioactive compounds. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of supercritical extracts from the P. nigra and S. viminalis on the fermentation, quality, and bioactive properties of drinkable natural and probiotic yogurts. The incorporation of scCO2/H2O extracts at a dose of 0.01% (w/v) into milk for the production of natural and probiotic yogurts increases their functional properties by enhancing the antioxidant activity without causing negative effects on the physicochemical and organoleptic properties of products. The antioxidant activity of yogurt with scCO2/H2O extract from P. nigra and S. viminalis was higher than control yogurts by 1.3–13.2% and 4.4–37.5%, respectively. The addition of a supercritical S. viminalis extract reduced the time of natural and probiotic yogurt fermentation. Natural and probiotic yogurt with scCO2/H2O extracts added was characterised by a bacterial population size of over 7 log cfu/g, and the microflora was active throughout the cold storage period. FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of scCO2/H2O extracts from P. nigra or S. viminalis in both types of yogurt. A secondary structure analysis confirmed interactions between compounds of scCO2/H2O extract from P. nigra and S. viminalis extract with milk proteins. These interactions affect the compounds’ structural and functional properties by changing, e.g., their digestibility and antioxidant properties. Full article
12 pages, 1460 KiB  
Article
Onset of Action of Bupivacaine Administered via Dural Puncture Epidural versus Spinal, Lumbosacral, and Sacrococcygeal Epidural Injections in Dogs: Randomised Clinical Trial
by Fernando Martinez-Taboada, Tsim Christopher Sun and Jose Ignacio Redondo
Animals 2021, 11(10), 2996; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102996 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2865
Abstract
The study aimed to compare bupivacaine onset time when administered via epidural anaesthesia injecting both at the lumbosacral and sacrococcygeal spaces, spinal anaesthesia, and DPE in clinical dogs. A total of 41 dogs requiring neuraxial anaesthesia as part of their anaesthetic protocol were [...] Read more.
The study aimed to compare bupivacaine onset time when administered via epidural anaesthesia injecting both at the lumbosacral and sacrococcygeal spaces, spinal anaesthesia, and DPE in clinical dogs. A total of 41 dogs requiring neuraxial anaesthesia as part of their anaesthetic protocol were recruited. They were randomly allocated to receive an epidural injection in the sacrococcygeal space aided by the nerve stimulator (SCO), an epidural injection in the lumbosacral (LS), a subarachnoid injection (SPI), or a DPE. The onset of anaesthesia was assessed every 30 s after the injection by testing the presence of patellar ligament reflex. The number of attempts and time to perform the technique were also recorded. Data were analysed using a one-way ANOVA for trimmed means with post hoc Lincoln test and a Kaplan–Meier curve. The significance level was set at p < 0.05, and the results are presented in absolute values and median (range). There was no difference in the number of attempts required to complete the techniques between groups (p = 0.97). Epidural injections (LS and SCO) tended to be shorter than SPI and DPE techniques, but there was no statistically significant difference (p = 0.071). The time to the disappearance of patellar ligament reflex (Westphal’s sign) in the SCO group was longer than in any other group. In conclusion, all techniques provided a rapid block of the patellar reflex. The SCO technique was the slowest in onset, while the other groups (SPI, DPE, and LS) were faster and almost indistinguishable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Loco-Regional Anaesthesia in Veterinary Medicine)
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14 pages, 884 KiB  
Article
Combined and Singular Effects of Ethanolic Extract of Persian Shallot (Allium hirtifolium Boiss) and Synbiotic Biomin®IMBO on Growth Performance, Serum- and Mucus-Immune Parameters and Antioxidant Defense in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)
by Hamed Ghafarifarsani, Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar, Maedeh Talebi, Morteza Yousefi, Hien Van Doan, Rudabeh Rufchaei and Marina Paolucci
Animals 2021, 11(10), 2995; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102995 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2615
Abstract
This study was carried out to evaluate combined and singular effects of ethanolic extract of Persian shallot (Allium hirtifolium Boiss) and synbiotic Biomin®IMBO on growth performance, innate immune responses, and antioxidant defense in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Fish with [...] Read more.
