Special Issue "The Health Problems of Obesity in Animals"

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Veterinary Clinical Studies".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Srujana Rayalam
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine, Georgia Campus, Suwanee, GA, USA
Interests: obesity; white adipose tissue; brown adipose tissue; osteoporosis; phytochemicals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is common knowledge that obesity increases the risk of diabetes mellitus, joint and musculoskeletal problems, and cardiovascular problems, among others. While obesity in humans is a global epidemic and the prevalence of this problem is well accepted, the seriousness of obesity in animals is still not viewed under the same light. With the incidence of pet obesity following the same trend as in human obesity, it is imperative that research efforts be directed towards understanding the physiological consequences of obesity in animals. However, the complex and multifactorial nature of obesity makes developing successful interventions for the prevention and treatment difficult.

Despite the fact that close to 30% of dogs and cats seen by veterinarians in the United States are either obese or overweight, there is only one FDA approved pharmacological treatment for this problem. Pathological expansion of white adipose tissue combined with persistent chronic low-grade inflammation seen in obesity plays an important role in increasing the risk of obesity-associated diseases. Pharmacological treatments aimed at decreasing the adipogenesis and inflammation may have the potential for the treatment of health problems of obesity. The One Health approach is gaining recognition for identifying the root causes of multiple disease states in humans and animals. This approach may help develop novel strategies for the prevention and treatment of obesity and associated diseases.

The scope of the Special Issue ‘The Health Problems of Obesity in Animals’ is to explore and understand the physiology, pathogenesis, and epidemiology of obesity in animals. You are invited to submit either an original article or a review focusing on obesity or obesity-associated problems in animals. Articles highlighting pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches for the prevention and treatment of health problems of obesity are welcome and will be taken into consideration for the publication.

Dr. Srujana Rayalam
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Animals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Obesity
  • Animals
  • Overweight
  • Inflammation
  • Nutrition
  • Exercise
  • Endocrine
  • Weight management
  • Nonpharmacological treatments
  • Adipose tissue
  • Diabetes
  • Musculoskeletal problems
  • Joint problems
  • Cardiovascular
  • Hepatic lipidosis

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Article
Retrospective Evaluation of a Minor Dietary Change in Non-Diabetic Group-Housed Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2749; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092749 - 20 Sep 2021
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Abstract
Macaques in captivity are prone to becoming overweight and obese, which may cause several health problems. A diet that mimics the natural diet of macaques may prevent these problems and improve animal welfare. Adjusting captive diets towards a more natural composition may include [...] Read more.
Macaques in captivity are prone to becoming overweight and obese, which may cause several health problems. A diet that mimics the natural diet of macaques may prevent these problems and improve animal welfare. Adjusting captive diets towards a more natural composition may include increasing fiber content and lowering the glycemic index, i.e., reducing the impact on blood glucose levels. Such a dietary change was implemented in our long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) breeding colony. The basic diet of monkey chow pellets remained the same, while the supplementary provisioning of bread was replaced by grains and vegetables. This study is a retrospective evaluation, based on electronic health records, that investigated whether this minor dietary change had a beneficial effect on relative adiposity and overweight-related health parameters in 44 non-diabetic, group-housed, female long-tailed macaques. Relative adiposity was measured with a weight-for-height index and blood samples were collected during yearly health checks. Glycemic response and lipid metabolism were evaluated using several biochemical parameters. Relative adiposity and overweight status did not differ after dietary change. Yet, relatively heavy individuals generally lost body weight, while relatively lean individuals gained body weight, leading to a more balanced body weight dynamic. Dietary change did not affect HbA1c and triglyceride levels, while fructosamine and cholesterol levels were significantly reduced. Thus, the minor dietary change had no significant effect on overweight status, but some biochemical parameters related to the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease were positively affected. This study emphasizes the importance of evaluating husbandry changes and that critically reviewing husbandry practices can provide valuable insights to improve animal health and welfare. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Problems of Obesity in Animals)
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Article
Evaluation of Changes in Metabolites of Saliva in Canine Obesity Using a Targeted Metabolomic Approach
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2501; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092501 - 26 Aug 2021
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Abstract
Obesity is a common problem in pet dogs, affecting half of the general population in some countries. Excess body weight causes several disorders and has a negative impact on dogs’ quality of life. The use of metabolomics allows the identification of metabolite traces [...] Read more.
Obesity is a common problem in pet dogs, affecting half of the general population in some countries. Excess body weight causes several disorders and has a negative impact on dogs’ quality of life. The use of metabolomics allows the identification of metabolite traces from the metabolic pathways involved in pathological processes. This study aimed to evaluate salivary metabolite variations in dogs with obesity. The salivary samples of 19 dogs were analyzed using a targeted metabolomic approach, through which 234 metabolites were quantified. Of these, multivariate analysis identified 27 different metabolites altered in dogs with obesity compared with control dogs. These metabolites were mainly classified as amino acids, glycerides, sphingolipids, glycerophospholipids, and acylcarnitines. Some of the changes in these metabolites reflect the insulin resistance status related to obesity in dogs. Overall, it can be concluded that the salivary metabolome of obese dogs reflects the metabolic changes occurring in obesity and could be a source of potential biomarkers for this complex condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Problems of Obesity in Animals)
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Article
Obesity-Induced Heart Rate Variability Impairment and Decreased Systolic Function in Obese Male Dogs
Animals 2020, 10(8), 1383; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10081383 - 10 Aug 2020
Viewed by 807
Abstract
Obesity can induce cardiovascular diseases in both humans and animals. Heart rate variability (HRV) is an indicator of sympathovagal balance and is used to identify cardiovascular diseases in humans. However, HRV and cardiac function have rarely been investigated in obese dogs. This study [...] Read more.
Obesity can induce cardiovascular diseases in both humans and animals. Heart rate variability (HRV) is an indicator of sympathovagal balance and is used to identify cardiovascular diseases in humans. However, HRV and cardiac function have rarely been investigated in obese dogs. This study investigated the effect of obesity on oxidative stress, HRV, and cardiac function in obese and non-obese dogs. The nine-scale body condition score (BCS) system was used to determine obesity. Thirty small breed dogs were divided into a normal weight group (n = 15) and an obese group (n = 15). All dogs underwent physical examination, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) measurement, electrocardiography, echocardiography, and two hours of Holter monitoring. This study found that obese dogs had increased plasma MDA and sympathovagal imbalance, which was indicated by impaired time and frequency domains compared to normal weight dogs. Although cardiac function was within normal limits, the echocardiographic study found that the obese dogs had reduced cardiac wall thickness and lower systolic function, as indicated by a reduction in %ejection fraction, %fractional shortening, increased left ventricular (LV) internal diameter during systole, and LV end-systolic volume compared to normal weight dogs. This study concluded that obesity in dogs can induce increased plasma oxidative stress, impaired HRV, and reduced cardiac systolic function compared to non-obese dogs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Problems of Obesity in Animals)
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