Advances in Avian Diseases Research

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Poultry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 April 2024 | Viewed by 47689

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Zoonosis Science Center, Uppsala University, 75236 Uppsala, Sweden
Interests: emerging viruses; avian diseases; influenza; genetics; virus-host interaction; transcriptomics; single cell genome; diagnostics; epidemiology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Immunogenetics, The Pirbright Institute, Woking GU24 0NF, UK
Interests: avian diseases; avian viral and/or bacterial mixed infection; avian immune response; control measures; avian vaccine development, production and evaluation; wild bird associated pathogens
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Birds represent a natural reservoir of different viral and bacterial diseases. Migratory birds, together with the expanding livestock trade, play a role in the dispersion and emergence of new diseases. Avian diseases, which are associated with a high morbidity rate, a high mortality rate, and epizootic spread, have a devastating impact on poultry production worldwide, causing economic losses and a shortage of poultry proteins for human nutrition, particularly in developing countries. Human health may also be threatened by the zoonotic transmission of viral (e.g., avian influenza virus) or bacterial (e.g., Campylobacter) avian diseases and direct or indirect contact with infected birds/bird-products, whose consumption can, in addition, help to disseminate antibiotic-resistant bacteria of avian origin.

This Special Issue aims to provide an overview of our current knowledge of different pathogens circulating among different avian species, ranging from their epidemiology and molecular biology to their clinical features, and control and protection strategies for these pathogens. We invite scientists to submit original research manuscripts, literature reviews, and communications on topics including (but not limited to): advances in avian disease diagnosis, characterization, and epidemiology; the management of avian diseases; avian welfare; zoonotic avian diseases; pathogen evolution; and the prevention and control of avian diseases.

Dr. Mahmoud M. Naguib
Dr. Ahmed Samy Ibrahim
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Animals is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • avian diseases
  • diagnostics
  • prevention and control
  • zoonoses
  • genetic evolution

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 1048 KiB  
Article
Multidrug-Resistant and Genetic Characterization of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing E. coli Recovered from Chickens and Humans in Egypt
by Heba Badr, Reem M. Reda, Naglaa M. Hagag, Essam Kamel, Sara M. Elnomrosy, Amal I. Mansour, Momtaz A. Shahein, Samah F. Ali and Hala R. Ali
Animals 2022, 12(3), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12030346 - 31 Jan 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4205
Abstract
Colonization of food chain animals such as chickens with extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) poses a major health threat to human. The current study aimed to determine the phenotypic and genotypic relationship between ESBL-producing E. coli from diseased human and chickens in Egypt. A total [...] Read more.
Colonization of food chain animals such as chickens with extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) poses a major health threat to human. The current study aimed to determine the phenotypic and genotypic relationship between ESBL-producing E. coli from diseased human and chickens in Egypt. A total of 56 out of 120 chicken farms (46.7%) and 9 human samples (100%) were phenotypically and genotypically identified with at least one ESBL-phenotype/gene. Chicken isolates showed a high proportion of beta lactamase from CTX-M group 9 > TEM > PER families, followed by CTX-M group 1 > SHV > GES > OXA group10 > VEB > OXA group2 families, while human isolates only contained the CTX-M family. A high incidence of ESBL genes from the CTX-M family was recognized in both human and chicken isolates. Furthermore, nucleotide identity showed high similarity between chicken and human isolates. In conclusion, the current study traced phenotypes and genotypes of ESBL-producing E. coli from chickens and human samples in Egypt, reporting degrees of similarity that suggest potential zoonotic transmission. Our data highlighted the significant importance of chicken as a major food source not only in Egypt but all over the world in the spreading of ESBL-producing E. coli to human. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Avian Diseases Research)
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11 pages, 20904 KiB  
Article
Molecular Detection of Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus in Chickens with a Microfluidic Chip
by Mohamed El-Tholoth, Huiwen Bai, Michael G. Mauk, Eman Anis and Haim H. Bau
Animals 2021, 11(11), 3203; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11113203 - 09 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2349
Abstract
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a viral disease of chickens’ respiratory system that imposes considerable financial burdens on the chicken industry. Rapid, simple, and specific detection of this virus is crucial to enable proper control measures. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular tests require relatively [...] Read more.
