Special Issue "Mycobacterium Avium Ssp Paratuberculosis Infection and/or Disease Progression in Cattle"

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Cattle".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 January 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Steven Van Winden
Website
Guest Editor
Farm Animal Health and Production, The Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, North Mymms, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, AL9 7TA, United Kingdom
Interests: cattle; dairy disease; pathophysiology; epidemiology; population; prevention
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Paratuberculosis or Johne’s disease in cattle is an increasing global concern in both the beef and dairy sector. The mainly faeco-oral spread of the causative agent Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis (MAP) between and within farms varies substantially, according to the biosecurity practices in place. With the development of more sensitive testing, such as the phage technology, it has come to light that possibly on farms with the pathogen present many more cattle have been exposed to the pathogen than initially was considered.

Exposure, however, does not always result in the development of paratuberculosis, and associated increase of spread to the next generation of hosts. Identifying the stressor or conditions leading up to the progression of disease may therefore be of specific interest to control the spread of MAP.

The overall aim of this special issue is to further our understanding on the factors associated with infection, facilitating disease progression, as well as factors that allow infected cows spreading the pathogen. We are therefore inviting papers presenting original research that is advancing our understanding of paratuberculosis in cattle. This could include studies into molecular, cellular, and animal level furthering our knowledge on MAP infection, progression and spread, as well as work at their impact on population level being welcome in this special issue.

Dr. Steven Van Winden
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Animals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • cattle
  • paratuberculosis
  • infection
  • progression
  • spread
  • population

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Acute-Phase Protein Response Associated with the Different Pathological Forms of Bovine Paratuberculosis
Animals 2020, 10(10), 1925; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10101925 - 20 Oct 2020
Abstract
In this study, the concentrations of two acute-phase proteins (APPs), haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA), were quantitatively assessed in serum samples from cattle naturally infected with paratuberculosis (PTB). APP profiles were compared across 190 animals classified according to the different pathological [...] Read more.
In this study, the concentrations of two acute-phase proteins (APPs), haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA), were quantitatively assessed in serum samples from cattle naturally infected with paratuberculosis (PTB). APP profiles were compared across 190 animals classified according to the different pathological forms associated with infection: uninfected (n = 59), with focal lesions (n = 73), multifocal lesions (n = 19), and diffuse paucibacillary (n = 11) and diffuse multibacillary lesions (n = 28). Our results showed a significant increase in both APPs in infected animals compared to the control group, with differences depending on the type of lesion. Hp and SAA levels were increased significantly in all infected animals, except in cows with diffuse multibacillary lesions that showed similar values to non-infected animals. The expression pattern of both APPs was similar and negatively correlated with the antibody levels against PTB. These results indicate that the release of Hp and SAA is related to the presence of PTB lesions associated with a high cell-mediated immune response and a lower bacterial load, suggesting that the pro-inflammatory cytokines that are associated with these forms are the main stimulus for their synthesis. These molecules could show some potential to be used as putative biomarkers of PTB infection, particularly for the identification of subclinical animals showing pathological forms related to latency or resistance to the development of advanced lesions. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview
Mycobacterium Avium Paratuberculosis: A Disease Burden on the Dairy Industry
Animals 2020, 10(10), 1773; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10101773 - 01 Oct 2020
Abstract
Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis is responsible for paratuberculosis or Johne’s disease in cows, having economic impacts on the dairy industry and a prevalence rate exceeding 50% in dairy herds. The economic burden of Johne’s disease relates to decreased milk production and costs of disease [...] Read more.
Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis is responsible for paratuberculosis or Johne’s disease in cows, having economic impacts on the dairy industry and a prevalence rate exceeding 50% in dairy herds. The economic burden of Johne’s disease relates to decreased milk production and costs of disease prevention, treatment, and management, while having an economic impact on dairy producers, processors, consumers, and stakeholders of the dairy industry. Determining the true economic impact of the disease is difficult at regional and farm level as symptoms are not evident in subclinically infected animals. At present, the virulence, pathogenicity, persistence, and infectious dose of M. avium paratuberculosis are poorly understood, consequently effective paratuberculosis control measures remain obscure. M. avium paratuberculosis is potentially zoonotic with foodborne transmission a public health risk due to a possible causative link with inflammatory bowel disease in humans. A preventive approach is necessary to reduce the presence of this drug-resistant pathogen in dairy herds and subsequently dairy food. The use of inefficient diagnostic tests coupled with the long latency period of infection results in delayed animal culling and trade of asymptomatic animals, leading to regional transmission and increased disease prevalence. To date, there has been limited success at controlling and treating this terminal endemic disease, leading to significant prevalence rates. This study aims to outline the key factors associated with Johne’s’ disease while outlining its significant impact on the dairy sector. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis aetiology and disease transmission: A burden on the dairy industry
Authors: Mary Garvey
Affiliation: Department of Life Science, Sligo Institute of Technology, Sligo, Ireland
Abstract: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is responsible for paratuberculosis or Johne’s disease in cows having economic impacts on the dairy industry. The economic burden of this endemic wasting disease relates to decreased milk production and disease prevention, treatment, and management costs, having impact on dairy producers, processors, consumers, and stakeholders of the dairy industry. Determining the true economic impact of the disease is difficult at regional and farm level as symptoms are not evident in sub-clinically infected animals. At present, the virulence, pathogenicity, persistence, and infectious dose of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis are poorly understood, consequently effective paratuberculosis control measures remain obscure. M. avium paratuberculosis is potentially zoonotic with foodborne transmission a public health risk due to a possible causative link with inflammatory bowel disease in humans. A preventive approach is necessary to reduce the presence of this drug resistant pathogen in dairy herds and subsequently dairy food. The use of inefficient diagnostic tests coupled with the long latency period of infection result in delayed animal culling and trade of asymptomatic animals, leading to regional transmission and increased disease prevalence. To date, there has been limited success at controlling and treating this terminal endemic disease leading to significant prevalence rates.

Title: Factors associated with the introduction of Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis (MAP) into dairy herds: the perception of experts
Authors: Francisco Javier Dieguez
Affiliation: Anatomy and Animal Production, and Clinical Veterinary Sciences Department, Veterinary Faculty of Lugo, Santiago de Compostela University
Abstract: The present study aimed at quantification of expert opinion on risk factors for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in dairy cattle herds. For this purpose, potential risk factors associated with the introduction of MAP into dairies were chosen based on literature review and discussions with researchers and veterinarians. For each factor a decision tree was developed, and key questions were included in each of them. Answers to these key questions lead to different events within each decision tree. An expert opinion workshop was organized (following recommendations of the OIE) and ordinal values, ranging from 0 to 9 (i.e., null to very high likelihood of introduction) were assigned to each event. The potential risk factors were also incorporated into a structured questionnaire that was administered in 93 farms whose sanitary status against MAP was known. Thereby, based on the values given by the experts and the information collected in the questionnaires, each farm was assigned a score based on their MAP entry risk. From these scores (contrast variable), and using a ROC curve, the cut-off that best discriminated MAP positive and negative farms was estimated. The most important risk factors for MAP introduction, according to experts’ opinion, were related to purchase practices and grazing practices of animals under 6 months. The scores obtained for each farm, also based on the experts’ opinion, allowed to discriminate MAP positive/MAP negative farms with 68.8% sensitivity and 68.7% specificity. Such data should be useful to focus future training and to improve risk reduction strategies in the dairy industry.

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