This study was carried out to evaluate combined and singular effects of ethanolic extract of Persian shallot (Allium hirtifolium Boiss) and synbiotic Biomin®IMBO on growth performance, innate immune responses, and antioxidant defense in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Fish with initial weight of 151.90 ± 0.31 mg were allocated in 21 10-L glass aquariums. The experimental groups were as follows: T1, control (without any supplementation); T2, 1% synbiotic; T3, 3% synbiotic; T4, 1% Persian shallot (as a medical plant); T5, 3% Persian shallot; T6, 1% Persian shallot and 1% synbiotic; T7, 3% Persian shallot and 3% synbiotic. At the end of the experiment (60 days), all treatments significantly showed higher final weight (FW), weight gain (WG), WG (%), and specific growth rate (SGR) compared with the fish fed on control diet. Furthermore, both synbiotic Biomin®IMBO and Persian shallot significantly improved intestine immune parameters including lysozyme, alternative complement hemolytic activity (ACH50), total immunoglobulin (total Ig), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) of zebrafish compared to fish fed on control diet (p < 0.05). Also, in all experimental groups, hepatic catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) activities significantly increased compared to the control group. Whereas, the highest MDA level was observed in the control group compared to the treatments (p < 0.05). Moreover, skin mucus immune parameters of zebrafish have been noticeably improved with synbiotic Biomin®IMBO and Persian shallot compared to fish fed on the control diet (p < 0.05). The results indicate that synbiotic or Persian shallot supplemented diet could enhance the general health status of the zebrafish. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feed Additives in Health and Immunity of Fish)
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17 pages, 5914 KiB  
Article
Transcriptomics Analysis Reveals the Immune Response Mechanism of Rabbits with Diarrhea Fed an Antibiotic-Free Diet
by Li Chen, Kun Du, Xue Bai, Jiahao Shao, Tao Tang, Siqi Xia, Huimei Fan, Jie Wang, Xianbo Jia and Songjia Lai
Animals 2021, 11(10), 2994; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102994 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2111
Abstract
China officially promulgated the announcement of banning the use of antibiotics in the animal industry in 2020. However, the prohibition of antibiotics in the animal industry would reduce the feed conversion rate and increase the mortality of animals. In order to obtain information [...] Read more.
China officially promulgated the announcement of banning the use of antibiotics in the animal industry in 2020. However, the prohibition of antibiotics in the animal industry would reduce the feed conversion rate and increase the mortality of animals. In order to obtain information about the pathogenesis and host immune response of rabbits with diarrhea after being fed an antibiotic-free diet, we first analyzed the intestinal tissue sections of rabbits. Secondly, the gene expression differences of rabbit intestinal segments were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing. Our analysis identified 168, 593, 2069, 334, 321, and 1423 DEGs in the comparison groups S_Z (the duodenum of healthy rabbits) vs. S_B (diarrhea in the duodenum of rabbits), K_Z (healthy rabbit jejunum) vs. K_B (rabbits with diarrhea in the jejunum), H_Z (healthy rabbit ileum) vs. H_B (rabbits with diarrhea in the ileum), M_Z (healthy cecum of rabbits) vs. M_B (rabbits with diarrhea in the cecum), J_Z (healthy rabbit colon) vs. J_B (colon of rabbits with diarrhea), and Z_Z (healthy rabbit rectum) vs. Z_B (rectum of rabbits with diarrhea), respectively. The reproducibility and repeatability of the results were validated by RT-qPCR. Enrichment analyses of GO annotations and KEGG pathways revealed the host DEGs that are potentially related to acute inflammation, stress response, tissue dehydration, adaptive immune response, protein binding, activation of related enzymes, migration of immune cells, and so on. In this descriptive study, our findings revealed the changes in the host transcriptome expression profile after feeding an antibiotic-free diet and suggested that feeding an antibiotic-free diet alters the host’s metabolic network and the expression of antiviral proteins, which provides a theoretical basis for further study on the immune response of animals fed an antibiotic-free diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
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17 pages, 809 KiB  
Article
Cyclosporine Treatment in Cats with Presumed Chronic Pancreatitis—A Retrospective Study
by Nina Hoeyrup, Thomas Spillmann and Linda Toresson
Animals 2021, 11(10), 2993; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102993 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 5743
Abstract
Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a common disease in middle-aged to older cats. Cyclosporine has been suggested as an alternative treatment when other immunosuppressive treatments are insufficient or contraindicated. However, no published studies have investigated its efficacy on feline CP. The aim of this [...] Read more.
Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a common disease in middle-aged to older cats. Cyclosporine has been suggested as an alternative treatment when other immunosuppressive treatments are insufficient or contraindicated. However, no published studies have investigated its efficacy on feline CP. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of cyclosporine on supranormal serum feline pancreas-specific lipase (Spec fPL) concentrations in cats with presumed CP. Inclusion criteria were history and clinical signs suggestive of CP, serum Spec fPL concentrations above 5.3 μg/L (reference range 0–3.5 μg/L, equivocal range 3.6–5.3 μg/L) on at least two occasions and treatment with cyclosporine for at least three weeks. Serum Spec fPL was analyzed at Idexx Laboratories, Kornwestheim, Germany. Nineteen cats, aged 6.9–17.5 years (median 11.6), were included. No pancreatic biopsies were available. Median (range) serum Spec fPL concentration was 14.2 μg/L (6.1–43.3) at baseline and 6.7 μg/L (0.9–23.6) at follow-up. Cyclosporine treatment (5.0–7.9 mg/kg orally SID) was associated with a significant reduction in serum Spec fPL concentrations (p < 0.001) at follow-up after 23–206 days (median 35). Body weight decreased significantly between inclusion and follow-up (p = 0.013). Significant improvement of clinical signs could not be measured (p = 0.781). This study has several limitations, including unstandardized treatment length and dose, no control group and lack of pancreatic biopsies. Despite the limitations, our results suggest that cyclosporine treatment reduces supranormal serum Spec fPL concentrations in cats with presumed CP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Small Animal Gastroenterology)
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10 pages, 806 KiB  
Article
The Assessment of a Multifactorial Score for the Adaptability Evaluation of Six Poultry Genotypes to the Organic System
by Alice Cartoni Mancinelli, Simona Mattioli, Laura Menchetti, Alessandro Dal Bosco, Claudia Ciarelli, Monica Guarino Amato and Cesare Castellini
Animals 2021, 11(10), 2992; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102992 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1833
Abstract
This study aimed to develop an adaptability score (AS) for chicken strains, which includes behavioral, plumage conditions, and body lesion indicators through a multifactorial approach. A total of 600 male chickens from 6 poultry genotypes—Ranger Classic (R1), Ranger Gold (R2), Rowan Ranger (R3), [...] Read more.