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a viral disease of chickens’ respiratory system that imposes considerable financial burdens on the chicken industry. Rapid, simple, and specific detection of this virus is crucial to enable proper control measures. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular tests require relatively expensive instruments and skilled personnel, confining their application to centralized laboratories. To enable chicken farms to take timely action and contain the spread of infection, we describe a rapid, simple, semi-quantitative benchtop isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay, and a field-deployable microfluidic device for the diagnosis of ILTV infection in chickens. Our assay performance was compared and favorably agreed with quantitative PCR (qPCR). The sensitivity of our real-time LAMP test is 250 genomic copies/reaction. Clinical performance of our microfluidic device using samples from diseased chickens showed 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity in comparison with benchtop LAMP assay and the gold-standard qPCR. Our method facilitates simple, specific, and rapid molecular ILTV detection in low-resource veterinary diagnostic laboratories and can be used for field molecular diagnosis of suspected ILT cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Avian Diseases Research)
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14 pages, 2131 KiB  
Article
Phylodynamic and Recombination Analyses of Avian Infectious Bronchitis GI-23 Reveal a Widespread Recombinant Cluster and New Among-Countries Linkages
by Mohamed H. Houta, Kareem E. Hassan, Matteo Legnardi, Claudia M. Tucciarone, Ahmed S. Abdel-Moneim, Mattia Cecchinato, Azza A. El-Sawah, Ahmed Ali and Giovanni Franzo
Animals 2021, 11(11), 3182; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11113182 - 08 Nov 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2414
Abstract
Infectious bronchitis virus GI-23 lineage, although described approximately two decades ago in the Middle East, has recently drawn remarkable attention and is considered an “emerging” lineage due to its current spread to several other regions, including Europe. Despite the relevance, no comprehensive studies [...] Read more.
Infectious bronchitis virus GI-23 lineage, although described approximately two decades ago in the Middle East, has recently drawn remarkable attention and is considered an “emerging” lineage due to its current spread to several other regions, including Europe. Despite the relevance, no comprehensive studies are available investigating its epidemiologic and evolutionary pattern. The present phylodynamic study was designed to fill this gap, benefitting from a collection of freely available GI-23 sequences and ad-hoc generated European ones. After a relatively ancient origin in the Middle East, likely in the first half of the previous century, GI-23 circulated largely undetected or underdiagnosed for a long time in this region, likely causing little damage, potentially because of low virulence coupled with limited development of avian industry in the considered years and regions and insufficient diagnostic activity. The following development of the poultry industry and spread to other countries led to a progressive but slow increase of viral population size between the late ‘90s and 2010. An increase in viral virulence could also be hypothesized. Of note, a big recombinant cluster, likely originating in the Middle East but spreading thereafter, especially to Europe through Turkey, demonstrated a much-marked increase in viral population size compared to previously circulating variants. The extensive available GI-23 sequence datasets allowed to demonstrate several potential epidemiological links among African, Asian, and European countries, not described for other IBV lineages. However, differently from previously investigated IBV lineages, its spread appears to primarily involve neighbouring countries and those with strong economic and political relationships. It could thus be speculated that frequent effective contacts among locations are necessary for efficient strain transmission. Some countries appear to play a major role as a “bridge” among less related locations, being Turkey the most relevant example. The role of vaccination in controlling the viral population was also tentatively evaluated. However, despite some evidence suggesting such an effect, the bias in sequence and data availability and the variability in the applied vaccination protocols prevent robust conclusions and warrant further investigations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Avian Diseases Research)
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17 pages, 2075 KiB  
Article
Corticosterone-Mediated Physiological Stress Alters Liver, Kidney, and Breast Muscle Metabolomic Profiles in Chickens
by Catherine L. J. Brown, Sarah J. M. Zaytsoff, Tony Montina and G. Douglas Inglis
Animals 2021, 11(11), 3056; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11113056 - 26 Oct 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2186
Abstract
The impact of physiological stress on the metabolomes of liver, kidney, and breast muscle was investigated in chickens. To incite a stress response, birds were continuously administered corticosterone (CORT) in their drinking water at three doses (0, 10, and 30 mg L−1 [...] Read more.
The impact of physiological stress on the metabolomes of liver, kidney, and breast muscle was investigated in chickens. To incite a stress response, birds were continuously administered corticosterone (CORT) in their drinking water at three doses (0, 10, and 30 mg L−1), and they were sampled 1, 5, and 12 days after the start of the CORT administration. To solubilize CORT, it was first dissolved in ethanol and then added to water. The administration of ethanol alone significantly altered branched chain amino acid metabolism in both the liver and the kidney, and amino acid and nitrogen metabolism in breast muscle. CORT significantly altered sugar and amino acid metabolism in all three tissues, but to a much greater degree than ethanol alone. In this regard, CORT administration significantly altered 11, 46, and 14 unique metabolites in liver, kidney, and breast muscle, respectively. Many of the metabolites that were affected by CORT administration, such as mannose and glucose, were previously linked to increases in glycosylation and gluconeogenesis in chickens under conditions of production stress. Moreover, several of these metabolites, such as dimethylglycine, galactose, and carnosine were also previously linked to reduced quality meat. In summary, the administration of CORT in chickens significantly modulated host metabolism. Moreover, results indicated that energy potentials are diverted from muscle anabolism to muscle catabolism and gluconeogenesis during periods of stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Avian Diseases Research)
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16 pages, 5021 KiB  
Article
Insights into the Genetic Evolution of Duck Hepatitis A Virus in Egypt
by Mohammed A. Rohaim, Rania F. El Naggar, Mohammed A. AbdelSabour, Basem A. Ahmed, Mohamed M. Hamoud, Kawkab A. Ahmed, Osama K. Zahran and Muhammad Munir
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2741; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092741 - 19 Sep 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2670
Abstract
Duck hepatitis virus (DHV) is one of the commercially important diseases of ducklings worldwide. It is an acute and highly infectious disease of ducklings caused by three different serotypes (1–3) of duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV), and serotype 1 is the most common [...] Read more.
Duck hepatitis virus (DHV) is one of the commercially important diseases of ducklings worldwide. It is an acute and highly infectious disease of ducklings caused by three different serotypes (1–3) of duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV), and serotype 1 is the most common in poultry. To date, little is known about the prevalence and genetic characterisation of DHAV-1 in Egypt. In the current study, isolation and complete genomic analyses of DHAVs circulating in commercial duck farms in different Egyptian governorates were conducted. A total of eighteen samples were collected from six Egyptian governorates of 3–11 days old ducklings (Pekin and Mullard) with a history of nervous signs and high mortality rates. Five out of eighteen (5/18) samples were screened positive for the DHAV-1 based on the VP1 gene. These samples were individually used for virus isolation in embryonated duck embryos (EDE), followed by complete genome sequencing. Phylogenomic analyses showed that DHAV serotype I; genotype I were diversified into four different groups (1–4). Most of the recent circulating Egyptian DHAV strains are clustered within group 4, while isolates characterised within this study were clustered within group 1. Recombination analyses revealed that the emergence of a new recombinant virus—DHAV-1 strain Egypt-10/2019—through recombination. Likewise, the selective pressure analyses showed the existence, inside or near areas of the viral attachment or related functions, of positive scores highlighting the importance of natural selection and viral evolution mechanism at different protein domains. The findings of this study provide updated information on the epidemiological and genetic features of DHAV-1 strains and underscore the importance of DHAV surveillance as well as re-evaluation for currently used vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Avian Diseases Research)
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11 pages, 6168 KiB  
Article
Epidemiology, Genetic Characterization, and Pathogenesis of Avian Influenza H5N8 Viruses Circulating in Northern and Southern Parts of Egypt, 2017–2019
by Mohamed Tarek, Mahmoud M. Naguib, Abdel-Sattar Arafa, Laila A. Tantawy, Karim M. Selim, Shaimaa Talaat and Hesham A. Sultan
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2208; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082208 - 26 Jul 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4273
Abstract
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of subtype H5N8 continue to circulate, causing huge economic losses and serious impact on poultry production worldwide. Recently, HPAIV H5N8 has been spreading rapidly, and a large number of HPAI H5N8 outbreaks have been reported in Eurasia [...] Read more.