This study aimed to develop an adaptability score (AS) for chicken strains, which includes behavioral, plumage conditions, and body lesion indicators through a multifactorial approach. A total of 600 male chickens from 6 poultry genotypes—Ranger Classic (R1), Ranger Gold (R2), Rowan Ranger (R3), Hubbard Red JA (A), CY Gen 5 × JA87 (CY), and M22 × JA87 (M)—were reared under organic conditions, fed ad libitum, and individually weighed weekly to calculate the daily weight gain (DWG). The behavioral observations consisted of the explorative attitude (EA), recorded at 21 days, and the behavioral patterns (BPs) recorded the week before the slaughter. The AS was established by a principal component analysis, and the AS of these genotypes was compared. Moreover, the effect of DWG and genotype on the AS was evaluated by univariable and multivariable regression models. Although the DWG and genotype were strictly dependent, genotype was the most important factor affecting the AS. In fact, its effect was significant both in univariable (p < 0.001) and multivariable models (p < 0.001). Conversely, the DWG was significant only in the univariable and lost significance when the effect of genotype was introduced in the model. Full article
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15 pages, 1222 KiB  
Article
The Response of Layer Hen Productivity and Egg Quality to an Additional Limestone Source When Offered Diets Differing in Calcium Concentrations and the Inclusion of Phytase
by Isabelle Ruhnke, Yeasmin Akter, Terence Zimazile Sibanda, Aaron J. Cowieson, Stuart Wilkinson, Stephanie Maldonado, Mini Singh, Patrick Hughes, Dylana Caporale, Stephan Bucker and Cormac John O’Shea
Animals 2021, 11(10), 2991; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102991 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2440
Abstract
Laying hens require substantial quantities of calcium (Ca) to maintain egg production. However, maintaining recommended dietary Ca through inclusion of limestone may impede nutrient digestibility, including that of other minerals. It was hypothesized that providing a separate source of dietary Ca in the [...] Read more.
Laying hens require substantial quantities of calcium (Ca) to maintain egg production. However, maintaining recommended dietary Ca through inclusion of limestone may impede nutrient digestibility, including that of other minerals. It was hypothesized that providing a separate source of dietary Ca in the form of limestone grit would preserve Ca intake of hens offered diets containing suboptimal Ca concentrations. Furthermore, the impact of dietary phytase at a “superdosing” inclusion rate on the voluntary consumption of limestone grit was evaluated. One hundred and forty-four laying hens (19 weeks of age) were assigned to one of six dietary treatments in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement comprising three dietary Ca concentrations (40, 30, and 20 g/kg) and ±dietary phytase (3500 FYT/kg diet) on an ad libitum basis for six weeks. Limestone grit (3.4 ± 1.0 mm) was provided to all hens ad libitum. Hens offered diets containing phytase consumed significantly less limestone grit p = 0.024). Egg weight, rate of lay, and egg mass were unaffected by dietary treatment (p > 0.05). Egg shell weight % (p < 0.001), shell thickness (p < 0.001), and shell breaking strength (p < 0.01) decreased in line with dietary Ca levels. In summary, dietary superdosing with phytase reduced the consumption of a separate limestone source in individually housed, early lay ISA Brown hens. Egg shell quality variables but not egg production worsened in line with lower dietary Ca levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Management of Egg-Laying Poultry)
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15 pages, 599 KiB  
Article
Monitoring Behaviour in African Elephants during Introduction into a New Group: Differences between Related and Unrelated Animals
by Franziska Hörner, Ann-Kathrin Oerke, Dennis W. H. Müller, Uta Westerhüs, Idu Azogu-Sepe, Jiri Hruby and Gela Preisfeld
Animals 2021, 11(10), 2990; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102990 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3868
Abstract
The introduction of elephants into new groups is necessary for breeding programmes. However, behavioural studies on the reactions of these animals at first encounters are missing. In the present study, female African elephants (Loxodonta africana) living in zoos were observed during unifications with [...] Read more.