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of subtype H5N8 continue to circulate, causing huge economic losses and serious impact on poultry production worldwide. Recently, HPAIV H5N8 has been spreading rapidly, and a large number of HPAI H5N8 outbreaks have been reported in Eurasia 2020–2021. In this study, we conducted an epidemiological survey of HPAI H5N8 virus at different geographical locations in Egypt from 2017 to 2019. This was followed by genetic and pathogenic studies. Our findings highlight the wide spread of HPAI H5N8 viruses in Egypt, including in 22 governorates. The genetic analyses of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene segments emphasized a phylogenetic relatedness between the Egyptian HPAI H5N8 viruses and viruses of clade 2.3.4.4b recently isolated in Europe. These findings suggest that a potential back transmission of Egyptian HPAI H5N8 virus has occurred from domestic poultry in Egypt to migratory wild birds, followed by further spread to different countries. This highlights the importance of continuous epidemiological and genetic studies of AIVs at the domestic–wild bird interface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Avian Diseases Research)
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20 pages, 1480 KiB  
Article
Supplementing Garlic Nanohydrogel Optimized Growth, Gastrointestinal Integrity and Economics and Ameliorated Necrotic Enteritis in Broiler Chickens Using a Clostridium perfringens Challenge Model
by Doaa Ibrahim, Tamer Ahmed Ismail, Eman Khalifa, Shaimaa A. Abd El-Kader, Dalia Ibrahim Mohamed, Dalia T. Mohamed, Sara E. Shahin and Marwa I. Abd El-Hamid
Animals 2021, 11(7), 2027; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11072027 - 07 Jul 2021
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 4745
Abstract
Necrotic enteritis (NE) caused by Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) results in impaired bird growth performance and increased production costs. Nanotechnology application in the poultry industry to control NE outbreaks is still not completely clarified. Therefore, the efficacy of dietary garlic nano-hydrogel [...] Read more.
Necrotic enteritis (NE) caused by Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) results in impaired bird growth performance and increased production costs. Nanotechnology application in the poultry industry to control NE outbreaks is still not completely clarified. Therefore, the efficacy of dietary garlic nano-hydrogel (G-NHG) on broilers growth performance, intestinal integrity, economic returns and its potency to alleviate C. perfringens levels using NE challenge model were addressed. A total of 1200 male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were assigned into six groups; four supplemented with 100, 200, 300 or 400 mg of G-NHG/kg diet and co-challenged with C. perfringens at 21, 22 and 23 d of age and two control groups fed basal diet with or without C. perfringens challenge. Over the total growing period, the 400 mg/kg G-NHG group had the most improved body weight gain and feed conversion efficiency regardless of challenge. Parallel with these results, the mRNA expression of genes encoding digestive enzymes (alpha 2A amylase (AMY2A), pancreatic lipase (PNLIP) and cholecystokinin (CCK)) and intestinal barriers (junctional adhesion molecule-2 (JAM-2), occludin and mucin-2 (Muc-2)) were increased in groups fed G-NHG at higher levels to be nearly similar to those in the unchallenged group. At 14 d post challenge, real-time PCR results revealed that inclusion of G-NHG led to a dose-dependently decrease in the C. perfringens population, thereby decreasing the birds’ intestinal lesion score and mortality rates. Using 400 mg/kg of G-NHG remarkably ameliorated the adverse effects of NE caused by C. perfringens challenge, which contributed to better growth performance of challenged birds with rational economic benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Avian Diseases Research)
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17 pages, 1826 KiB  
Article
Anti-Coccidial Effect of Rumex Nervosus Leaf Powder on Broiler Chickens Infected with Eimeria Tenella Oocyst
by Mohammed M. Qaid, Saud I. Al-Mufarrej, Mahmoud M. Azzam, Maged A. Al-Garadi, Hani H. Albaadani, Ibrahim A. Alhidary and Riyadh S. Aljumaah
Animals 2021, 11(1), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11010167 - 12 Jan 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2873
Abstract
Coccidiosis a huge economic burden in poultry farms where the pathogen Eimeria harms animal well-being and survival. Besides synthetic anti-coccidial drugs, natural herbs appear to be an alternative way to prevent avian coccidiosis. Rumex nervosus (RN), a phytogenic shrub, has received considerable attention [...] Read more.
Coccidiosis a huge economic burden in poultry farms where the pathogen Eimeria harms animal well-being and survival. Besides synthetic anti-coccidial drugs, natural herbs appear to be an alternative way to prevent avian coccidiosis. Rumex nervosus (RN), a phytogenic shrub, has received considerable attention in recent years due to its significant anti-microbial effects; however, limited knowledge exists about its potential anti-coccidial functions. This study was conducted to evaluate the prophylactic and therapeutic activities of RN leaf powder in broilers infected with Eimeria tenella. Infected chickens received a commercial diet containing 1, 3, or 5 g RN powder/kg diet compared to infected broilers that treated with Sacox (PC) or compared to uninfected broilers that received a commercial diet alone (NC). Results showed that RN powder significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the lesion scores and suppressed the output of oocysts per gram (OPG) in chickens’ feces. Although RN was unable to minimize the weight gain loss due to emeriosis, RN at level 1 g improved the feed conversion ratio. Therefore, RN powder, at 5 g, possesses moderate anti-coccidial effects and hence could be used to treat avian coccidiosis in field conditions; however, further studies are required to investigate, in vitro or in vivo, the anti-coccidial potential of active ingredients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Avian Diseases Research)
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10 pages, 34569 KiB  
Article
Detection of Novel Goose Parvovirus Disease Associated with Short Beak and Dwarfism Syndrome in Commercial Ducks
by Mohamed A. Soliman, Ahmed M. Erfan, Mohamed Samy, Osama Mahana and Soad A. Nasef
Animals 2020, 10(10), 1833; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10101833 - 08 Oct 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4464
Abstract
Derzsy’s disease causes disastrous losses in domestic waterfowl farms. A genetically variant strain of Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) and goose parvovirus (GPV) was named novel goose parvovirus (NGPV), which causes characteristic syndrome in young ducklings. The syndrome was clinically characterized by deformity in [...] Read more.
Derzsy’s disease causes disastrous losses in domestic waterfowl farms. A genetically variant strain of Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) and goose parvovirus (GPV) was named novel goose parvovirus (NGPV), which causes characteristic syndrome in young ducklings. The syndrome was clinically characterized by deformity in beaks and retarded growth, called short beaks and dwarfism syndrome (SBDS). Ten mule and pekin duck farms were investigated for parvovirus in three Egyptian provinces. Despite low recorded mortality rate (20%), morbidity rate was high (70%), but the economic losses were remarkable as a result of retarded growth and low performance. Isolation of NGPV was successful on primary cell culture of embryonated duck liver cells with a clear cytopathic effect. Partial gene sequence of the VP1 gene showed high amino acids identity among isolated strains and close identity with Chinese strains of NGPV, and low identity with classic GPV and MDPV strains. To the best of our knowledge, this can be considered the first record of NGPV infections in Egypt. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Avian Diseases Research)
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Review

Jump to: Research

16 pages, 1755 KiB  
Review
Osteocalcin and Its Potential Functions for Preventing Fatty Liver Hemorrhagic Syndrome in Poultry
by Wenjun Tu, Yuhan Zhang, Kunyu Jiang and Sha Jiang
Animals 2023, 13(8), 1380; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13081380 - 18 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2105
Abstract
Osteocalcin (OCN) is synthesized and secreted by differentiating osteoblasts. In addition to its role in bone, OCN acts as a hormone in the pancreas, liver, muscle, fat, and other organs to regulate multiple pathophysiological processes including glucose homeostasis and adipic acid metabolism. Fat [...] Read more.
Osteocalcin (OCN) is synthesized and secreted by differentiating osteoblasts. In addition to its role in bone, OCN acts as a hormone in the pancreas, liver, muscle, fat, and other organs to regulate multiple pathophysiological processes including glucose homeostasis and adipic acid metabolism. Fat metabolic disorder, such as excessive fat buildup, is related to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in humans. Similarly, fatty liver hemorrhage syndrome (FLHS) is a metabolic disease in laying hens, resulting from lipid accumulation in hepatocytes. FLHS affects hen health with significant impact on poultry egg production. Many studies have proposed that OCN has protective function in mammalian NAFLD, but its function in chicken FLHS and related mechanism have not been completely clarified. Recently, we have revealed that OCN prevents laying hens from FLHS through regulating the JNK pathway, and some pathways related to the disease progression have been identified through both in vivo and vitro investigations. In this view, we discussed the current findings for predicting the strategy for using OCN to prevent or reduce FLHS impact on poultry production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Avian Diseases Research)
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16 pages, 1556 KiB  
Review
Poult Enteritis and Mortality Syndrome in Turkey Poults: Causes, Diagnosis and Preventive Measures
by Awad A. Shehata, Shereen Basiouni, Reinhard Sting, Valerij Akimkin, Marc Hoferer and Hafez M. Hafez
Animals 2021, 11(7), 2063; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11072063 - 10 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 5166
Abstract
Poult enteritis and mortality syndrome (PEMS) is one of the most significant problem affecting turkeys and continues to cause severe economic losses worldwide. Although the specific causes of PEMS remains unknown, this syndrome might involve an interaction between several causative agents such as [...] Read more.