The introduction of elephants into new groups is necessary for breeding programmes. However, behavioural studies on the reactions of these animals at first encounters are missing. In the present study, female African elephants (Loxodonta africana) living in zoos were observed during unifications with unfamiliar elephants (introduction of two to one females and one to two females; n = 6) and reunifications with related elephants (two mother–daughter-pairs; n = 4) that were separated for 2 and 12 years, respectively. First encounters of the elephants were observed and recorded by scan sampling. The parameters measured were (a) signs of the characteristic Greeting Ceremony, (b) distance to the fence separating the elephants during first contact, and (c) time until trunks touched for the first time. The data were statistically analysed with SPSS. The results showed that related elephants performed a full Greeting Ceremony on reunifications. Unrelated elephants only expressed a minor greeting. During first encounters, related elephants predominantly showed affiliative behaviour (p = 0.001), whilst unrelated elephants expressed more agonistic behaviour (p = 0.001). The distance to the fence was significantly smaller for related elephants than for unrelated elephants (p = 0.038). first contact of trunks occurred on average after 3.00 s. in related elephants and 1026.25 s. in unrelated elephants. These findings indicate that related elephants recognise their kin after up to 12 years of separation, meet them with a full Greeting Ceremony during reunification, and seek contact to the related elephant, while unrelated elephants are hesitant during unifications with unfamiliar elephants and express more agonistic behaviour. The results testify that zoo elephants show the same species-specific social behaviour as their conspecifics in the wild. It also confirms the cognitive abilities of elephants and the significance of matrilines for breeding programmes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Elephant Communication)
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11 pages, 260 KiB  
Article
Determination of the Minimum Infusion Rate of Alfaxalone Combined with Electroacupuncture in Goats
by Lingling Liu, Mahmoud M. Abouelfetouh, Eman Salah, Rui Sun, Sha Nan, Mingxing Ding and Yi Ding
Animals 2021, 11(10), 2989; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102989 - 17 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1833
Abstract
Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) is increasingly used in companion animals. The effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on alfaxalone-based TIVA has not been previously reported in goats. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the minimum infusion rate (MIR) of alfaxalone required to [...] Read more.
Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) is increasingly used in companion animals. The effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on alfaxalone-based TIVA has not been previously reported in goats. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the minimum infusion rate (MIR) of alfaxalone required to prevent purposeful movement of the extremities in response to standardized noxious stimulation during its combination with EA in goats. Twelve clinically healthy goats weighing 18.5 ± 2 kg were randomly assigned to two groups (six goats/group). Alfaxalone alone (ALF group) and alfaxalone combined with EA (EA-ALF group). In the EA-ALF, alfaxalone was administered 30 min after EA stimulation. For induction of anesthesia, a bolus of alfaxalone was given at 3 mg/kg IV, and an infusion dose of 9.6 mg/kg/h was initially set for maintenance. The MIR of alfaxalone in both groups was determined by testing for responses to stimulation (clamping on a digit with Vulsellum forceps) at 10-min intervals after induction of anesthesia till the entire period of the experiment. Cardiopulmonary parameters and nociceptive threshold were measured throughout anesthesia. The median alfaxalone MIR was significantly lower in the EA-ALF group than the ALF group [9 (4.8–9.6) and 12 (11.4–18)], respectively; p = 0.0035). In the ALF group, goats anesthetized with MIR showed a significant increase in heart rate and cardiac output (p < 0.0001 and 0.0312, respectively), and decrease in respiratory rate (p < 0.0001), hemoglobin oxygen saturation (p = 0.0081), and rectal temperature (p = 0.0046) compared with those in the EA-ALF. Additionally, goats in the EA-ALF showed a higher nociceptive threshold than those in the ALF group (p < 0.0001). EA provided analgesia, reduced the MIR of alfaxalone-based IV anesthesia and thereby alleviated the adverse cardiorespiratory effects associated with alfaxalone anesthesia in goats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Clinical Studies)
11 pages, 1513 KiB  
Article
Efficacy of a Synergistic Blend of Organic Acids and ß-1,4 Mannobiose on Cecal Salmonella Counts and Growth Performance in Salmonella Challenged Broiler Chickens: A Meta-Analysis
by Sandra J. A. van Kuijk and Yanming Han
Animals 2021, 11(10), 2988; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102988 - 17 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1714
Abstract
This study aimed at investigating the effect of a functional synergistic feed additive blend, containing organic acids and ß-1,4 mannobiose, on cecal Salmonella counts and growth performance of broiler chickens. A meta-analysis combining 13 individual studies, executed in Salmonella-challenged broilers comparing a [...] Read more.