Poult enteritis and mortality syndrome (PEMS) is one of the most significant problem affecting turkeys and continues to cause severe economic losses worldwide. Although the specific causes of PEMS remains unknown, this syndrome might involve an interaction between several causative agents such as enteropathogenic viruses (coronaviruses, rotavirus, astroviruses and adenoviruses) and bacteria and protozoa. Non-infectious causes such as feed and management are also interconnected factors. However, it is difficult to determine the specific cause of enteric disorders under field conditions. Additionally, similarities of clinical signs and lesions hamper the accurate diagnosis. The purpose of the present review is to discuss in detail the main viral possible causative agents of PEMS and challenges in diagnosis and control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Avian Diseases Research)
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9 pages, 235 KiB  
Review
Live Attenuated Infectious Bronchitis Virus Vaccines in Poultry: Modifying Local Viral Populations Dynamics
by Miguel Guzmán and Héctor Hidalgo
Animals 2020, 10(11), 2058; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10112058 - 07 Nov 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3151
Abstract
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) remains one of the most important diseases impacting poultry today. Its high adaptive capacity, attributable to the high mutation rate associated with its ssRNA(+), is one of its more important features. While biosecurity procedures and barriers have been shown [...] Read more.
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) remains one of the most important diseases impacting poultry today. Its high adaptive capacity, attributable to the high mutation rate associated with its ssRNA(+), is one of its more important features. While biosecurity procedures and barriers have been shown to be preponderant factors in minimizing the impact of infectious bronchitis (IB), the environment and procedures associated with intensive poultry systems greatly influence the viral population dynamics. High-density poultry flocks facilitate recombination between different viruses, and even with live attenuated vaccines, which can change the dominant circulating field strains. Furthermore, the remaining issue of reversion to virulence gives rise to significant problems when vaccinal strains are introduced in places where their pathogenic variants have not been reported. Under specific conditions, live attenuated vaccines could also change the frequency of circulating viruses and enable replacement between different field strains. In summary, under a comprehensive approach, while vaccination is one of the most essential tools for controlling IB, the veterinarians, farmers, and official services role in its usage is central to minimizing alteration in a malleable viral population. Otherwise, vaccination is ultimately counterproductive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Avian Diseases Research)
13 pages, 315 KiB  
Review
Avian Viruses that Impact Table Egg Production
by Mohamed S. H. Hassan and Mohamed Faizal Abdul-Careem
Animals 2020, 10(10), 1747; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10101747 - 25 Sep 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3889
Abstract
Eggs are a common source of protein and other nutrient components for people worldwide. Commercial egg-laying birds encounter several challenges during the long production cycle. An efficient egg production process requires a healthy bird with a competent reproductive system. Several viral pathogens that [...] Read more.
Eggs are a common source of protein and other nutrient components for people worldwide. Commercial egg-laying birds encounter several challenges during the long production cycle. An efficient egg production process requires a healthy bird with a competent reproductive system. Several viral pathogens that can impact the bird’s health or induce reversible or irreversible lesions in the female reproductive organs adversely interfere with the egg industry. The negative effects exerted by viral diseases create a temporary or permanent decrease in egg production, in addition to the production of low-quality eggs. Several factors including, but not limited to, the age of the bird, and the infecting viral strain and part of reproductive system involved contribute to the form of reproductive disease encountered. Advanced methodologies have successfully elucidated some of the virus–host interactions relevant to the hen’s reproductive performance, however, this branch needs further research. This review discusses the major avian viral infections that have been reported to adversely affect egg productivity and quality and aims to summarize the current understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the observed negative effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Avian Diseases Research)

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: 2. A new potential risk of Waterfowl industry: the Waterfowl Circovirus
Authors: Jidang Chen
Affiliation: China
Abstract: In this topic, I am going to share my knowledge on the history of Circovirus on waterfowl (duck and goose), the current circulating situation, especially the situations that circovirus co-infecting waterfowl with other viruses or bacterias. Of course, the research advances of waterfowl circovirus evolutionary, immunize inhibition induced by circovirus and the future of vaccine development will be discussed.

Title: Live Bird Market Surveillance Revealed Co-circulation of Multiple Subtypes of Avian Influenza in Nigeria poultry
Authors: Clement Meseko, Ismail Shittu, Lanre Suleiman, Agnes Laleye, Bitrus Inuwa, Chinyere Chinoyerem, Nicodemus Mkpuma, Abraham Olawuyi, Dorcas Gado, Judith Bakam, Joshua Oyetunde, Vakuru Columba and Tony J
Affiliation: Regional Laboratory for Animal Influenza &Transboundary Animal Diseases National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom Nigeria
Abstract: Live Bird Market Surveillance Revealed Co-circulation of Multiple Subtypes of Avian Influenza in Nigeria poultry

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