This study aimed at investigating the effect of a functional synergistic feed additive blend, containing organic acids and ß-1,4 mannobiose, on cecal Salmonella counts and growth performance of broiler chickens. A meta-analysis combining 13 individual studies, executed in Salmonella-challenged broilers comparing a control diet with and without the synergistic blend, was performed. Cecal Salmonella colonies and overall growth performance were measured. Raw data from all studies were combined and analyzed using PROC MIXED in SAS, taking the within and between-study variation into account. In the first 14 days post-inoculation (DPI), cecal Salmonella was reduced by 0.429 log CFU/g (p = 0.011, n = 10 comparisons from five studies) when feeding the synergistic blend compared to the control group. During 15–34 DPI, the overall means were not different between treatments (0.069 log CFU/g; p = 0.519, n = 12 comparisons from eight studies). The feed conversion ratio was improved when feeding the synergistic blend compared to the control diet (1.474 vs. 1.482, respectively; p = 0.002). In conclusion, feeding a synergistic blend, containing organic acids and ß-1,4 mannobiose amongst other ingredients, reduced cecal Salmonella counts during the first 14 DPI and improved growth performance of Salmonella challenged broilers compared to a control diet. Full article
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18 pages, 1327 KiB  
Article
Tear Production, Intraocular Pressure, Ultrasound Biometric Features and Conjunctival Flora Identification in Clinically Normal Eyes of Two Italian Breeds of Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus)
by Samanta Nardi, Federico Puccini Leoni, Viola Monticelli, Valentina Virginia Ebani, Fabrizio Bertelloni, Margherita Marzoni, Francesca Mancianti, Simonetta Citi and Giovanni Barsotti
Animals 2021, 11(10), 2987; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102987 - 17 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1763
Abstract
Given the abundance of chickens in Italy, it is important for veterinarians to know the normal state of chickens’ eyes in order to identify any ophthalmic pathological changes. The aim of this study was to determine the normal values of select ocular parameters [...] Read more.
Given the abundance of chickens in Italy, it is important for veterinarians to know the normal state of chickens’ eyes in order to identify any ophthalmic pathological changes. The aim of this study was to determine the normal values of select ocular parameters and to evaluate conjunctival microflora in two Italian chicken breeds. Sixty-six healthy chickens underwent a complete ophthalmic examination, which included a phenol red thread test (PRTT) for the evaluation of tear production and the assessment of intraocular pressure by rebound tonometry. B-mode ultrasound biometric measurements and conjunctival microflora identification were also performed in twenty-seven chickens. Mean PRTT was 23.77 ± 2.99 mm/15 s in the Livorno breed and 19.95 ± 2.81 mm/15 s in the Siciliana breed. Mean intraocular pressure was 14.3 ± 1.17 mmHg in the Livorno breed and 14.06 ± 1.15 mmHg in the Siciliana breed. Reference ranges for morphometric parameters were reported in the two breeds. Twenty-three chickens (85.18%) were bacteriologically positive. Chlamydia spp. antigen was detected in 14.81% of chickens. No positive cultures were obtained for fungi. Normal reference range values for selected ophthalmic parameters were obtained in clinically healthy chickens, which could facilitate accurate diagnosis and better management of ophthalmic diseases in these animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Poultry)
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14 pages, 1519 KiB  
Article
Hens That Exhibit Poorer Feed Efficiency Produce Eggs with Lower Albumen Quality and Are Prone to Being Overweight
by Doreen Onyinye Anene, Yeasmin Akter, Peter Campbell Thomson, Peter Groves, Sonia Liu and Cormac John O’Shea
Animals 2021, 11(10), 2986; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102986 - 16 Oct 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2543
Abstract
Feed efficiency (FE) is an important measure of productivity in the layer industry; however, little is known about how FE differs between individual hens during the egg-laying cycle and the implications for egg quality parameters. Individual 25-week-old ISA Brown hens were observed for [...] Read more.
Feed efficiency (FE) is an important measure of productivity in the layer industry; however, little is known about how FE differs between individual hens during the egg-laying cycle and the implications for egg quality parameters. Individual 25-week-old ISA Brown hens were observed for 42 days, ranked into three FE groups (n = 48 per High (HFE), Medium (MFE) and Low (LFE) FE groups and then monitored later in the laying cycle from 35–40 weeks. The groups exhibited different feed to egg conversion ratios (p < 0.001) from 35–40 weeks. Average daily feed intake and body weight were highest (p < 0.001) in the LFE group compared to the MFE and HFE groups, while albumen height, Haugh unit and amino acid concentrations of the albumen were significantly higher in the HFE groups compared to the LFE cohort (p < 0.001). This study concludes that FE status established in early lay is a stable variable until at least 40 weeks of age, and overweight, mid-laying hens that had poor FE produced inferior egg albumen quality measurements and composition. The distinct traits of the highly efficient hens and the poor feed efficient hens may provide important information to improving productivity in egg production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Poultry)
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12 pages, 1825 KiB  
Article
Effects of Feeding a Hypoallergenic Diet with a Nutraceutical on Fecal Dysbiosis Index and Clinical Manifestations of Canine Atopic Dermatitis
by Eleonora Elisa Alice Guidi, Alessandro Gramenzi, Paola Persico, Roberta Di Prinzio, Daniele Di Simone and Luisa Cornegliani
Animals 2021, 11(10), 2985; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102985 - 16 Oct 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3350
Abstract
Background: an imbalance of the intestinal microbiota can cause health problems in the gastrointestinal tract and in other organs. Canine Atopic Dermatitis (CAD) is a genetically predisposed, inflammatory and pruritic allergic skin disease with multifactorial etiology and multimodal treatment. The aim of this [...] Read more.
Background: an imbalance of the intestinal microbiota can cause health problems in the gastrointestinal tract and in other organs. Canine Atopic Dermatitis (CAD) is a genetically predisposed, inflammatory and pruritic allergic skin disease with multifactorial etiology and multimodal treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a nutraceutical product on Dysbiotic Index (DI) and the skin lesions of atopic dogs. Methods: a nutraceutical product was administered to 32 dogs with CAD. The product was associated with a standardized hypoallergenic diet for 60 days; the dietary regimen continued for 120 days, while ongoing therapies remained unchanged. Values of Visual Analogic Scale (VAS), Canine Atopic Dermatitis Lesional Index (CADLI) and DI were evaluated on day 0, 60, 120. Results: all the 32 dogs showed a statistically significant decrease (p < 0.001) to V60 of VAS and CADLI, which persisted and increased to V120 when diet alone was continued. The decrease in the DI value was also statistically significant (p < 0.001). Conclusion: the intake of nutraceutical associated with diet resulted in a decrease in the index of intestinal dysbiosis, with an improvement in the subjective severity of cutaneous lesions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Companion Animals)
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13 pages, 2179 KiB  
Article
Amelioration of Sarcoptic Mange-Induced Oxidative Stress and Growth Performance in Ivermectin-Treated Growing Rabbits Using Turmeric Extract Supplementation
by Salma H. Abu Hafsa, Haytham Senbill, Mohamed M. Basyony and Ayman A. Hassan
Animals 2021, 11(10), 2984; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102984 - 16 Oct 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 5765
Abstract
In this experiment, the protective effect of turmeric extract (TE) on side effects of Ivermectin-treated rabbits, while improving their performance, blood characteristics, and antioxidant status, was investigated. Sixty-three clinically Sarcoptes-infested rabbits aged 60 days were randomly allocated into three groups, with 21 [...] Read more.
In this experiment, the protective effect of turmeric extract (TE) on side effects of Ivermectin-treated rabbits, while improving their performance, blood characteristics, and antioxidant status, was investigated. Sixty-three clinically Sarcoptes-infested rabbits aged 60 days were randomly allocated into three groups, with 21 rabbits in each group, to receive either no TE or TE supplementation (1 or 2 mg/kg diet) for 30 days after being subcutaneously injected with Ivermectin (IVM) 1% w/v at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg body weight twice a week. Another 21 healthy rabbits were used as the control. Treatment with IVM + 1 and 2 mg TE improved body weight (BW), body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) in infested rabbits (p < 0.05). The IVM alone treatment had the highest mortality rate compared with the other treatments. Rabbits treated with IVM + 1 and 2 mg TE demonstrated progressive recovery manifested by improved nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance. On day 7, the serum total protein, albumin, and albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio were significantly lower in the treated groups compared with the control group; also, the lowest values were observed in rabbits treated only with Ivermectin, followed by IVM + 1 and 2 mg TE. Treated rabbits had higher thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBAR) levels, but lower total antioxidant capacity (TAC), superoxidase dismutase (SOD), and glutathion peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels compared with the control group. On day 30 post-treatment, the rabbits in the IVM + 1 and 2 mg TE treatment groups showed progressive recovery manifested by improved biochemichal parameters, as well as a remarkable improvements in the oxidant/antioxidant balance towards normalcy (p < 0.05), and became comparable to that of the control compared with IVM alone treatment. In conclusion, turmeric extract improved rabbits’ performance toward normalcy, and has remarkable antioxidant properties and can be used in conjunction with a miticide to treat sarcoptic mange in rabbits. Full article
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43 pages, 2198 KiB  
Review
Microbial Quality of Liquid Feed for Pigs and Its Impact on the Porcine Gut Microbiome
by James T. Cullen, Peadar G. Lawlor, Paul Cormican and Gillian E. Gardiner
Animals 2021, 11(10), 2983; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102983 - 16 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3997
Abstract
There is evidence that spontaneous fermentation frequently occurs in liquid pig feed that is intended to be delivered as fresh liquid feed, often with a resultant deterioration in the microbial and nutritional quality of the feed, which can negatively affect pig health and [...] Read more.
There is evidence that spontaneous fermentation frequently occurs in liquid pig feed that is intended to be delivered as fresh liquid feed, often with a resultant deterioration in the microbial and nutritional quality of the feed, which can negatively affect pig health and growth. Strategies including controlled fermentation with microbial inoculants, pre-fermentation or soaking of the cereal fraction of the diet, enzyme supplementation and dietary acidification have been employed to inhibit pathogens and prevent deterioration of feed nutritional quality, with promising results obtained in many cases. This review evaluates the impact of these strategies on the microbial quality of liquid feed and discusses how they can be further improved. It also investigates if/how these strategies impact the pig gut microbiota and growth performance of liquid-fed pigs. Finally, we review liquid feed system sanitisation practices, which are highly variable from farm to farm and discuss the impact of these practices and whether they are beneficial or detrimental to liquid feed microbial quality. Overall, we provide a comprehensive review of the current state of knowledge on liquid feed for pigs, focusing on factors affecting microbial quality and strategies for its optimisation, as well as its impact on the pig gut microbiome. Full article
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10 pages, 896 KiB  
Article
Changes in Body Surface Temperature Associated with High-Speed Treadmill Exercise in Beagle Dogs Measured by Infrared Thermography
by Maria Soroko, Wanda Górniak, Kevin Howell, Paulina Zielińska, Krzysztof Dudek, Maria Eberhardt, Patrycja Kalak and Mariusz Korczyński
Animals 2021, 11(10), 2982; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102982 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1936
Abstract
Evaluation of body surface temperature change in response to exercise is important for monitoring physiological status. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of high-speed treadmill exercise on body surface temperature using infrared thermography (IRT) in selected body regions of [...] Read more.
Evaluation of body surface temperature change in response to exercise is important for monitoring physiological status. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of high-speed treadmill exercise on body surface temperature using infrared thermography (IRT) in selected body regions of healthy Beagle dogs, taking into account gait and recovery time. Thermographic images of the dogs were taken before exercise (BE), after walk (AW), after trot (AT), after canter (AC), just after second walk (JAE), 5 min after exercise (5 AE), 15 min after exercise (15 AE), 30 min after exercise (30 AE), 45 min after exercise (45 AE), and 120 min after exercise (120 AE). Body surface temperature was measured at the neck, shoulder, upper forearm, back, chest, croup, and thigh. Statistical analysis indicated the highest temperature at the upper forearm, shoulder, and thigh, and the lowest on the croup, back, and neck. The peak values of surface temperature in all ROIs were at AC and JAE and the lowest at 120 AE. The study demonstrated that body surface temperature was influenced by high-speed physical exercise on a treadmill and IRT was a viable imaging modality that provided temperature data from specific body regions. The proximal forelimb and hindlimb were the most influenced by exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Companion Animals)
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11 pages, 247 KiB  
Commentary
Data Governance in the Dairy Industry
by Roger Cue, Mark Doornink, Regi George, Benjamin Griffiths, Matthew W. Jorgensen, Ronald Rogers, Amit Saha, Kyle Taysom, Victor E. Cabrera, Steven R. Wangen and Liliana Fadul-Pacheco
Animals 2021, 11(10), 2981; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102981 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2718
Abstract
Data governance is a growing concern in the dairy farm industry because of the lack of legal regulation. In this commentary paper, we discuss the status quo of the available legislation and codes, as well as some possible solutions. To our knowledge, there [...] Read more.
Data governance is a growing concern in the dairy farm industry because of the lack of legal regulation. In this commentary paper, we discuss the status quo of the available legislation and codes, as well as some possible solutions. To our knowledge, there are currently four codes of practice that address agriculture data worldwide, and their objectives are similar: (1) raise awareness of diverse data challenges such as data sharing and data privacy, (2) provide data security, and (3) illustrate the importance of the transparency of terms and conditions of data sharing contracts. However, all these codes are voluntary, which limits their adoption. We propose a Farmers Bill of Rights for the dairy data ecosystem to address some key components around data ownership and transparency in data sharing. Our hope is to start the discussion to create a balanced environment to promote equity within the data economy, encourage proper data stewardship, and to foster trust and harmony between the industry companies and the farmers when it comes to sharing data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Smart Farming in Dairy Production)
11 pages, 1769 KiB  
Commentary
Challenges and Solutions Surrounding Environmental Enrichment for Dogs and Cats in a Scientific Environment
by Emma Desforges
Animals 2021, 11(10), 2980; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102980 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 5542
Abstract
Dogs and cats housed in research-, kennel- and cattery-type settings are reliant on caregivers to optimise their day-to-day experiences and welfare. The goal is to provide enriching environments for physical, social and environmental control; behavioural choice and opportunities to live as varied a [...] Read more.
Dogs and cats housed in research-, kennel- and cattery-type settings are reliant on caregivers to optimise their day-to-day experiences and welfare. The goal is to provide enriching environments for physical, social and environmental control; behavioural choice and opportunities to live as varied a life as possible. However, there are numerous challenges in these environments such as lack of appropriate enrichment for group housing, budget for equipment/training, study controls, time and space to make improvements. In addition, research settings are required to comply with legislation for care, husbandry and housing, and as standards differ between regions, conditions will vary between settings. Sharing knowledge in this field can only help drive a wider culture of care by helping improve the lives and welfare of animals cared for. This article presents some of the environmental enrichment strategies effective at the Waltham Petcare Science Institute, UK. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Enrichment for Animals in our Care)
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15 pages, 1790 KiB  
Article
Natural Habitat Design for Zoo-Housed Elasmobranch and Teleost Fish Species Improves Behavioural Repertoire and Space Use in a Visitor Facing Exhibit
by Kristie Lawrence, Sally L. Sherwen and Hannah Larsen
Animals 2021, 11(10), 2979; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102979 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3991
Abstract
This study investigated the behaviour of two Elasmobranch species; Southern fiddler ray (Trygonorrhina dumerilii, n = 1) and Port Jackson shark (Heterodontus portusjacksoni, n = 4) and two teleost species; moonlighter (Tilodon sexfasciatus, n = 1) and [...] Read more.
This study investigated the behaviour of two Elasmobranch species; Southern fiddler ray (Trygonorrhina dumerilii, n = 1) and Port Jackson shark (Heterodontus portusjacksoni, n = 4) and two teleost species; moonlighter (Tilodon sexfasciatus, n = 1) and banded morwong (Cheilodactylus spectabilis, n = 1) living within a single enclosure. For this study, two treatments were compared, the original enclosure design, and then after the enclosure had been renovated to more closely represent the species natural habitats, with a raised front viewing glass to prevent visitor interaction. Behaviours such as resting, swimming and abnormal behaviours such as surface and perimeter swimming (elasmobranchs only) were recorded as well as location within the enclosure, for 10 days pre and 10 days post renovation. The Port Jackson sharks significantly reduced the performance of abnormal behaviours after renovation, and significantly increased the time spent near the exhibit front. The Southern fiddler ray increased resting post renovation, while the teleost species also spent more time near the exhibit front. Although a small sample size was used, the results suggest that a more naturalistic environment with multiple micro-habitats and effective visitor barriers allows for a greater proportion of the day spent exhibiting natural behaviours, greater space use and reduced stereotypes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Zoo Animals)
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19 pages, 344 KiB  
Article
Long-Term and Carryover Effects of Supplementation with Whole Oilseeds on Methane Emission, Milk Production and Milk Fatty Acid Profile of Grazing Dairy Cows
by Camila Muñoz, Rodrigo Villalobos, Alejandra María Teresa Peralta, Rodrigo Morales, Natalie Louise Urrutia and Emilio Mauricio Ungerfeld
Animals 2021, 11(10), 2978; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102978 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2417
Abstract
Research is ongoing to find nutritional methane (CH4) mitigation strategies with persistent effects that can be applied to grazing ruminants. Lipid addition to dairy cow diets has shown potential as means to decrease CH4 emissions. This study evaluated the effects [...] Read more.
Research is ongoing to find nutritional methane (CH4) mitigation strategies with persistent effects that can be applied to grazing ruminants. Lipid addition to dairy cow diets has shown potential as means to decrease CH4 emissions. This study evaluated the effects of oilseeds on CH4 emission and production performance of grazing lactating dairy cows. Sixty Holstein Friesian cows grazing pasture were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 treatments (n = 15): supplemented with concentrate without oilseeds (CON), with whole cottonseed (CTS), rapeseed (RPS) or linseed (LNS). Oilseeds were supplemented during weeks 1–16 (spring period) and 17–22 (summer period), and the autumn period (wk 23–27) was used to evaluate treatment carryover effects. Cows fed CTS decreased CH4 yield by 14% compared to CON in spring, but these effects did not persist after 19 weeks of supplementation (summer). Compared to CON, RPS decreased milk yield and CTS increased milk fat concentration in both spring and summer. In summer, CTS also increased milk protein concentration but decreased milk yield, compared to CON. In spring, compared to CON, CTS decreased most milk medium-chain fatty acids (FA; 8:0, 12:0, 14:0 and 15:0) and increased stearic, linoleic and rumenic FA, and LNS increased CLA FA. There were no carry-over effects into the autumn period. In conclusion, supplementation of grazing dairy cows with whole oilseeds resulted in mild effects on methane emissions and animal performance. In particular, supplementing with CTS can decrease CH4 yield without affecting milk production, albeit with a mild and transient CH4 decrease effect. Long term studies conducted under grazing conditions are important to provide a comprehensive overview of how proposed nutritional CH4 mitigation strategies affect productivity, sustainability and consumer health aspects. Full article
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